A sabre spelt as saber, is a type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the early modern and Napoleonic periods. Associated with Central-Eastern European cavalry such as the hussars, the sabre became widespread in Western Europe in the Thirty Years' War. Lighter sabres became popular with infantry of the late 17th century. In the 19th century, models with less curving blades became common and were used by heavy cavalry; the last sabre issued to US cavalry was the Patton saber of 1913. Szabla wz. 34 was the last sabre issued to the Polish cavalry, in 1934. The military sabre was used as a duelling weapon in academic fencing in the 19th century, giving rise to a discipline of modern sabre fencing loosely based on the characteristics of the historical weapon in that it allows for cuts as well as thrusts. English sabre is recorded from the 1670s, as a direct loan from French, where the sabre is an alteration of sable, in turn loaned from German Säbel, Sabel in the 1630s.
The German word is on record from the 15th century, loaned from Polish szabla, itself adopted from Hungarian szabla. The spread of the Hungarian word to neighboring European languages took place in the context of the Ottoman wars in Europe of the 15th to 17th centuries; the spelling saber became common in American English in the second half of the 19th century. The origin of the Hungarian word is unclear, it may itself be a loan from South Slavic, from a Common Slavic *sablja, which would derives from a Turkic source. In a more recent suggestion, the Hungarian word may derive from a Tungusic source, via Kipchak Turkic selebe, with metathesis and apocope changed to *seble, which would have changed its vocalisation in Hungarian to the recorded sabla (perhaps under the influence of the Hungarian word szab- "to crop. Though single-edged cutting swords existed in the Ancient world, such as the ancient Egyptian and Sumerian sickle swords, these weapons were chopping weapons for foot soldiers; this type of weapon developed into such heavy chopping weapons as the Greek Machaira and Anatolian Drepanon, it still survives as the heavy Kukri chopping knife of the Gurkhas.
However, in ancient China foot soldiers used a straight, single edged sword, in the sixth century CE a longer curved cavalry variety of this weapon appeared in southern Siberia. This "proto-sabre" had developed into the true cavalry sabre by the eight century CE, by the ninth century, it had become the usual side arm on the Eurasian steppes; the sabre arrived in Europe with the Turkic expansion. These oldest sabres had a slight curve, down-turned quillons, the grip facing the opposite direction to the blade and a sharp point with the top third of the reverse edge sharpened; the introduction of the sabre proper in Western Europe, along with the term sabre itself, dates to the 17th century, via the influence of the Eastern European szabla type derived from these medieval backswords. The adoption of the term is connected to the employment of Hungarian hussar cavalry by Western armies at the time. Hungarian hussars were employed as light cavalry, with the role of harassing enemy skirmishers, overrunning artillery positions, pursuing fleeing troops.
In the late 17th and 18th centuries, many Hungarian hussars fled to other Central and Western European countries and became the core of light cavalry formations created there. The Hungarian term szablya is traced to the northwestern Turkic selebe, with contamination from the Hungarian verb szab "to cut"; the original type of sabre, or Polish szabla, was used as a cavalry weapon inspired by Hungarian or wider Turco-Mongol warfare. The karabela was a type of szabla popular in the late 17th century, worn by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobility class, the szlachta. While designed as a cavalry weapon, it came to replace various types of straight-bladed swords used by infantry; the Swiss sabre originated as a regular sword with a single-edged blade in the early 16th century, but by the 17th century began to exhibit specialized hilt types. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth a specific type of sabre-like melee weapon, the szabla, was used. Richly decorated sabres were popular among the Polish nobility, who considered it to be one of the most important pieces of men's traditional attire.
