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Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany used from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. The Sachsenhausen concentration camp held political prisoners throughout World War II. Prominent prisoners include Joseph Stalin's oldest son Yakov Dzhugashvili, murderer Herschel Grynszpan, Paul Reynaud the penultimate Prime Minister of France, the wife and children of the Crown Prince of Bavaria, several enemy soldiers and political dissidents. Sachsenhausen was a labor camp outfitted with several subcamps, a gas chamber, a medical experimentation area. Prisoners were treated harshly, fed sparingly, killed openly; those held captive in Sachsenhausen were the men and women which the Third Reich wanted dead, not just because of their religion, but because of their political beliefs and their power over those who listened to them. Today, Sachsenhausen is open to the public as a memorial for the atrocities committed within its walls. Or Sachsenhausen-OranienburAfter World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950.

The camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950; the camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. The camp was established in 1936, it was located 35 kilometres north of Berlin, which gave it a primary position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen became a training centre for Schutzstaffel officers. The camp was used to perfect the most efficient and effective execution method for use in the death camps. Given this, executions took place at Sachsenhausen of Soviet prisoners of war. During the earlier stages of the camp's existence the executions were done by placing the prisoner in a small room even with music playing, called the Genickschussbaracke and told they were to have their height and weight measured, but were instead shot in the back of the neck through a sliding door located behind the neck.

This was found to be far too time-consuming so they trialled a trench, killing either by shooting or by hanging. While this more enabled group executions, it created too much initial panic among the prisoners, making them harder to control. So, still not happy, they started doing small scale trials of what would go on to become the large scale, death camp gas chambers; these trials were successful and showed them that this method was'the one' as it facilitated the means to kill the largest number of prisoners, without'excessive' initial panic. So by September 1941, when they were conducting the first trials of this method at Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen had been the scene of "some gassings in conjunction with the development of gas vans"The prisoners were used as a workforce, with a large task force of prisoners from the camp sent to work in the nearby brickworks to meet Albert Speer's vision of rebuilding Berlin; the Main gate or Guard Tower "A", with its 8mm Maxim machine gun, the type used by the Germans in the trenches of World War I, housed the offices of the camp administration.

On the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei. About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945. Anchoring the base of the triangular shaped thousand-acre site was the large Appellplatz, where tens of thousands of prisoners would line up for morning and evening roll call. Creating a semi circular configuration, were the barracks of custody zone which fanned out from the base of the Appellplatz. Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentration camps, both in its design and the treatment of prisoners; the camp perimeter is an equilateral triangle with a semi circular roll call area centered on the main entrance gate in the boundary running northeast to southwest. Barrack huts lie beyond the roll call area; the layout was intended to allow the machine gun post in the entrance gate to dominate the camp, but in practice it was necessary to add additional watchtowers to the perimeter. The standard barrack layout was to have a central washing area and a separate room with toilet bowls and a right and left wing for overcrowded sleeping rooms.

There was an infirmary inside the southern angle of the perimeter and a camp prison within the eastern angle. There was a camp kitchen and a camp laundry; the camp's capacity became inadequate and the camp was expanded in 1938 by a new rectangular area northeast of the entrance gate and the perimeter wall was altered to enclose it. There was an additional area outside the main camp perimeter to the north; the camp was secure and there were few successful escapes. The perimeter consisted of a 3-metre-high stone wall on the outside. Within that there was a space, patrolled by guards and dogs. Any prisoner venturing onto the "death strip" would be shot by the guards without warning. Officers would force prisoners to cross this strip at gun point and threaten to kill them if they did not.

Horstmann suspension

Horstmann suspension is a type of tracked suspension devised by the British engineer Sidney Horstmann in 1922. It was used on World War II-era tank designs but in the post-war era was limited to British designs; the last tank to use the design was the Chieftain, designed in the late 1950s. The principal design feature is; each wheel is mounted on an L-shaped swing arm that forms a bell crank, so the upward movement of the wheel is turned into sideways motion of the top of the crank. The two arms may be mounted on a common pivot shaft between them, or more two spaced shafts; the two wheels share a coil spring running horizontally between the tops of the crank arms. Thus if one wheel moves up over an obstacle, the spring is compressed against the swing arm of the other wheel. An advantage to the Horstmann design is that the suspended weight is not placed on the rising wheel: its paired partner will increase its downward force due to the shared spring, spreading the load. In systems with independent wheels, it is possible for the entire tank to become suspended on one wheel, rare in the Horstmann case.

