Thomas Dudley was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne Cambridge and built the town's first home, he provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan, opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott; the son of a military man who died when he was young, Dudley saw military service himself during the French Wars of Religion, acquired some legal training before entering the service of his kinsman the Earl of Lincoln. Along with other Puritans in Lincoln's circle, Dudley helped organize the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sailing with Winthrop in 1630. Although he served only four one-year terms as governor of the colony, he was in other positions of authority.
Dudley's daughter Anne Bradstreet was a prominent early American poet. One of the gates of Harvard Yard, which existed from 1915 to 1947, was named in his honor, Harvard's Dudley House is named for the family, as is the town of Dudley, Massachusetts. Thomas Dudley was born in Yardley Hastings, a village near Northampton, England, on 12 October 1576, to Roger and Susanna Dudley, his father, a captain in the English army, was killed in battle. It was for some time believed he was killed in the 1590 Battle of Ivry, but this is unlikely because Susanna Dudley was found to be widowed by 1588; the 1586 battle of Zutphen has been suggested as the occasion of Roger Dudley's death. The family has long asserted connections to the Sutton-Dudleys of Dudley Castle. Like many other young men of good birth Thomas Dudley became a page, in his case in the household of William, Baron Compton at nearby Castle Ashby, he raised a company of men following a call to arms by Queen Elizabeth, served in the English army led by Sir Arthur Savage fighting with King Henry IV of France during the French Wars of Religion.
He fought the Spanish at the Siege of Amiens in 1597 which in September surrendered and was the final action of the war. After he was discharged from his military service, Dudley returned to Northamptonshire, he entered the service of Sir Augustine Nicolls, a relative of his mother's, as a clerk. Nicolls, a lawyer and a judge, was recognized for his honesty at a time when many judges were susceptible to bribery and other malfeasance, he was sympathetic to the Puritan cause. After Nicolls' sudden death in 1616, Dudley took a position with Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln, serving as a steward responsible for managing some of the earl's estates. Although there is a blood connection, the reason for the appointment may be that Dudley's soldier grandfather Henry had served under Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln; the earl's estate in Lincolnshire was a center of Nonconformist thought, Dudley was recognized for his Puritan virtues by the time he entered the earl's service. According to Cotton Mather's biography of Dudley, he disentangled a legacy of financial difficulties bequeathed to the earl, the earl came to depend on Dudley for financial advice.
Dudley's services were not pecuniary in nature: he is said to have had an important role in securing the engagement of Clinton to Lord Saye's daughter. In 1622, Dudley acquired the assistance of Simon Bradstreet, drawn to Dudley's daughter Anne; the two were married six years when she was 16. Dudley was out of Lincoln's service between about 1624 and 1628. During this time he lived with his growing family in Boston, where he was a parishioner at St Botolph's Church, where John Cotton preached; the Dudleys were known to be back on Lincoln's estate in 1628, when his daughter Anne came down with smallpox and was treated there. In 1628 Dudley and other Puritans decided to form the Massachusetts Bay Company, with a view toward establishing a Puritan colony in North America. Dudley's name does not appear on the land grant issued to the company that year, but he was certainly involved in the formative stages of the company, whose investors and supporters included many individuals in the Earl of Lincoln's circle.
The company sent a small group of colonists led by John Endecott to begin building a settlement, called Salem, on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. The company acquired a royal charter in April 1629, that year made the critical decision to transport the charter and the company's corporate governance to the colony; the Cambridge Agreement, which enabled the emigrating shareholders to buy out those that remained behind, may have been written by Dudley. In October 1629 John Winthrop was elected governor, John Humphrey was chosen as his deputy. However, as the fleet was preparing to sail in March 1630, Humphrey decided he would not leave England and Dudley was chosen as deputy governor in his place. Dudley and his family sailed for the New World on the Arbella, the flagship of the Winthrop Fleet, on 8 April 1630 and arrived in Salem Harbour on 22 June. Finding conditions at Salem inadequate for establishing a larger colony and Dudley led forays into the Charles River watershed, but were unable to agree on a si
The Penobscot are an indigenous peoples in North America with members who reside in the United States and Canada. They are organized as a federally recognized tribe in Maine and as a First Nations band government in the Atlantic provinces and Quebec; the Penobscot Nation known as the Penobscot Tribe of Maine, is the federally recognized tribe of Penobscot in the United States. They are part of the Wabanaki Confederacy, along with the Abenaki, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq nations, all of whom spoke Algonquian languages, their main settlement is now the Penobscot Indian Island Reservation, located within the state of Maine along the Penobscot River. The word "Penobscot" originates from a mispronunciation of their name for themselves: Penawapskewi; the word means "rocky part" or "descending ledges," and referred to their territory on the portion of the Penobscot River between present-day Old Town and Bangor. The Penobscot Nation is headquartered in Maine; the tribal chief is Kirk Francis. The vice-chief is Bill Thompson.