With time, the design of the sabre evolved in the commonwealth and gave birth to a variety of sabre-like weapons, intended for many tasks. In the following centuries, the ideology of Sarmatism as well as the Polish fascination with Eastern cultures, customs and warfare resulted in the szabla becoming an indispensable part of traditional Polish culture; the sabre saw extensive military use in the early 19th century in the Napoleonic Wars, during which Napoleon used heavy cavalry charges to great effect against his enemies. Shorter versions of the sabre were used as sidearms by dismounted units, although these were replaced by fascine knives and sword bayonets as the century went on. Although there was extensive debate over the effectiveness of weapons such as the sabre and lance, the sabre remained the standard weapon of cavalry for mounted action in most armies until World War I. Thereafter it was relegated to the status of a ceremonial weapon, most horse cavalry was replaced by armoured cavalry from 1930 on.
Where horse mounted cavalry survived into World War II it was as mounted infantry without sabres
The New Fellas is the title of The Cribs' second album released in 2005. It placed at No. 11 in NME's'Albums Of The Year' edition, 2005. In 2007, the song "Hey Scenesters!" was named one of the'Greatest Indie Anthems Ever', by the influential music magazine NME. In December 2009, Q Magazine made it one of their "Albums of the Century" in their year end issue. In October 2015,'The New Fellas' was inducted into the DIY Hall of Fame. All songs written by Ryan Jarman, Ross Jarman, Gary Jarman "Hey Scenesters!" 3:11 "I'm Alright Me" 2:42 "Martell" 2:57 "Mirror Kissers" 3:38 "We Can No Longer Cheat You" 3:03 "It Was Only Love" 3:22 "The New Fellas" 3:01 "Hello? Oh..." 2:38 "The Wrong Way To Be" 3:48 "Haunted" 2:31 "Things Aren’t Gonna Change" 3:28 "You're Gonna Lose Us"
Aerosmith is the eponymous debut studio album by American rock band Aerosmith, released on January 5, 1973 by Columbia Records. "Dream On" released as a single in 1973, became an American top ten hit when re-released in December 1975. The album peaked at number 21 on the US Billboard 200 album chart in 1976. After entering a partnership with Frank Connelly, David Krebs and Steve Leber invited members of two record labels – Atlantic Records and Columbia Records – to view an Aerosmith concert at Max's Kansas City. Clive Davis, the president of Columbia, was impressed with the band and Aerosmith signed with Columbia in the summer of 1972. Although lead singer Steven Tyler had been in several previous groups, most of the band members had never been in a studio before; the band was influenced by many of the British blues/rock bands of the 1960s, including the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, Led Zeppelin, the Yardbirds, Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac. The album opens with "Make It" and the appropriate opening line, "Good evening, welcome to the show, got something here I want you all to know."
The song, composed by Tyler, who had struggled in a slew of local bands before Aerosmith, encourages listeners to succeed in achieving their dreams and not letting anything stop them, much like Aerosmith in their early club days performing up to three shows a day trying to get a record deal. "Somebody" is driven by a basic blues guitar riff and Tyler's lyrics tell the story of a character trying to search for the woman of his dreams. Written by Tyler and his friend Steven Emspak, "Somebody" was released in June 1973 as the B-side to the "Dream On" single. "Dream On" was written by Tyler and became Aerosmith's first major hit and classic rock radio staple. The single peaked at number 59 nationally but hit big in the band's native Boston, where it was the number 1 single of the year on the less commercial top 40 station, WVBZ-FM, number 5 for the year on rated Top 40 WRKO-AM, number 16 on heritage Top 40 WMEX-AM; the album version of "Dream On" was re-issued late in 1975, debuting at number 81 on January 10, 1976, breaking into the Top 40 on February 14 and peaking at number 6 on the Billboard Hot 100 national chart on April 10.