Another advantage is that the spring may work both in compression and expansion, increasing the total travel of the suspension. From a maintenance standpoint, the fact that the spring connects at a single non-moving point and is otherwise self-contained makes it easy to remove and replace in the field; the location of the spring over the wheels makes it quite compact, with little or no encroachment on internal hull space. Mechanically, the design shares much in common with the Christie suspension, which uses a bell crank to press on a spring; the main difference is that in the Christie each wheel is mounted separately and the spring is mounted on or inside the tank hull. The longer spring allows for more controlled flexion and longer throw. Christie suspensions are more difficult to maintain because the wheels and suspension are mounted separately, a broken spring can be difficult to reach without removing the wheels. Externally, the Horstmann suspension appears similar to the American vertical volute spring suspension.

The two systems are different mechanically – the VVSS wheels are mounted on independent pivot points and each has a separate vertical spring. Late World War II American designs used a version of the Horstmann suspension that replaced its coil springs with the volute springs from the earlier VVSS; this was known as the horizontal volute spring suspension, or HVSS. HVSS was a major feature of the M4A3E8 model "Easy Eight", so known due to its smooth ride; the name "Horstmann suspension" may be applied to any transmission system that has two opposed swing arms, no matter the type of springing between them. The name refers to any suspension built by the Horstman company whether of the bogie type, torsion beam design, hydropneumatic or other; the Horstmann system was used on, amongst others, the following vehicles: Universal carrier Loyd Carrier Vickers light tanks Centurion tank Chieftain tankHorstman-built suspension is used on: Challenger tank Warrior Armoured Fighting Vehicle AS-90 self-propelled gun Terrier Engineering Vehicle PUMA IFV History at horstman.co.uk

Richmond (surname)

Richmond is an English surname, may refer to any one of the following: Aaron Richmond, American impresario Barry Richmond, American systems scientist Bill Richmond, American–born boxer Bill Richmond, American film and television comedy writer Bill Richmond, American television producer and director Bonnie Richmond, fictional character in the American drama Jericho Branscombe Richmond, American character actor Cedric Levon Richmond, American politician Charles Wallace Richmond, American ornithologist Charlie Richmond, American sound designer Claude Richmond, Canadian politician Dannie Richmond, American jazz drummer Danny Richmond, American ice hockey player David Richmond, American Revolutionary War soldier Dave Richmond, British bass player Dean Richmond, New York railroad magnate Dennis Richmond, American television news anchor Deon Richmond, American actor Dorothy Kate Richmond, New Zealand artist Duke of Richmond, English title, held by several individuals over the centuries Earl of Richmond, English title, held by several individuals over the centuries Fiona Richmond, English glamour model and actress Fred Richmond, American politician Fritz Richmond, American musician George Richmond, English painter Graeme Richmond, Australian rules footballer Henry Richmond, Bishop of Repton in the Church of England Henry Robert Richmond, 19th century New Zealand farmer and politician Herbert Richmond, British naval officer Hiram Lawton Richmond, American politician Howie Richmond, American music publisher and executive James Buchanan Richmond, American politician and lawyer James Crowe Richmond, New Zealand politician and artist Jeff Richmond, American composer John Richmond, name of various individuals Jonathan Richmond, American politician Kenneth Richmond, British wrestler L. Bruce Richmond, American businessman and politician Marcus Richmond, American politician Mike Richmond, Australian skater Mitch Richmond, American basketball player Sarah Richmond, American teacher Stanley Richmond fictional character in the American drama Jericho Tim Richmond, American race car driver Tom Richmond, name of various individuals Van Rensselaer Richmond, New York engineer and politician Volney Richmond, New York politician Warner Richmond, American actor William Richmond, New Zealand politician William Richmond Scottish physician William Blake Richmond, English painter William Henry Richmond, American coal mine operator Richman