Little is known about the Penobscot before their contact with European colonizers. Indigenous peoples are thought to have inhabited Maine and surrounding areas for at least 11,000 years, they had a hunting-gathering society, with the men hunting beaver, moose, caribou, seafood and marine mammals such as seals. The women gathered and processed bird eggs, berries and roots, all of which were found locally; the people practiced some agriculture but not to the same extent as that of indigenous peoples in southern New England, where the climate was more temperate. Food was scarce only toward the end of the winter, in February and March. For the rest of the year, the Penobscot and other Wabanaki had little difficulty surviving because the land and ocean waters offered much bounty, the number of people was sustainable; the bands moved seasonally, following the patterns of fish. During the 15th century the Penobscot had contact with Europeans through the fur trade, it was lucrative and the Penobscot were willing to trade pelts for European goods such as metal axes and copper or iron cookware.
Hunting for fur pelts reduced the game and the European trade introduced alcohol to Penobscot communities for the first time. It has been argued that the people are genetically vulnerable to alcoholism, which Europeans tried to exploit in dealings and trade. Penobscot people and other nations made pine beer, which had vitamin C; when Europeans arrived, they brought alcohol in quantity. Europeans may have developed enzymes, metabolic processes, social mechanisms for dealing with a normalized high intake of alcohol, but Penobscot people, though familiar with alcohol, had never had access to the gross quantity of alcohol that Europeans offered; the Europeans carried endemic infectious diseases of Eurasia that were new to the Native Americans, the Penobscot had no acquired immunity. Their fatality rates from the introduction of measles and other infectious diseases was high; the population declined due to fighting between the Wabanaki Federation and the powerful Mohawk people of the Iroquois League, which struggled to control the fur trade.
This catastrophic population depletion may have contributed to Christian conversion. The latter said. At the beginning of the 17th century, Europeans began to live year-round in Wabanaki territory. At this time, there were about 10,000 Penobscot; as contact became more permanent, after about 1675, conflicts arose through differences in cultures, conceptions of property, competition for resources. Along the Atlantic Coast in present-day Canada, most settlers were French; the Penobscot sided with the French during the French and Indian War in the mid-18th century after the English refusal to respect the Penobscots' intended neutrality. With the Spencer Phips proclamation of 1755, the British colonies put a bounty on the scalps of all Penobscot. With a smaller population and greater acceptance of intermarriage, the French posed a lesser threat to the Penobscots' land and way of life. After the English defeated French colonists in the Battle of Quebec in 1759, the Penobscot were left in a weakened position.
During the American Revolution, the Penobscot sided with the Patriots and played an important role in defending against British offensives from Canada. But, the new American government did not seem to recognize their contributions. Anglo-American settlers continued to encroach on Penobscot lands. In the following centuries, the Penobscot attempted to make treaties in order to hold on to some form of land, because they had no power of enforcement in Massachusetts or Maine, Americans kept encroaching on their lands. From about 1800 onward, the Penobscot lived on reservations Indian Island, an island in the Penobscot River near Old Town, Maine; the Maine state government appointed a Tribal Agent to oversee the tribe. The government believed that they were helping the Penobscot, as stated in 1824 by the highest court in Maine that "...imbecility on their parts, the dictates of humanity on ours, have prescribed to them their subjection to our paternal control." This sentiment of "imbecility" set up a power dynamic in which the gov
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
James Hillhouse was an American lawyer, real estate developer, politician from New Haven, Connecticut. He represented the state in both chambers of the US Congress. Hillhouse was born in Montville, the son of William Hillhouse and Sarah Hillhouse. At the age of seven, he was adopted by his childless uncle and aunt, James Abraham and Mary Lucas Hillhouse, he attended the Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven and graduated from Yale College in 1773. At Yale he was a member of the Linonian Society, he was admitted to the bar in 1775 and practiced law in New Haven. During the Revolutionary War, Hillhouse served as captain of the Second Company of the Governor's Foot Guard. During the successful British invasion of New Haven on July 5, 1779, he commanded troops alongside Aaron Burr, with Yale student volunteers. Hillhouse was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1780 to 1785, he was a member of the Connecticut council of Assistants from 1789 to 1790 and was elected as a US representative from Connecticut at large for the Second and Fourth Congresses and served from March 4, 1791 to his resignation, in the fall of 1796.
