Saccharum officinarum

Saccharum officinarum is a large, strong-growing species of grass in the genus Saccharum. Its stout stalks are rich in a simple sugar which accumulates in the stalk internodes, it originated in New Guinea. It arrived in the New World with the Spanish and is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide for the production of sugar and other products. Saccharum officinarum is one of the most productive and most intensively cultivated kinds of sugarcane, it can interbreed with other sugarcane species, such as Saccharum Saccharum barberi. The major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. About 70% of the sugar produced worldwide comes from Saccharum officinarum and hybrids using this species. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China. Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs; the spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples.

Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP it was selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP. Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP.

It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean. Saccharum officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil; the stems can reach 5 m in height. They are jointed; the internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm and width of 5 cm; the terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm long, a pinkish plume, broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair; the fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Portions of the stem of this and several other species of sugarcane have been used from ancient times for chewing to extract the sweet juice. It was cultivated in New Guinea about 8000 years ago for this purpose. Extraction of the juice and boiling to concentrate it was first done in India more than 2000 years ago. Saccharum officinarum and its hybrids are grown for the production of sugar and other industrial uses in tropical and subtropical regions around the world; the stems and the byproducts of the sugar industry are used for feeding to livestock. Pigs fed on sugarcane juice and a soy-based protein supplement produced stronger piglets that grew faster than those on a more conventional diet; as its specific name implies, it is used in traditional medicine both internally and externally. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

Bachar Houli

Bachar Houli is an Australian rules footballer for Richmond in the Australian Football League. Houli plays as a midfielder, he is the second devout Muslim to play in the AFL. Houli stated in an interview at the time of his debut in 2007 that he was the first practising Muslim to play for a senior AFL side, although he acknowledged that prior to him there had been two other Muslims in the league, these being Adem Yze and Sedat Sir, he was the first Muslim to win an AFL premiership. Houli was born in Australia to Lebanese parents; the young left-footer began playing football with Spotswood Football Club Under 12s in 2000. After consulting with a Sheikh, Houli decided to break his Ramadan fast for three days during the physical endurance tests at the AFL Draft Camp. Houli has said it was hard growing up a devout Muslim, playing Australian rules football at the same time. There was little organised sport played in Islamic schools, he had to sneak out when he was young in his earlier years in order to just play games without his parents knowing.

His persistence playing the sport led to his parents accepting and being supportive of his talents which led him to become an AFL player. Houli was drafted at pick 42 in the 2006 National Draft by Essendon, he kicked three goals. After his impressive performances in the Bombers 2008 NAB Cup he was selected for the Bombers Round 1 team to play the Kangaroos, he played an important part in helping the Bombers secure a 55-point victory and received the first round nomination for the AFL Rising Star award. After the completion of the 2010 trade week, Houli left Essendon and was drafted by Richmond with their only selection in the 2010 Pre-season Draft. Houli picked up three Brownlow Medal votes following a fantastic display for Richmond against Sydney in Round 21 of the 2011 season. In round 14, 2017, Houli copped an initial two-match suspension for striking Carlton's Jed Lamb during the first quarter of the match between Richmond and Carlton at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. However, the AFL appealed against this suspension, saying that it was "manifestly inadequate" given the impact of the incident.

Subsequently, Houli's suspension was increased to four matches. In the 2017 AFL Grand Final, Houli was considered one of the better players on the ground coming runner-up in the Norm Smith Medal. Houli played the first nine matches of the 2018 season before suffering a serious groin injury in round 10's win over St Kilda, he was expected to miss more than a month of football as a result. Houli was named in ESPN's mid-year All-Australian team in 2019. At season's end Houli was named in the squad of 40 players in the running for All-Australian selection that year. At the end of the season and finals, Houli was named as the league's third best defender and 24th best player overall in the Herald Sun chief football reporter Mark Robinson's list of the league's best players in 2019. Statistics are correct to the end of the 2019 season Team 2x AFL premiership player: 2017, 2019 McClelland Trophy: 2018Individual Fred Swift Medal: 2011 AFL Rising Star nominee: 2008 Yiooken Award: 2019 Houli has become a leading influence for many young Australian Muslims.

