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Loryma

Loryma was an ancient town and episcopal see of ancient Caria, in Asia Minor. It is now listed. Loryma was a fortified place with a port, close to Cape Cynossema, on the western-most point of the Rhodian Chersonesus, in Caria, its harbour was belonging to the Rhodians. Strabo applies the name Loryma without mentioning the town; the Larumna of Pomponius Mela and the Lorimna of the Tabula Peutingeriana refer to Loryma, although it is possible that they may be identical with a place called Larymna mentioned by Pliny in the same district. Loryma was a small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from Cape Cynossema, at the western extremity of the peninsula known as Rhodian Chersonesus, opposite to and twenty Roman miles from Rhodes island, it was belonging to the Rhodians. Its ruins, west of Port Aplothiki, with towers and ramparts are described by William Martin Leake. Above the bay of Loryma lie the ruins of a curtain wall surrounding the top of the hill. Constructed from large blocks of stone shaped in-situ, the remaining walls retain precise corners and sheer faces.

Up to the 12th and 13th centuries, the Notitiæ episcopatuum mention Loryma as one of the suffragan sees of the Stauropolis, the metropolitan see of Caria. Le Quien names three bishops of Loryma: George, present at the Council of Constantinople in 680 Anthimus at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 Joseph at the Council of Constantinople in 879; the see exists as a titular see in the Catholic Church. Its bishops are: Antonio Laghi, O. F. M. † Francesco Saraceni, O. F. M. † Jan Krasiński † Jan Szemiot † Anthony Coyle † Jan Nepomucen Kossakowski † Georgius Połubiński † Luis Gregorio López Castillo † Vitaliano Provenzano † Valentino Baranowski † Stefano Pribék de Ville † Francisco García y López † George William Mundelein † Adolf Józef Jełowicki † Eugène Curien † Vittorio Longo † The British traveler and writer Freya Stark visited Loryma and wrote concerning the historical significance of its sheltered harbor: In the stillness of Loryma we spent the night. The wind could be heard howling outside, against the hills that enclosed our sheltered water as if it were a mountain tarn.

Only a fanning ripple touched the centre. The sound of the wind and busy like the world’s voice, gave an illusion of safety, of an unassailable peace. If it could penetrate, how many sleeping echoes would it waken? Athenians from Samos, dodging the Dorian Cnidus, picking up ship’s tackle at Syme, sheltering at Loryma; each in their turn felt the sudden calm. In these places, the natural features have remained unaltered; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Loryma". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

Spirit of the Times

The Spirit of the Times: A Chronicle of the Turf, Field Sports and the Stage was an American weekly newspaper published in New York City. The paper aimed for an upper-class readership made up of sportsmen; the Spirit included humorous material, much of it based on experience of settlers near the southwestern frontier. Theatre news was a third important component; the Spirit had an average circulation of about 22,000, with a peak of about 40,000 subscribers. William T. Porter and his brothers started the Spirit of the Times in 1831, they sought an upper-class readership, stating in one issue that the Spirit was "designed to promote the views and interests of but an infinitesimal division of those classes of society composing the great mass.... They modeled the paper on Bell's Life in a high-class English journal. Subscriptions rose from $2 to $5 in 1836, followed in 1839 by another rise to $10. Editorial policies forbade any discussion of politics in the paper so as to avoid alienating any potential readers.

Some writers managed to have material printed that showed favoritism toward the Whigs. The biggest breach of the'no politics' rule came in 1842, after the publication of Dickens's inflammatory American Notes. A wave of anti-British, anti-imperialist articles followed. By 1839, the Spirit was the most popular sporting journal in the United States; this allowed the Porters to buy the American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine. By 1856, all of the Porter brothers were dead except William; the paper split at some point, one branch called the Spirit of the Times, the other Porter's Spirit of the Times. Porter died in 1858, circulation of the two papers suffered. After the papers remerged in 1861, George Wilkes bought the enterprise and tried to keep it profitable. In 1878, William B. Curtis became the new editor and helped propagate the journal's elitism by refusing to cover sporting events that were not sanctioned by amateur organizations, which had rigid admission requirements. By the 1850s, the Spirit covered angling, cricket, foot racing, fox hunting, horse racing and yachting.

Porter printed all sorts of statistics. The paper helped to standardize horse racing by publishing horse weights, suggested betting practices, offering efficient track management techniques. Under Wilkes, the Spirit began covering football more extensively than any previous publication. Football coverage in the Spirit outstripped the same in the paper's main rivals, the New York Clipper and the National Police Gazette; the paper covered college games first. This coverage expanded again in 1892. Under Curtis, a devotee of speed skating, developments in local and international speed-skating were covered and Curtis compiled lists of skating records. A prominent contributing writer in the 1870s was cowboy, frontier scout, stage star Texas Jack Omohundro. Texas Jack's contributions included a lengthy write-up of his experiences as a cow-boy on the Chisholm Trail, hunting buffalo with the Pawnee people, hunting elk in the Bighorns and Wind River ranges of Wyoming, deer hunting in Florida; the early Spirit covered goings on at all of New York's playhouses.

Jacksonian entertainment was stratifying by class and the Spirit relegated most of its coverage to the Park Theatre. Any coverage of the Bowery or Chatham Garden theatres was negative from about 1832 on. Porter wrote in 1840 that the "Bowery... is to be transmogrified into a Circus shortly, the'Bowery boys' having lost their taste for the illegitimate drama, they never had any other." He visited the Bowery on a few other occasions, his reviews on it are full of mockery and derision: By reasonable computation there were about 300 persons on the stage and wings alone—soldiers in fatigue dresses—officers with side arms—a few jolly tars, a number of "apple-munching urchins." The scene was indescribably ludicrous. Booth played in his best style, was anxious to make a hit, but the confusion incidental to such a crowd on the stage, occasioned constant and most humorous interruptions, it was any thing, but a tragedy. In the scene with Lady Anne, a scene so much admired for its address, the gallery spectators amused themselves by throwing pennies and silver pieces on the stage, which occasioned an immense scramble among the boys, they ran between King Richard and Lady Anne, to snatch a stray copper.

In the tent scene, so solemn and so impressive, several curious amateurs went up to the table, took up the crown, poised the heavy sword, examined all the regalia with great care, while Richard was in agony from the terrible dream. The Battle of Bosworth Field capped the climax—the audience mingled with the soldiers and raced across the stage, to the shouts of the people, the roll of the drums and the bellowing of the trumpets. William Porter relied on amateur correspondents to cover sporting events across the United States. By the end of the 1830s, these writers had begun to submit fiction as well, including horse-racing fiction, hunting fiction, tall tales; the paper thus served as an early outlet for many American authors. Among the Spirit's correspondents who would go on to literary careers were George Washington Harris (