Columbia chose to service Top 40 radio stations with a re-issue of the 3:25 edited version, many 1976 Pop Radio listeners were exposed to the group's first Top 10 effort through the 45 edit. The song is famous for its building climax to showcase Tyler's trademark screams, is notable for being the only track on the album that displays Tyler's real singing voice, it was written on piano but the recording contains a two-guitar arrangement, with guitarist Brad Whitford explaining to Guitar World's Alan Di Perna in 1997, "The idea was just to transcribe what Steven was doing with his left and right hands on the piano." The song is composed in the key of F minor. In the authorized Stephen Davis band memoir Walk This Way, Tyler speaks at length about the origins of the songs: "Make It" – "I wrote'Make It' in a car driving from New Hampshire to Boston. There's that hill you come to and see the skyline of Boston, I was sitting in the backseat thinking, What would be the greatest thing to sing for an audience if we were opening up for the...
Stones? What would the lyrics say?" "Somebody" – "'Somebody' grew out of a lick that our roadie Steve Emsback used to play on his guitar during the days of William Proud. I grabbed it and wrote the lyrics." "Dream On" – "The music for'Dream On' was written on a Steinway upright piano in the living room of Trow-Rico Lodge in Sunapee, maybe four years before Aerosmith started. I was seventeen or eighteen... It was just this little thing I was playing, I never dreamed it would end up as a real song or anything... It's about dreaming until your dreams come true." "One Way Street" – "'One Way Street' was written on piano at 1325, with rhythm and the coming from'Midnight Rambler.'" "Mama Kin" – "One day I grabbed this old guitar Joey Kramer found in the garbage on Beacon Street, an acoustic with no strings. It was so warped you could shoot arrows with it. I let it dry for a week. I looked at it for about two days, put four strings on it, all it would take because it was so warped... I stole the opening lick from an old Blodwyn Pig song."
"Write Me a Letter" – "'Write Me' was originally'Bite Me,' something we'd been working on for five or six months starting in the Bruins' dressing room at the Boston Garden, but it just didn't make it. One day I said,'Fuck this,' said something to Joey, who started playing like a can-can rhythm thing, there it was." "Movin' Out" – "'Movin' Out' was the first song I wrote with Joe, the first experience of coming up with something and saying,'See? I can do it.'" The group recorded their debut album at Intermedia Studios in 331 Newbury Street, Massachusetts with record producer Adrian Barber. For the most part, the production is sparse and dry – two guitars, drums, a singer, piano – but the most remarkable feature of the album is how different Tyler sounds compared to the albums that followed. In his autobiography Tyler recalls, "The band was uptight. We were so nervous. We were scared shitless. I changed my voice into the Muppet, Kermit the Frog, to sound more like a blues singer." In 1997 the singer told Stephen Davis, "Yes, I changed my voice.
I didn't like my voice, the way. I was insecure, but nobody told me not to." Tyler added that producer Adrian Barber was "good for his time" but it was like "being with a retarded child in t
Denzil George Fortescue, 6th Earl Fortescue MC TD was a British peer and farmer who served in both the First World War and Second World War. Fortescue was the third born and second surviving son of Hugh Fortescue, 4th Earl Fortescue and Hon. Emily Ormsby-Gore, daughter of William Ormsby-Gore, 2nd Baron Harlech, he grew up at the family estate at North Devon. He was educated at Eton and New College, where he studied under William Spooner, he received the Military Cross in 1919: He joined the Royal North Devon Yeomanry and in 1915 was sent to Gallipoli. After suffering a severe bout of dysentery, he returned home to recover, he rejoined the war in 1916 in France. In four weeks, he fought in six battles. Fortescue was commanding officer of the Royal Devon Yeomanry 1935-1941, commanding officer of the 1st Heavy Regiment, Royal Artillery, 1942-1944. In 1958, he succeeded to the Earldom on the death of his older brother, Hugh Fortescue, 5th Earl Fortescue, whose only son, Viscount Ebrington had been killed at El Alamein in 1942.
