City College of San Francisco
City College of San Francisco is a public community college in San Francisco, California. Founded as a junior college in 1935, the College plays an important local role, annually enrolling as many as one in nine San Francisco residents. CCSF is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Comprising the entire San Francisco Community College District, CCSF is the only community college in San Francisco; the Ocean Avenue campus, bordering the Sunnyside, Westwood Park and Ingleside neighborhoods, is the college's largest location. The College has other campuses in South San Francisco, Financial District, Little Saigon, South of Market, Bayview-Hunters Point, Marina District, North of Panhandle, Mission District. CCSF offers courses in over 100 occupational disciplines. There is a wide selection of credit courses that lead to an associate degree, which can be used to meet the general education requirements for transfer to four-year institutions.
City College of San Francisco has articulation agreements with the California State University, the University of California, other private and public universities in California and across the United States. Free non-credit courses in subjects such as ESL and citizenship as well as adult education classes are provided; the founding of a junior college in San Francisco had long been the dream of Archibald Jeter Cloud, the Chief Deputy Superintendent of the San Francisco Unified School District. In response to Black Tuesday and the ensuing Great Depression, Cloud worked to convince the San Francisco Board of Education of the necessity of a junior college in Depression-era San Francisco and of the District's financial ability to form one. Cloud's presentation of fiscal studies in 1934 convinced the Board of the availability of Federal and State funding for a junior college. City College of San Francisco was established by the Board of Education of the San Francisco Unified School District on February 15, 1934 and opened on August 26, 1935 as San Francisco Junior College.
The College had no central campus at the time. Instruction began on September 4, 1935, with morning classes held at the University of California Extension building on Powell Street and afternoon classes held at Galileo High School; the long distance between the two locations gave the College the nickname "Trolley Car College." Increasing enrollment gave way to the College's expansion to Lick-Wilmerding High School, Samuel Gompers Trade School, Marina Junior High School, other locations. A permanent main campus near Ocean Avenue was approved by the San Francisco Board of Education in 1937 and opened in 1940 with the opening of Science Hall. In February 1948, the name was changed to City College of San Francisco, it now consists of eleven campuses. In 1970, the College separated from San Francisco Unified School District; the College continued to hold noncredit education programs throughout San Francisco's neighborhoods. However, as a result of CCSF's rapid growth, the San Francisco Community College District divided the programs between a division for credit courses at the Ocean Campus and one other division for noncredit courses throughout locations in San Francisco.
The two educational divisions merged as a single division in 1990 with program locations held at campuses of City College of San Francisco. Since the 1990s, the College has renovated and expanded its locations and developed new buildings and facilities throughout San Francisco. Since its founding in 1935, City College has evolved into a multicultural, multi-campus community college, one of the largest in the country. CCSF offers courses in over 100 occupational disciplines. There is a full range of credit courses leading to the Associate of Arts and Associate of Science degrees, most of which meet the general education requirements for transfer to a four-year colleges and universities. In 2012, the college began experiencing significant public turmoil. On July 2, 2012, the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, gave the college eight months to prove it should remain accredited and ordered it to "make preparations for closure"; as summarized by the San Francisco Chronicle in 2015, "the commission has never found wrongdoing or substandard instruction, but has said the college should lose accreditation because of tangled governance structures, poor fiscal controls and insufficient self-evaluation and reporting."
In September 2012, the state chancellor's office warned that a special trustee would be appointed to oversee the institution's finances if the college did not voluntarily invite one. A report issued by California's Fiscal Crisis & Management Assistance team in September 2012 found the institution to be in a "perilous financial position" caused by "poor decisions and a lack of accountability. In July of 2013, the ACCJC elected to take action to terminate the college's accreditation, subject to a one-year review and appeal period; the decision was based on a variety of deficiencies in standards. A Fiscal Crisis & Management Assistance Team report was expected to be released by the end of July 2013. Nearly two months San Francisco city attorney Dennis Herrera filed two legal challenges to stop the ACCJC from revoking City College of San Francisco's accreditation alleging conflicts of interest, a faulty evaluation process, a politically motivated decision-making process; the 2013 decision to revoke accreditation in 2014 was put on hold pending the legal challenges.
In January 2015, with the legal co
Pan American Games
The Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games; the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. And from 2021, there would be a Junior Pan American Games for young athletes; the Pan American Sports Organization is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26, 2015. Since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another; the Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO, organizing committees for each specific Pan American Games.
