SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of where the rivers enter Suisun Bay; the Delta is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta was designated a National Heritage Area on March 12, 2019; the city of Stockton is located on the San Joaquin River on the eastern edge of the delta. The total area of the Delta, including both land and water, is about 1,100 square miles, its population is around 500,000 residents. The Delta was formed by the raising of sea level following glaciation, leading to the accumulation of Sacramento and San Joaquin River sediments behind the Carquinez Strait, the sole outlet from the Central Valley to the San Pablo and San Francisco Bays and the Pacific Ocean; the narrowness of the Carquinez Strait coupled with tidal action has caused the sediment to pile up, forming expansive islands.

Geologically, the Delta has existed for about 10,000 years, since the end of the Last Glacial Period. In its natural state, the Delta was a large freshwater marsh, consisting of many shallow channels and sloughs surrounding low islands of peat and tule. Since the mid-19th century, most of the region has been claimed for agriculture. Wind erosion and oxidation have led to widespread subsidence on the Central Delta islands. Much of the water supply for Central California and Southern California is derived from the Delta, via pumps located at the southern end of the Delta; the pumps deliver water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley and municipal water supply for Southern California. The Delta consists of 57 reclaimed islands and tracts, surrounded by 1,100 miles of levees that border 700 miles of waterways; the southwestern side of the Delta lies at the foothills of the California Coast Ranges, while to the northwest sit the lower Montezuma Hills. Most of the Delta lies within Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Yolo Counties.

The total human population of the Delta was 515,264 as of 2000. Altogether, the Delta covers 1,153 square miles, with 841 sq mi, or nearly 73 percent, devoted to agriculture. About 100 sq mi of the Delta area is urban and 117 sq mi; the rivers, streams and waterways of the Delta total about 95 sq mi of surface, although this fluctuates with seasons and tides. Geologically, it is not considered a true river delta, but rather an inverted river delta, as it formed inward rather than outward; the only other major river delta in the world located this far inland is the Pearl River Delta in China. The main source rivers include the Sacramento River from the north, the San Joaquin from the southeast, the Calaveras and Mokelumne Rivers from the east; the Calaveras and Mokelumne are both tributaries of the San Joaquin River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers join at the western end of the Delta near Pittsburg, at the head of Suisun Bay, although they are linked upstream by the Georgiana Slough, first used by steamboats in the 19th century as a shortcut between Sacramento and Stockton.

The southwestern part of the Delta is transected by the Middle River and Old River, former channels of the San Joaquin. These rivers transport more than 30 million acre feet of water through the Delta each year – about 50 percent of all California's runoff. Nearby cities include Lodi and Stockton to the east and Manteca to the south, Brentwood to the southwest, Pittsburg and Antioch to the west; the state capital, Sacramento, is located just to the north of the Delta. The Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel connects the Delta to the Port of Sacramento, with its terminus located near Rio Vista, on the northwestern side of the Delta; the Stockton Ship Channel is a dredged and straightened section of the San Joaquin River cutting directly through the Delta from the Port of Stockton to the San Joaquin's confluence with the Sacramento near Antioch. The Delta was located at the bottom of a large inland sea in the Central Valley, which formed as the uplift of the California Coast Ranges blocked off drainage from the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific.

About 560,000 years ago, water breached the mountains, carving out the present-day Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay. The drainage of all the water through this narrow gap formed a bottleneck in the Central Valley's outflow; the Delta in its contemporary state began to form about 10,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. During the Ice Age global sea levels were about 300 ft lower than today, the Delta region, as well as Suisun Bay, the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay, were a river valley through which the continuation of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers flowed to the Pacific Ocean; when sea levels rose again, ocean water backed up through the Carquinez Strait into the Central Valley. The early delta was composed of shifting channels, sand dunes, alluvial fans and floodplains that underwent constant fluctuation because of rising seas – one inch per year. About 8,000 years ago, the rate of sea-level rise slackened, allowing wetlan

SARS (gene)