Elected as a US senator on May 12, 1796, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Oliver Ellsworth, Hillhouse was re-elected in 1797, 1803, 1809, he served from December 1796 to June 10, 1810, when he resigned. During the Sixth Congress he was President pro tempore of the Senate. In 1803, Hillhouse and several other New England politicians proposed secession of New England from the union because of the growing influence of Jeffersonian Democrats after the Louisiana Purchase, which would further diminish Northern and Federalist influence. Hillhouse was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813. In 1814, he was a Connecticut delegate to the Hartford Convention, he was treasurer of Yale College from 1782 to 1832, he is interred at the city's Grove Street Cemetery. Hillhouse made major contributions to the beautification of New Haven, he was active in the drive to plant the elm trees, which gave New Haven the nickname of "Elm City." Hillhouse Avenue and James Hillhouse High School, in New Haven, are named after him.
He was an uncle of Thomas Hillhouse. United States Congress. "James Hillhouse". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. James Hillhouse High School website
The Massachusett are a Native American people and ethnic group in the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts inhabiting their traditional homeland which covers much of present-day Greater Boston. The people take their name from the indigenous name for the Blue Hills overlooking Boston Harbor from the south, a ceremonial and sacred area for the people of the region; as some of the first people to make contact with the European explorers and English colonists, the Massachusett and other coastal peoples were decimated from an outbreak of leptospirosis circa 1619, which had mortality rates as high as 90% in these areas. This was followed by devastating impacts of virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, scarlet fever and others that the indigenous people lacked natural immunity, their territories, on the more fertile and flat coastlines, with access to coastal resources, was taken over by English colonists, as the Massachusett were too few in number to put up any effective resistance. Under the missionary John Eliot, the majority of the Massachusett were converted to Christianity and settled in'Praying towns' established where the converted Indians were expected to submit to the colonial laws, accept some elements of English culture and forced to abandon their traditional religion, but were allowed to use their language.
Through intermediaries, Eliot learned the language and published a translation of the Bible. The language, related to other Eastern Algonquian languages but more the regional languages of southern New England, would fade, ceasing to serve as the primary language of the Massachusett communities by the 1750s, the language was extinct by the early years of the nineteenth century; the Massachusett language was shared with several other peoples in the region, the Wampanoag preserved their dialect of the language until the death of its last speaker sometime in the 1890s. The last of their common lands were sold in the early nineteenth century, loosening the community and social bonds that held the Massachusett families together, most of the Massachusett were forced to settle amongst their English neighbors, but settled the poorer sections of towns where they were segregated with Blacks, recent immigrants and other Indians; the Massachusett assimilated and integrated into the surrounding communities.
Two groups of Massachusett have received state recognition after the creation of the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs. The Ponkapoag Massachusett, descendants of the Praying Indians of Ponkapoag, centered around what is now Canton and the Natick Massachusett-Nipmuc; as the Natick were formed from a substantial input of Nipmuc families, maintained close connection with the Nipmuc communities, the Natick Massachusett-Nipmuc are recognized as a tribe of Nipmuc, via their involvement with the Nipmuc Nation. The people took their name from the original name for the Great Blue Hill, a sacred hill overlooking Boston and its harbor, situated on the borders of the towns of Canton and Milton. More properly, the name of the people was Massachuseuk or Massachuseeak as'Massachusett', with the locative suffix refers to the Great Blue Hill and the surrounding area; the English settlers applied the term ` Massachusett' to the people and the language. The earliest English colonial records reveal several quite variant spellings such as'Masichewsetta,"Masstachusit,"Masathulets,"Masatusets,"Massachussett,' etc.
The current form was influenced by'Moswetuset,' sometimes used as a name for all the Massachusett people, as Moswetuset Hummock, in Quincy, was an important ceremonial meeting place of the sachems of the Massachusett tribes. It means'arrow-shaped hill.' All the Native peoples of New England were referred to as'Indians.' Through the influence of the English settlers, the people began to adopt Massachusett to refer to the people and language as well as the self-appellation Indian to differentiate themselves from the English colonists. French sources of the early seventeenth century refer to the coastal peoples of New England as the Almouchiquois or Armouchiquois from an unknown Native people of what is now Canada and indicating'dog people.' Although the term extended to the coastal groups of Eastern Abenaki tribes, it referred to the coastal peoples of southern New England such as the Massachusett. In the late colonial period, the French generically referred to the peoples of central and southern New England as Loup, or'Wolf people.'As the Massachusett were reduced to the handful of'Praying town' settlements, the people were sometimes referred to as'Praying Indians,' and referred to by the name of the settlement.