He became a "regular attender and occasional speaker at the House of Lords."He lived at the family seat, Ebrington Manor, where he became a successful fruit farmer. He married, Marjorie Ellinor Trotter, the granddaughter of John Hamilton, 1st Baron Hamilton of Dalzell, on 10 June 1920 and they were divorced in 1941, they had three children: Richard Archibald Fortescue, 7th Earl Fortescue he married Penelope Henderson on 24 October 1949. They have five grandchildren and one great-grandson, he remarried Margaret Stratton on 3 March 1961 and they were divorced in 1987. They have two grandsons, he remarried, Carolyn Hill on 5 January 1989. Charles Hugh Richard Fortescue, 8th Earl Fortescue he married Julia Sowrey on 12 December 1974, they have three daughters and one grandson: Lady Alice Penelope Fortescue Lady Kate Eleanor Fortescue she married Oliver Henry Bonas. They have one son: Ossie Charles Bonas Lady Lucy Beatrice Fortescue Lady Celia Ann Fortescue+ she married David Adams in 1988, they have two children: Georgina Penelope Anne Adams Charles Michael Richard Adams Lady Laura Margaret Fortescue+ she married Simon Jamieson on 1 July 1995.
They have two sons: Jerry Jocelyn Jamieson Hugh Archibald Jamieson Lady Sarah Jane Fortescue she married Francis David Sherston Chapman on 19 December 1995. The Honorable Martin Fortescue he married Prudence Rowley on 23 April 1954, they have eight grandchildren. He remarried Caroline Lofte on 18 November 1994. John Andrew Francis Fortescue he married Phoebe Burridge in 1990, they have three children: Thomas Henry Horatio Fortescue Hugh Augustus Francis Fortescue Ophelia Marion Louisa Fortescue Katharine Fortescue she married Robert Whitaker, son of Evald Mattievich Whitaker, on 9 September 1995. Georgina Elizabeth Fortescue she married Nicholas Armour on 31 July 1982, they have two daughters: Emily Frances Armour Sophie Elizabeth Armour Anthony William Fortescue he married Emma Lambert in 1992. They have three children: William George Fortescue Amelia Prudence Fortescue Lucy Emma Fortescue Lady Bridget Ellinor Fortescue she married Wing Commander Gordon Sinclair on 25 November 1952, they have four children and eleven grandchildren: Alan Gordon William Sinclair he married Fiona B.
MacEwan in 1983. They have three sons: Thomas Sinclair Archie Sinclair Geordie Sinclair Caroline Fiona Sinclair she married Julian Raymond Eric Smith, son of Jeremy Fox Eric Smith and Julia Mary Rona Burrell, on 8 May 1982, they have three children: Oliver George Eric Smith Lucy Alexandra Smith Henry Thomas Eric Smith Joanna Rosalind Sinclair she married Mark P. R. Rimell in 1992, they have two children: Benjamin Charles Philip Rimell Amelia Sophie Rimell Robert Alister Sinclair he married Rebecca Power. They have three children: Hebe Elizabeth Bridget Sinclair Henry Robert Sinclair Eve SinclairFortescue married, Hon. Sybil Hardinge, daughter of Henry Hardinge, 3rd Viscount Hardinge, on 8 August 1941 - she had divorced her first husband Hugh Douglas-Pennant, 4th Baron Penrhyn earlier in 1941, they had one son: The Honorable Seymour Henry Fortescue he married Julia Pilcher in 1966 and they were divorced in 1990. They have six grandchildren, he remarried Jennifer Simon on 23 August 1990. They have one daughter.
Marissa Clara Fortescue she married Princess Maximilian of Bentheim-Tecklenburg on 30 September 2000. They have four children: Prince Moritz Friedrich Carl of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Princess Louise Helena Agnes Delia of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Princess Amalia Anna Elisabeth of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Prince Carl-Emil Maximilian Moritz-Casimir of Bentheim-Tecklenburg James Adrian Fortescue he married Olivia Rodgers, they have two daughters: Isla Rose Julia Fortescue Aurelia Mary Elizabeth Fortescue Alexandra Kate Fortescue The sixth earl died 1 June 1977, just shy of his 84th birthday. A monument was erected in his honour at St Eadburgha's Church in Ebrington. Hansard 1803–2005: contribution
The Army Cross, post-nominal letters CM, is a military decoration, instituted by the Republic of South Africa in 1987. It was awarded to members of the South African Army for bravery; the Army Cross was discontinued in 2003, but backdated awards can still be made for acts of bravery during this period. The Union Defence Forces were established in 1912 and renamed the South African Defence Force in 1958. On 27 April 1994 it was integrated with six other independent forces into the South African National Defence Force; the Army Cross, post-nominal letters CM, was instituted by the State President in 1987. The cross was awarded for exceptional ingenuity and skill, extraordinary leadership, sense of duty and personal example and courage in mortal danger in non-combatant situations. After 1993, it was awarded for exceptional courage, skill, ingenuity or tenacity in dangerous or critical situations. A Bar, instituted in 1993, could be awarded in recognition of further similar displays of courage, skill, ingenuity or tenacity in danger.
It was first awarded in 1992, to Corporal D. H. Maritz and Private H. B. Smit, who recovered a disabled tank during a battle in Angola; the position of the Army Cross in the official order of precedence was revised three times, to accommodate the institution or addition of new decorations and medals, first upon the integration into the South African National Defence Force on 27 April 1994, again when decorations and medals were belatedly instituted in April 1996 for the two former non-statutory forces, the Azanian People's Liberation Army and Umkhonto we Sizwe, again when a new series of military decorations and medals was instituted in South Africa on 27 April 2003, but it remained unchanged on all three occasions. Official SANDF order of precedence Preceded by the Ad Astra Decoration. Succeeded by the Air Force Cross. Official national order of precedence Preceded by the Ad Astra Decoration. Succeeded by the Air Force Cross. ObverseThe Army Cross is a pointed cross, struck in silver, to fit in a circle 45 millimetres in diameter, with the South African Army springbok emblem in the centre on a red roundel, 18 millimetres in diameter.
ReverseThe reverse has the pre-1994 South African Coat of Arms, with the decoration number impressed underneath. BarThe Bar has an emblem, depicting a Protea, embossed in the centre; the same bar was used to indicate multiple awards of the Pro Virtute Medal, Army Cross, Air Force Cross, Navy Cross, Medical Service Cross, Southern Cross Medal and Pro Merito Medal. RibbonThe ribbon is 32 millimetres wide and white, with a 12 millimetres wide Army orange centre band. Conferment of the decoration was discontinued in respect of services performed on or after 27 April 2003. Since inclusion in the table itself is impractical, the actions cited; the list of recipients is not complete
What You Are is a solo album from Scottish rock musician Ricky Ross. It was the first solo album Ross released after the breakup of Deacon Blue; the album's music marked a significant departure from the sound of Deacon Blue, introducing a harder edge and an increased emphasis on aggressive guitar work. All songs written by Ricky Ross, except where noted: "Good Evening Philadelphia" – 3:16 "Icarus" – 2:36 "Cold Easter" – 2:52 "What You Are" – 4:42 "Radio On" – 4:08 "When Sinners Fall" – 4:37 "Jack Singer" – 3:25 "The Lovers" – 4:10 "Wake Up and Dream" – 3:50 "Rosie Gordon Lies So Still" – 4:11 "Promise You Rain" – 3:42 "Love Isn't Hard It's Strong" – 3:18 Ricky Ross - vocals, guitar Mick Slaven - guitar Jeff "Skunk" Baxter - guitar, pedal steel Dan Root - guitar Mark Harris - bass Scott Crago - drums, percussion Joey Waronker - drums Patrick Warren - chamberlin John Wittenberg - violin Xiou Niu Ho - violin Helene Wittenberg - viola Glenn Grab - cello Lorraine McIntosh - backing vocals on "Wake Up and Dream"