SARS and cytoplasmic seryl-tRNA synthetase are a human gene and its encoded enzyme product, respectively. SARS is found in all humans. Mutations in SARS have been associated including HUPRA syndrome. Since the 1960s, seryl-tRNA synthetases have been described in various eukaryotic species, in both biochemical and structural analyses, it was not until 1997 that human SARS and its enzyme product were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli by a team from The European Molecular Biology Laboratory in France. The human SARS gene is located on the plus strand of chromosome 1, from base pair 109,213,893 to base pair 109,238,182. Seryl-tRNA synthetase is made up of 514 amino acid residues as weighs 58,777 Da, it exists as a homodimer of two identical subunits, with the tRNA molecule binding across the dimer by similarity. It has two distinct domains: A catalytic core A 3 base pair serine binding N-terminal extension "SARS" and it’s enzyme product seryl-tRNA synthetase are involved in protein translation.

The cytosolic enzyme recognises its cognate tRNA species and binds with a high level of specificity, allowing the accurate interaction between corresponding codons and anticodons on mRNA and tRNA during protein translation. As with many mutations that affect protein translation, mutations in the SARS gene set have been shown to cause a collection of diseases, such as hyperuricemia, metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary hypertension, progressive renal failure in infancy. In these cases, the SARS gene undergoes a missense mutation, which results in a complete lack of acetylated seryl-tRNA synthetase and a reduced amount of non-acetylated enzyme; this results in the ineffective or complete inability of L-serine to be transferred to its cognate tRNA, resulting in incomplete protein translation and folding. The impacts appear to only reach a phenotypic pathology in certain high energy expenditure cells, such as renal cells and lung tissue, it has been suggested that the residual activity of the SARS2 gene allows most other tissues to avoid cytopathic symptoms, however, is unable to protect high-energy requirement cells from damage.

The prevalence of SARS mutations resulting in HUPRA syndrome are rare, with less than 1 in 1,000,000 babies born with the condition. A Palestinian community in the Greater Jerusalem region appears to have a much higher incidence of the mutation due to a common ancestor

Everything Bad & Beautiful

Everything Bad & Beautiful is the title of a live stage show and album performed/recorded by singer/comedian/actress Sandra Bernhard. The show ran in 2006 in New York City at the Daryl Roth Theater. In the performance Bernhard does what she is best known for: she rips apart celebrity culture while commenting on events of the time. Among the topics she addresses: Britney Spears, Laura Bush, Condoleezza Rice, Bob Dylan, Mariah Carey and the war on terror; the album, released in 2006, is a live recording of her one-woman show of the same title. It was released by Breaking Records and was sold through the website and in the lobby of the live show. Unlike the majority of her other CD releases, it was a professionally manufactured CD and not a home-made CD-R. In 2007 the label acquired a distribution deal for the album and a re-released version with an alternate track listing was released, it has alternate artwork and features bonus digital video content. Most of the songs on the CD are covers of other people's songs.

They include Christina Aguilera, Missy Elliott, Lita Ford, Vanity 6, Sheila E. Bob Dylan and Prince. Beautiful De La Guarda / Broadway L. A. Kerry / Laura Bush / Lynn Cheney Condoleezza Rice & Rosa Parks Pussycat Motherhood The Flame Thanksgiving Flint, Michigan Bob Dylan Like a Rolling Stone Shabbat Mariah Carey & Britney Spears Sara Out of Tears Hugh Hefner I Hate Golf / Mock the Poor Just Like a Pill/Kiss Me Deadly Christian lady Medley Beautiful De La Guarda / Broadway L. A. Kerry / Laura Bush / Lynn Cheney Condoleezza Rice & Rosa Parks Motherhood The Flame Thanksgiving Flint, Michigan Bob Dylan Like a Rolling Stone Shabbat Mariah Carey & Britney Spears Sara Hugh Hefner I Hate Golf / Mock the Poor Pill / Kiss Me Deadly PerfectionBonus Video Footage: "Everything Bad and Beautiful" Promo Sandra Bernhard: Live at Joe's Pub New York / Ali MacGraw L. A. / Lenny Kravitz Sandra Bernhard: Live at Joe's Pub