As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules; the Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in nearly 400 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. The idea of holding a Pan American Games was first raised at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where Latin American representatives of the International Olympic Committee suggested that a competition among all the countries in the Americas should be created; the first event called the Pan American Games took place in Dallas in 1937 as part of the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition, but it attracted so little attention it has never counted in the records of the competition.
At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the participants decided that the first games should be held in Buenos Aires in 1942. The plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, which were held in 1951; the games offered 18 sports. Countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games; the second games were held in Mexico. Competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports; the Pan American Games have been held subsequently every four years. While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, the most recent 2015 Pan American Games involved 6,132 competitors from 41countries. During the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village.
This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, locations for religious expression. PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand; as a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, but these have had little success. An initial attempt to hold winter events was made by the organizers of the 1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, who planned to stage winter events in the year but dropped the idea due to lack of interest. Reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to the United States and Canada. Andean winter weather is fickle, higher elevation areas in South America with annual snow lack the infrastructure to host major sporting events.
Another difficulty is that the Americas cover two hemispheres, which creates scheduling issues related to reverse seasons. Lake Placid, New York tried to organize Winter Games in 1959 but, not enough countries expressed interest; the plans were cancelled. In 1988, members of PASO voted to hold the first Pan American Winter Games at Las Leñas, Argentina in September 1989, it was further agreed. Lack of snow however, forced the postponement of the games until September 16–22, 1990 when only eight countries sent 97 athletes to Las Leñas. Of that total, 76 were from just three countries: Argentina and the United States. Weather was unseasonably warm and again there was little snow, so only three Alpine Skiing events – the Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super G were staged; the United States and Canada won all 18 medals. PASO awarded the second Pan American Winter Games to Santiago, Chile for 1993; the United States warned. The Santiago organizing committee gave up on planning the Games after the United States Olympic Committee declined to participate, the idea has not been revived since.
On 16 January 2019 PASO announced the creation of the Juni
The point guard called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must understand and accept their coach's game plan. While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, they must control the pace of the game. A point guard, like other player positions in basketball, specializes in certain skills. A point guard's primary job is to facilitate scoring opportunities for his/her team, or sometimes for themselves. Lee Rose has described a point guard as a coach on the floor, who can handle and distribute the ball to teammates; this involves setting up plays on the court, getting the ball to the teammate in the best position to score, controlling the tempo of the game.
A point guard should know when and how to instigate a fast break and when and how to initiate the more deliberate sets. Point guards are expected to be vocal floor leaders. A point guard needs always to have in mind the times on the shot clock and the game clock, the score, the numbers of remaining timeouts for both teams, etc. Among the taller players who have enjoyed success at the position is Ben Simmons, who at 6’ 10” won the 2018 National Basketball Association Rookie of the Year Award. Behind him is Magic Johnson, who at 6’ 9” won the National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award three times in his career. Other point guards who have been named NBA MVP include Russell Westbrook, Bob Cousy, Oscar Robertson, Allen Iverson, Derrick Rose and two-time winners Steve Nash and Stephen Curry. In the NBA, point guards are about 6' 4" or shorter, average about 6' 2" whereas in the WNBA, point guards are 5' 9" or shorter. Having above-average size is considered advantageous, although size is secondary to situational awareness, speed and ball handling skills.
Shorter players tend to be better dribblers since they are closer to the floor, thus have better control of the ball while dribbling. After an opponent scores, it is the point guard who brings the ball down court to begin an offensive play. Passing skills, ball handling, court vision are crucial. Speed is important. Point guards are valued more for their assist totals than for their scoring. Another major evaluation factor is assist-to-turnover ratio, which reflects the decision-making skills of the player. Still, a first-rate point guard should have a reasonably effective jump shot; the point guard is positioned on the perimeter of the play, so as to have the best view of the action. This is a necessity because of the point guard's many leadership obligations. Many times, the point guard is referred to by announcers as a "coach on the floor" or a "floor general". In the past, this was true, as several point guards such as Lenny Wilkens served their teams as player-coaches; this is not so common anymore, as most coaches are now specialized in coaching and are non-players.
Some point guards are still given a great deal of leeway in the offense. Point guards who are not given this much freedom, are still extensions of their coach on the floor and must display good leadership skills. Along with leadership and a general basketball acumen, ball-handling is a skill of great importance to a point guard. Speaking, the point guard is the player in possession of the ball for the most time during a game and is responsible for maintaining possession of the ball for his team in the face of any pressure from the opponents. Point guards must be able to maintain possession of the ball in crowded spaces and in traffic and be able to advance the ball quickly. A point guard that has enough ball-handling skill and quickness to be able to drive to the basket in a half-court set is very valuable and considered by some to be a must for a successful offense. After ball-handling and scoring are the most important areas of the game for a point guard; as the primary decision-maker for a team, a point guard's passing ability determines how well a point guard is able to put his decision into play.
It is one thing to be able to recognize the player, in a tactically advantageous position, but it is another thing to be able to deliver the ball to that player. For this reason, a point guard is but not always, more skilled and focused on passing than shooting. However, a good jump shot and the ability to score off a drive to the basket are still valuable skills. A point guard will use his ability to score in order to augment his effectiveness as a decision maker and play maker. In addition to the traditional role of the point guard, modern teams have found new ways to utilize the position. Notably, several modern point guards have used a successful style of post play, a tactic practiced by much larger centers and forwards. Working off of the fact that the opposing point guard is in all probability an undersized player with limited strength, several modern point guards have developed games close to the basket that include being able to utilize the drop step, spin move, fade away jump shot. In recent years, the sport's shift from a fundamental style of play to a more athletic, scoring-oriented game resulted in the proliferation of so-called combo guards at the po
The Romanian Revolution was a period of violent civil unrest in the Socialist Republic of Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries. The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania, it was the last removal of a Marxist-Leninist government in a Warsaw Pact country during the events of 1989, the only one that violently overthrew a country's government and executed its leader. Early protests occurred in the city of Timișoara in mid-December on the part of the Hungarian minority in response to an attempt by the government to evict Hungarian Reformed church pastor László Tőkés. In response, Romanians sought revolution and a change in government in light of similar recent events in neighbouring nations; the country's ubiquitous secret police force, the Securitate, both one of the largest in the Eastern Bloc and for decades had been the main suppressor of popular dissension and violently quashing political disagreement proved powerless in stopping the looming, highly fatal and successful revolt.
Social and economic malaise had been present in socialist Romania for quite some time during the austerity years of the 1980s. The austerity measures were designed in part by Ceaușescu to repay foreign debts. Shortly after a botched public speech by Ceaușescu in Bucharest, broadcast to millions of Romanians on state television, rank-and-file members of the military switched unanimously, from supporting the dictator to backing the protesting population. Riots, street violence and murder in several Romanian cities over the course of a week led the Romanian strongman to flee the capital city on 22 December with his wife, Deputy Prime Minister Elena Ceaușescu. Evading capture by hastily departing via helicopter portrayed the couple as both fugitives and acutely guilty of accused crimes. Captured in Târgoviște, they were tried by a drumhead military tribunal on charges of genocide, damage to the national economy and abuse of power to execute military actions against the Romanian people, they were convicted on all charges, sentenced to death, executed on Christmas Day 1989, to this day, are the last people to be condemned to death and executed in Romania.
Present-day Romania has unfolded in the shadow of the Ceaușescus along with its communist past, the tumultuous departure from it. The National Salvation Front took power after Ceaușescu was toppled, promising free and fair elections within five months. Elected in a landslide the following May, the National Salvation Front, reconstituted as a political party, installed a series of economic and democratic reforms, with further social policy changes being implemented by governments. Since that point Romania has become far more integrated with the West than its former, albeit tepid, relations with Moscow. Romania became the European Union in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Democratic reforms have proven to be moderately successful. Economic reforms continue, with Romania still possessing, for example, one of the highest child poverty rates in the developed world. In 1981 Ceaușescu began an austerity programme designed to enable Romania to liquidate its entire national debt. To achieve this, many basic goods—including gas and food—were rationed, which drastically reduced the standard of living and increased malnutrition.
The infant mortality rate grew to be the highest in Europe. The secret police, had become so omnipresent that it made Romania a police state. Free speech was limited and opinions that did not favour the Communist Party were forbidden; the large numbers of Securitate informers made organised dissent nearly impossible. The regime deliberately played on this sense that everyone was being watched to make it easier to bend the people to the Party's will. By Soviet-bloc standards, the Securitate was exceptionally brutal. Ceaușescu created a cult of personality, with weekly shows in stadiums or on streets in different cities dedicated to him, his wife and the Communist Party. There were several megalomaniac projects, such as the construction of the grandiose House of the Republic —the biggest palace in the world—the adjacent Centrul Civic and a never-completed museum dedicated to communism and Ceaușescu, today the Casa Radio; these and similar projects drained the country's finances and aggravated the dire economic situation.
Thousands of Bucharest residents were evicted from their homes, which were subsequently demolished to make room for the huge structures. Unlike the other Warsaw Pact leaders, Ceaușescu had not been slavishly pro-Soviet but rather had pursued an "independent" foreign policy. Conversely, while Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev spoke of reform, Ceaușescu maintained a hard political line and cult of personality; the austerity programme started in 1981 and the widespread poverty it introduced made the Communist regime unpopular. The austerity programmes were met with little resistance among Romanians and there were only a few strikes and
In basketball, a rebound, sometimes colloquially referred to as a board, is a statistic awarded to a player who retrieves the ball after a missed field goal or free throw. Rebounds are given to a player who tips in a missed shot on his team's offensive end. Rebounds in basketball are a routine part in the game, as most possessions change after a shot is made, or the rebound allows the defensive team to take possession. A rebound can be grabbed by either a defensive player. Rebounds are divided into two main categories: "offensive rebounds", in which the ball is recovered by the offensive side and does not change possession, "defensive rebounds", in which the defending team gains possession; the majority of rebounds are defensive because the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots. Offensive rebounds give the offensive team another opportunity to score whether right away or by resetting the offense. A block is not considered a rebound. A ball does not need to "rebound" off the rim or backboard for a rebound to be credited.
Rebounds are credited after any missed shot, including air balls. If a player takes a shot and misses and the ball bounces on the ground before someone picks it up the person who picks up the ball is credited for a rebound. Rebounds are credited to the first player that gains clear possession of the ball or to the player that deflects the ball into the basket for a score. A rebound is credited to a team when it gains possession of the ball after any missed shot, not cleared by a single player. A team rebound is never credited to any player, is considered to be a formality as according to the rules of basketball, every missed shot must be rebounded whether a single player controls the ball or not. Great rebounders tend to be strong; because height is so important, most rebounds are made by centers and power forwards, who are positioned closer to the basket. The lack of height can sometimes be compensated by the strength to box out taller players away from the ball to capture the rebound. For example, Charles Barkley once led the league in rebounding despite being much shorter than his counterparts.
Some shorter guards can be excellent rebounders as well such as point guard Jason Kidd who led the New Jersey Nets in rebounding for several years. Great rebounders must have a keen sense of timing and positioning. Great leaping ability is an important asset, but not necessary. Players such as Larry Bird and Moses Malone were excellent rebounders, but were never known for their leaping ability. Bird has stated. That's where I get mine"). Players position themselves in the best spot to get the rebound by "boxing out"—i.e. by positioning themselves between an opponent and the basket, maintaining body contact with the player he is guarding. The action can be called "blocking out". A team can be boxed out by several players using this technique to stop the other team from rebounding; because fighting for a rebound can be physical, rebounding is regarded as "grunt work" or a "hustle" play. Overly aggressive boxing out or preventing being boxed out can lead to personal fouls. Statistics of a player's "rebounds per game" or "rebounding average" measure a player's rebounding effectiveness by dividing the number of rebounds by the number of games played.
Rebound rates go beyond raw rebound totals by taking into account external factors, such as the number of shots taken in games and the percentage of those shots that are made. Rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1950–51 season. Both offensive and defensive rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season and ABA during the 1967–68 season. New camera technology has been able to shed much more light on where missed shots will land. Wilt Chamberlain – led the NBA in rebounds in 11 different seasons, has the most career rebounds in the regular season, the highest career average, the single season rebounding records in total and average, most rebounds in a regular season game and playoff game in the NBA, has the most career All-Star Game rebounds. Bill Russell – first player to average over 20 rebounds per game in the regular season, ranks second to Chamberlain in regular season total and average rebounds, averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in 10 of 13 seasons played, grabbed 51 rebounds in a single game, grabbed a record 32 rebounds in one half, grabbed 40 rebounds in the NBA Finals twice, is the all-time playoff leader in total and average rebounds.
Bob Pettit – averaged 20.3 rebounds per game in the 1960-61 season, his career average of 16.2 rebounds per game is third all-time, holds the top two performances for rebounds in an NBA All-Star Game with 26 and 27. Nate Thurmond – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, career average of 15.0 rpg, holds the all-time NBA record for rebounds in a single quarter with 18. He is the only player besides Bill Russell, Wilt Chamberlain and Jerry Lucas to record more than 40 rebounds in a single game. Jerry Lucas – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, had a career average of 15.6 rpg. Along with Russell and Thurmond is one of only four players to grab at least 40 rebounds in a single game. Moses Malone – led the NBA in rebounds per game in six d
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season. This process culminates in a coach extending an athletic scholarship offer to a player, about to be a junior in high school or higher. There are instances at lower division universities, where no athletic scholarship can be awarded and where the player pays for tuition and textbook costs out of pocket or from financial aid. During this recruiting process, schools must comply with rules that define who may be involved in the recruiting process, when recruiting may occur and the conditions under which recruiting may be conducted. Recruiting rules seek, as much as possible, to control intrusions into the lives of prospective student-athletes; the NCAA defines recruiting as “any solicitation of prospective student-athletes or their parents by an institutional staff member or by a representative of the institution’s athletics interests for the purpose of securing a prospective student-athlete’s enrollment and ultimate participation in the institution’s intercollegiate athletics program."
To be considered a “recruited prospective student-athlete”, athletes must be approached by a college coach or representative about participating in that college's athletic program. NCAA guidelines specify when they can be contacted. Letters, telephone calls, in-person conversations are limited to certain frequency and dates during and after the student's junior year; the NCAA determines when the athletes can be contacted by dividing the year into four recruiting and non-recruiting periods:1. During a contact period, recruiters may make in-person, on - or off-campus evaluations. Coaches can write and/or phone athletes during this period.2. During an evaluation period, they can only assess playing abilities. Letters and phone calls are permitted. 3. During a quiet period, they may make in-person recruiting contacts only on the college campus. Off-campus, recruiters are limited to phone calls and letter-writing.4. During a dead period, they cannot make in-person recruiting contacts or evaluations on- or off-campus or permit official/unofficial visits.
However, phone calls and letters are permitted. During the recruiting process, the prospective student-athlete goes on an official visit to the school that they're being recruited by. An official visit is a prospective student-athlete's visit to a college campus paid for by the college; the college can pay for transportation to and from the college and meals while visiting and reasonable entertainment expenses, including three complimentary admissions to a home athletics contest. NCAA recruiting bylaws limit the number of official visits a recruit may take to five; the NCAA has imposed stringent rules limiting the manner in which competing university-firms may bid for the newest crop of prospective student-athletes. Such rules limit the number of visits, which a student-athlete may make to a given campus, the amount of his expenses that may be covered by the university-firm, so forth. During recruitment, a college coach may ask a prospective player to sign a National Letter of Intent or NLI for short.
The NLI is a voluntary program with regard to both student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the NLI, no institution is required to join the program. By signing a NLI, a prospective student-athlete agrees to attend the designated college or university for one academic year. Pursuant to the terms of the NLI program, participating institutions agree to provide athletics financial aid to the student-athlete, provided he/she is admitted to the institution and eligible for financial aid under NCAA rules. An important provision of this program serves as a recruiting prohibition applied after a prospective student-athlete signs an NLI This prohibition requires participating institutions to cease recruitment of a prospective student-athlete once an NLI is signed with another institution; the NLI has many advantages to both prospective student-athletes and participating educational institutions: Once a NLI is signed, prospective student-athletes are no longer subject to further recruiting contacts and calls.
Student-athletes are assured of an athletics scholarship for a minimum of one full academic year. By emphasizing a commitment to an educational institution, not particular coaches or teams, the program focuses on a prospective student-athlete's educational objectives. In professional sports, the services of athletes are secured via an exclusive contract with an organization. By comparison, the services of many college athletes are secured through recruiting services established by the athletic departments which include staff members and influential friends of the institutions; the college athlete signs an exclusive contract, such as the NLI, at the expense of losing a year's eligibility if he chooses to transfer to another institution of his choosing. The NLI program is subscribed to by all major athletic conferences and nearly all-independent universities. NCAA Division I is to create its own NLI for each sport and, in addition, designate a different signing date for each sport in order to reduce the time and expense incurred when the recruiting season is overly long.
Recruiting top student-athletes is more strategic due to the potential increase in undergraduate admissions and booster donations that a championship may bring. Traditionally, coaches recruiting for major college athletic departments focused on highlighting the athletic accomplishments of the athletic program. Clotfelter writes about the problems of college sports, but he says ther
University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in 1876, the institution's 295-acre campus is along the Willamette River. Since July 2014, UO has been governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the university has a Carnegie Classification of "highest research activity" and has 19 research centers and institutes. UO was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1969; the University of Oregon is organized into five colleges and seven professional schools and a graduate school. Furthermore, UO offers 316 graduate degree programs. Most academic programs follow the 10 week Quarter System. UO student-athletes compete as the Ducks and are part of the Pac-12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. With eighteen varsity teams, the Oregon Ducks are best known for their football team and track and field program; the university's motto, Mens agitat molem, is shared by the Military Academy of the German Armed Forces founded in 1957, the University of Warwick founded in 1965, Eindhoven University of Technology founded in 1956.
Book VI, line 727 of the Aeneid by Virgil has been identified as the first written record of this thought. The Oregon State Legislature established the university on October 12, 1872, despite the new state's funding woes; the residents of Eugene struggled to help finance the institution, holding numerous fundraising events such as strawberry festivals, church socials, produce sales. They raised $27,500, enough to buy eighteen acres of land at a cost of $2,500; the doors opened in 1876 with the name of Oregon State University and Deady Hall as its sole building. The first year of enrollment contained 155 students taught by five faculty members; the first graduating class was in 1878. In 1881, the university was nearly closed. In 1913 and 1932, there were proposals to merge the university with what is now Oregon State University. Both proposals were defeated. During Prince Lucien Campbell's tenure as president from 1902 to 1925, the university experienced tremendous growth; the budget, enrollment and faculty members all grew several times its amount prior to his presidency.
Numerous schools were established during his tenure, including the School of Music in 1902, the School of Education in 1910, the School of Architecture, the College of Business in 1914, the School of Law in 1915, the School of Journalism in 1916, the School of Health and Physical Education in 1920. However, the University of Oregon lost its School of Engineering to Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University. In 1917, a "three term" calendar was adopted by the university faculty as a war-time measure; this academic calendar has remained since then. However, it is now referred to as the Quarter System; the Zorn-MacPherson Bill in 1932 proposed the University of Oregon State College merge. The bill lost in a landslide vote of over 6 to 1; the University of Oregon Medical School was founded in 1887 in Portland and merged with Willamette University's program in 1913. However, in 1974 it became an independent institution known as Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1969, the UO was admitted into the Association of American Universities.
With financial support from the state dwindling from 40% to 13% of the university budget, in January 2001, University President Dave Frohnmayer began Campaign Oregon with the goal of raising $600 million by December 2008, the most ambitious philanthropic fundraising campaign in the state's history at the time. With contributions exceeding $100 million from benefactors such as Phil Knight and Lorry I. Lokey, the campaign goal was exceeded by over $253 million; the university occupies over 80 buildings. There are several ongoing campus construction projects such as a $95 million expansion and renovation of the Erb Memorial Union scheduled to open in September 2016 as well as a $16.75 million successor to the Science Library complex. These projects, among others, were commissioned in part to support current student enrollment as well as possible future increases. In reaction to a growing movement to establish an independent university board, the Oregon Legislature in 2013 passed SB 270, requiring local governing boards for the state's three largest institutions.
Effective July 1, 2014, the University of Oregon became an independent public body governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon. Proponents of local governing boards believe an independent board will give the university more autonomy, free it from relying on inadequate state funding. On August 6, 2014, Michael R. Gottfredson resigned as president. In the summer of 2014, former UO president Robert Berdahl told the president of the university's board of trustees he believes UO risks losing its membership in the Association of American Universities. To address this growing concern, UO began preparing several initiatives which include a cluster-hire and a capital campaign. In the fall of 2014 the institution announced; this number was revised to $3 billion in the fall of 2018. Michael H. Schill became the university's president in the summer of 2015. In June 2015, UO's endowment surpassed the $700 million mark. Eugene will host the 2021 World Championships in Athletics. University facilities, such