Houli's role has been likened to that of Hazem El Masri in the Rugby League community, he works one day a week as an AFL cultural ambassador. Adem Yze, a Melbourne regular from 1995 to 2007, was one of the first Muslim Aussie Rules players at AFL level, Houli has stated his desire to follow in Yze's footsteps, he is only the second player of a Lebanese background to play in the AFL. In September 2009, Houli married Rouba Abou-Zeid. Islam in Australia Bachar Houli's profile on the official website of the Richmond Football Club Bachar Houli's playing statistics from AFL Tables Bachar Houli's statistics from Footy Wire

Chronology of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions (2000–09)

This is a chronology of activities by the Provisional Irish Republican Army, an Irish republican paramilitary group from 2000 to 2009. 16 March 2000: an IRA engineer defused a bomb left outside the offices of dissident republican party Republican Sinn Féin on the Falls Road, Belfast. April 2000: an IRA active service unit was intercepted by the Garda Síochána in Dublin and two members were arrested; the unit is believed to have been on its way to kill Dublin drug lord Martin Foley. 30 April 2000: Drug dealer Thomas Byrne was shot dead in central Dublin by the IRA. 29 May 2000: Edmund McCoy died several hours after being shot at the Motte'n' Bailey Bar, Dunmurry, County Antrim. He was a suspected drug dealer; the Royal Ulster Constabulary blamed the IRA for the killing. 29 September 2000: Patrick Quinn was shot dead in The Depot Bar, Union Street, County Londonderry. Quinn was a suspected drug dealer and was shot shortly after the IRA had ordered him to leave the area. 13 October 2000: Real IRA member Joseph O'Connor was shot dead while sitting in his car in the Ballymurphy area of Belfast, during a republican dispute.

The Provisional IRA is believed responsible. 7 January 2001: the IRA was blamed for carrying out a punishment beating on a convicted criminal in Ballymurphy, Belfast. 21 April 2001: Christopher O'Kane a suspected drug dealer, was shot dead near his home, Milldale Crescent, Derry, by four gunmen. It is believed. 14 July 2001: gangland figure Seamus "Shavo" Hogan is gunned down in Crumlin, Dublin by the IRA or a proxy. 8 September 2002: the IRA was blamed for carrying out a punishment beating on a South Armagh man. 11 October 2002: a five-man IRA unit was captured by Gardaí in Bray, County Wicklow. It is believed the unit, members of the Dublin Brigade, were on their way to carry out an armed hijacking; the men were in a small van dressed in Garda uniforms, had stun-guns and CS gas. 12 March 2003: Irish republican Keith Rogers was shot dead in Cullaville, South Armagh, during a shootout involving a number of feuding IRA members, according to police. The IRA claimed. 11 October 2003: The IRA were responsible for the kidnapping of a dissident republican, Brendan Rice, in Newcastle, County Down.

19 January 2004: A dissident republican, shot in the ankles in a punishment shooting blamed the Provisional IRA for the attack. The man from west Belfast was a member of an organisation which provided support to the families of imprisoned Real IRA members. 20 February 2004: The IRA were accused of being responsible for the kidnap and attempted murder of ex-Irish National Liberation Army member Bobby Tohill. The van in which he was being transported was rammed by police and four men were arrested; the IRA stated. Tohill went into hiding. 5 September 2004: The IRA is believed to have been responsible for a fire-bomb attack on a fuel depot in South Belfast. 30 January 2005: Robert McCartney is stabbed to death in a fight with IRA members being involved. Sinn Féin denied IRA involvement but it suspended 7 Sinn Féin members, present and the IRA cleared witnesses to co-operate with the police investigation. McCartney's family claim they have been intimidated by the IRA. 2 February 2005: The IRA issued a statement summarizing their "ambitious initiatives designed to develop or save the peace process", including three occasions in which they had complied with the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning in putting weapons beyond use.

The statement went on to say, "At this time it appears that the two governments are intent on changing the basis of the peace process. They claim that'the obstacle now to a lasting and durable settlement… is the continuing terrorist and criminal activity of the IRA'. We reject this, it belies the fact that a possible agreement last December was squandered by both governments pandering to rejectionist unionism instead of upholding their own commitments and honouring their own obligations." The statement concluded with two points: "We are taking all our proposals off the table" and "It is our intention to monitor ongoing developments and to protect to the best of our ability the rights of republicans and our support base". 3 February 2005: Following statements from the British and Irish governments, claiming that the new IRA statement was no cause for alarm, the IRA issues a second two-sentence statement: "The two governments are trying to play down the importance of our statement because they are making a mess of the peace process.

Do not underestimate the seriousness of the situation". 10 February 2005: The Independent Monitoring Commission reported that it supports the Police Service of Northern Ireland and Garda assessments that the PIRA was responsible for the Northern Bank robbery and recommends financial and political sanctions against Sinn Féin. 6 April 2005: Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams calls on the IRA to initiate consultations "as as possible" to move from being a paramilitary organisation to one committed to purely non-military methods. 12 April 2005: A Dublin man, Joseph Rafferty, was killed in a shotgun attack in Dublin. The IMC and the family of the deceased have claimed; the IRA has denied any involvement. May 2005: The IRA is believed to have been responsible for intimidating a family to leave their home in Belfast. 24 May 2005: The Independent Monitoring Commission claimed the IRA were still recruiting and training new members, it was still involved in paramilitary and criminal activity. Ju