For example, the Praying Indians of Natick were just called the'Natick tribe' or'Natick Indians.' As the Praying towns were formed from amalgamations of tribes, it was more common for the Indians in the late seventeenth century to emphasize their Christian religion and hybrid culture of English and Native customs, but'Massachuset' or'Massachusett,' as these variants are used today, refer to the people as a whole. The traditional homeland of the Massachusett people was located in the area covered by Greater Boston, including the Boston Harbor Islands, the interior up to the fall line, where they came into contact with Nipmuc tribes, as far south as what is now the city of Bridgewater and the town of Pembroke, Massachusetts, on the edge with territory of the Wampanoag. Villages traditionally associated with the Massachusett include the following:Massachusett settlements Three official Praying towns were esta
Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands
Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes and First Nation bands residing in or originating from a cultural area encompassing the northeastern and Midwest United States and southeastern Canada. It is part of a broader grouping known as the Eastern Woodlands; the Northeastern Woodlands is divided into three major areas: the Coastal, Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Great Lakes-Riverine zones. The Coastal area includes the Atlantic Provinces in Canada, the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, south until North Carolina; the Saint Lawrence Lowlands area includes parts of Southern Ontario, upstate New York, much of the Saint Lawrence River area, Susquehanna Valley. The Great Lakes-Riverine area includes the remaining inland areas of the northeast, home to Central Algonquian and Siouan speakers; the Great Lakes region are sometimes considered a distinct cultural region, due to the large concentration of tribes in the area. The Northeastern Woodlands region is bound by the Subarctic to the north, the Great Plains to the west, the Southeastern Woodlands to the south.
Around 200 B. C the Hopewell culture began to develop across the Midwest of what is now the United States, with its epicenter in Ohio; the Hopewell culture was defined by its extensive trading system that connected communities throughout the Eastern region, from the Great Lakes to Florida. A sophisticated artwork style developed for its goods, depicting a multitude of animals such as deer and birds; the Hopewell culture is noted for its impressive ceremonial sites, which contain a burial mound and geometric earthworks. The most notable of these sites is in the Scioto River Valley and adjacent Paint Creek, centered on Chillicothe, Ohio; the Hopewell culture began to decline from around 400 A. D. for reasons which remain unclear. By around 1100, the distinct Iroquoian-speaking and Algonquian-speaking cultures had developed in what would become New York State and New England. Prominent Algonquian tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag; the Mi'kmaq, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot tribes formed the Wabanaki Confederacy in the seventeenth century.
The Confederacy covered most of present-day Maine in the United States, New Brunswick, mainland Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island and some of Quebec south of the St. Lawrence River in Canada; the Western Abenaki live on lands in New Hampshire and Massachusetts of the United States. The five nations of the Iroquois League developed a powerful confederacy about the 15th century that controlled territory throughout present-day New York, into Pennsylvania and around the Great Lakes; the Iroquois confederacy or Haudenosaunee became the most powerful political grouping in the Northeastern woodlands, still exists today. The confederacy consists of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Tuscarora tribes; the area, now the states of New Jersey and Delaware was inhabited by the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware, who were an Algonquian people. Most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland in the 18th century by expanding European colonies, now the majority of them live in Oklahoma; the characteristics of the Northeastern woodlands cultural area include the use of wigwams and longhouses for shelter and of wampum as a means of exchange.
Wampum consisted of small beads made from quahog shells. The birchbark canoe was first used by the Algonquin Indians and its use spread to other tribes and to early French explorers and fur traders; the canoes were used for carrying goods, for hunting and warfare, varied in length from about 4.5 metres to about 30 metres in length for some large war canoes. Native groups in the Northeast lived in villages of a few hundred people, living close to their crops. Men did the planting and harvesting, while women processed the crops. However, some settlements could be much bigger, such as Hochelaga, which had a population of several thousand people; the most important social group was the clan, named after an animal such as turtle, wolf or hawk. The totem animal concerned was considered sacred and had a special relationship with the members of the clan; the spiritual beliefs of the Algonquians center around the concept of Manitou, the spiritual and fundamental life force, omnipresent. Manitou manifest itself as the Great Spirit or Gitche Manitou, the creator and giver of all life.
The Iroquois equivalent of Manitou is orenda. Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Hopewell tradition War of 1812 Trigger, Bruce C. "Introduction." William C. Sturtevant, general ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. Trigger, volume ed. Sturtevant, William C. general ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion