The American wigeon, baldpate, is a species of dabbling duck found in North America. This species is classified with the other wigeons in the dabbling duck genus Anas and it is the New World counterpart of the Eurasian wigeon. Anas is the Latin for duck and americana refers to America, the American wigeon is a medium-sized bird, it is larger than a teal, but smaller than a pintail. In silhouette, the wigeon can be distinguished from other dabblers by its head, short neck. It is 42–59 cm long, with a 76–91 cm wingspan and this wigeon has two adult molts per year and a juvenile molt in the first year, as well. The breeding male is a bird with a mask of green feathers around its eyes. This white patch gives the wigeon its other name, baldpate. In flight, drakes can be identified by the white shoulder patch on each wing. These white patches flash as the bank and turn. In non-breeding plumage, the looks more like the female. The hens are less conspicuous, having primarily gray and brown plumage. Both sexes have a blue bill with a black tip, a white belly.
The wing patch behind the speculum is gray and they can be distinguished from most ducks, apart from Eurasian wigeon, by shape. However, that species has a head and all grey underwing. The head and neck coloring of the female is different as opposed to the Eurasian wigeon and it nests on the ground, near water and under cover. It lays 6–12 creamy white eggs, flocks will often contain American coots. The American wigeon is a species, and in the field can often be identified by their distinctive calls. Drakes produce a three note whistle, while hens emit hoarse grunts and quacks, the male whistle makes a wheezy whoee-whoe-whoe, whereas the female has a low growl qua-ack
The great egret, known as the common egret, large egret or great white heron, is a large, widely distributed egret, with four subspecies found in Asia, the Americas, and southern Europe. Distributed across most of the tropical and warmer regions of the world. It builds tree nests in close to water. Like all egrets, it is a member of the heron family, traditionally classified with the storks in the Ciconiiformes, the Ardeidae are closer relatives of pelicans and belong in the Pelecaniformes instead. The great egret—unlike the typical egrets—does not belong to the genus Egretta, in the past, however, it was sometimes placed in Egretta or separated in a monotypic genus Casmerodius. The Old World population is referred to as the great white egret. This species is confused with the great white heron of the Caribbean. The scientific name comes from Latin ardea heron, and alba, there are four subspecies in various parts of the world, which differ but little. Standing up to 1 m tall, this species can measure 80 to 104 cm in length and have a wingspan of 131 to 170 cm, body mass can range from 700 to 1,500 g, with an average of around 1,000 g.
It is thus only slightly smaller than the blue or grey heron. In breeding plumage, delicate ornamental feathers are borne on the back and females are identical in appearance, juveniles look like non-breeding adults. Differentiated from the intermediate egret by the gape, which extends well beyond the back of the eye in case of the great egret and it has a slow flight, with its neck retracted. This is characteristic of herons and bitterns, and distinguishes them from storks, cranes and spoonbills, the great egret walks with its neck extended and wings held close. The great egret is not normally a vocal bird, it gives a low croak when disturbed. The great egret is generally a successful species with a large and expanding range, occurring worldwide in temperate. It is ubiquitous across the Sun Belt of the United States, in North America, large numbers of great egrets were killed around the end of the 19th century so that their plumes could be used to decorate hats. Numbers have since recovered as a result of conservation measures and its range has expanded as far north as southern Canada.
Nevertheless, the species adapts well to human habitation and can be seen near wetlands
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants. Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, carbon sink, Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica, the largest including the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the water found in wetlands can be freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes and fens, and sub-types include mangrove, pocosin, the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. International conservation efforts are being used in conjunction with the development of rapid assessment tools to people about wetland issues.
Constructed wetlands can be used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff and they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a storm would not be considered a wetland. Wetlands have unique characteristics, they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level. Specifically, wetlands are characterized as having a table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants. A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil, Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic processes, There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen.
Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types, the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows, Article 2.1, may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands. Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county, Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes and similar areas. This definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act, some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal governments. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season, the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H
Great blue heron
It is a rare vagrant to coastal Spain, the Azores, and areas of far southern Europe. An all-white population found only in the Caribbean and Florida was once treated as a separate species, the great blue heron was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae. The scientific name comes from Latin ardea, and Ancient Greek erodios and it forms a superspecies with this and with the cocoi heron from South America, which differs in having more extensive black on the head, and a white breast and neck. It has head-to-tail length of 91–137 cm, a wingspan of 167–201 cm, a height of 115–138 cm, in British Columbia, adult males averaged 2.48 kg and adult females 2.11 kg. The feathers on the neck are long and plume-like, it has plumes on the lower back at the start of the breeding season. The bill is yellowish, becoming orange briefly at the start of the breeding season. Immature birds are duller in color, with a dull blackish-gray crown, and the pattern is only weakly defined, they have no plumes.
Among standard measurements, the chord is 43–49.2 cm, the tail is 15. 2–19.5 cm, the culmen is 12. 3–15.2 cm. The herons stride is around 22 cm, almost in a straight line, two of the three front toes are generally closer together. In a track, the front toes, as well as the back, the subspecies differ only slightly in size and plumage tone, with the exception of subspecies A. h. occidentalis, which has a distinct white morph, known as the great white heron. It is found only in south Florida and some parts of the Caribbean, the great white heron differs from other great blues in bill morphology, head plume length, and in having a total lack of pigment in its plumage. It averages somewhat larger than the sympatric race A. h. wardi and may be the largest race in the species. In a survey of A. h. occidentalis in Florida, males were found to average 3.02 kg and females average 2.57 kg and this is mainly found near salt water, and was long thought to be a separate species. Birds intermediate between the normal morph and the white morph are known as Würdemanns heron, these birds resemble a normal great blue with a white head.
The theory that great white herons may be a species from great blue heron has again been given some support by David Sibley. The great white heron could be confused with great egret, but is larger, the reddish egret and little blue heron could be mistaken for the great blue heron, but are much smaller, and lack white on the head and yellow in the bill. In the southern reaches of its range, the great blue sometimes overlaps in range with the closely related, the cocoi is distinguished by a striking white neck and solid black crown, but the duller juveniles are more easily confused. More superficially similar is the slightly smaller grey heron, which may sometimes vagrate to the coasts of North America
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Glenn County, California
Glenn County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,122 and it is located in the California Central Valley. Glenn County was formed in 1891 from parts of Colusa County and it was named for Hugh J. Glenn, who was the largest wheat farmer in the state during his lifetime, and a man of great prominence in political and commercial life in California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,327 square miles. The racial makeup of Glenn County was 19,990 White,231 African American,619 Native American,722 Asian,24 Pacific Islander,5,522 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,539 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 26,453 people,9,172 households, the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,982 housing units at a density of 8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 71. 8% White,0. 6% Black or African American,2. 1% Native American,3. 4% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,18. 2% from other races, and 3. 9% from two or more races. 29.
6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,10. 8% were of German,9. 4% American,6. 2% English and 5. 9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 69. 5% spoke English,27. 0% Spanish and 2. 1% Hmong as their first language,22. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was out with 30. 8% under the age of 18,8. 7% from 18 to 24,26. 8% from 25 to 44,20. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,107, and the median income for a family was $37,023. Males had an income of $29,480 versus $21,766 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,069, about 12. 5% of families and 18. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26. 3% of those under age 18 and 7. 6% of those age 65 or over.
Glenn is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Glenn County is split between Californias 1st and 3rd congressional districts, represented by Doug LaMalfa and John Garamendi, respectively, in the State Assembly, Glenn County is in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
The wood duck or Carolina duck is a species of perching duck found in North America. It is one of the most colorful North American waterfowl, the wood duck is a medium-sized perching duck. A typical adult is from 47 to 54 cm in length with a wingspan of between 66 to 73 cm and this is about three-quarters of the length of an adult mallard. It shares its genus with the Asian Mandarin duck, the adult male has distinctive multicolored iridescent plumage and red eyes, with a distinctive white flare down the neck. The female, less colorful, has a white eye-ring and a whitish throat. The males call is a whistle, the females utter a drawn-out, rising squeal, do weep do weep, when flushed. Their breeding habitat is wooded swamps, shallow lakes, marshes or ponds, and creeks in eastern North America and they usually nest in cavities in trees close to water, although they will take advantage of nesting boxes in wetland locations if available. Females line their nests with feathers and other materials. Unlike most other ducks, the duck has sharp claws for perching in trees and can, in southern regions.
Females typically lay between 7 and 15 white-tan eggs that incubate for an average of 30 days, after hatching, the ducklings jump down from the nest tree and make their way to water. The mother calls them to her, but does not help them in any way and they prefer nesting over water so the young have a soft landing, but will nest up to 140 m away from the shoreline. The day after they hatch, the climb to the nest entrance. The ducklings can swim and find their own food by this time and these birds feed by dabbling or walking on land. They mainly eat berries and seeds, but insects, the birds are year-round residents in parts of its southern range, but the northern populations migrate south for the winter. They overwinter in the southern United States near the Atlantic coast, 75% of the wood ducks in the Pacific Flyway are non-migratory. There is a feral population in Dublin. The population of the duck was in serious decline in the late 19th century as a result of severe habitat loss. By the beginning of the 20th century, wood ducks had disappeared from much of their former range
The pied-billed grebe is a species of the grebe family of water birds. Since the Atitlán grebe has become extinct, it is the sole extant member of the genus Podilymbus, the pied-billed grebe is primarily found in ponds throughout the Americas. Other names of this grebe include American dabchick, Carolina grebe, devil-diver, dive-dapper, hell-diver, pied-billed dabchick, pied-bill, thick-billed grebe, the pied-billed grebe was described by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Colymbus podiceps. Outside its own genus, the closest relatives of the pied-billed grebe are the small grebes of the genus Tachybaptus, P. p. podiceps, North America to Panama & Cuba. P. p. antillarum, Greater & Lesser Antilles, P. p. antarcticus, South America to central Chile & Argentina. Pied-billed grebes are small and short-necked and they are 31–38 cm in length, with a wingspan of 45–62 cm and weigh 253–568 g. They are mainly brown, with a crown and back. Their brown color serves as camouflage in the marshes they live in and they do not have white under their wings when flying, like other grebes.
Their undertail is white and they have a short, blunt chicken-like bill that is a grey color. In the summer, its throat is black, juveniles have black and white stripes and look more like winter adults. This grebe does not have webbed feet and its toes have lobes that come out of the side of each toe. These lobes allow for easy paddling, when flying, the feet appear behind the body due to the feets placement in the far back of the body. It may be confused with the least grebe, although that species is smaller and has a thinner bill. Other similarly sized grebes are very distinct in plumage, i. e. the eared grebe and its call is unique and sounds like a whooping kuk-kuk-cow-cow-cow-cowp-cowp. Its call is similar to the yellow-billed cuckoo and they are most commonly found throughout North America, Central America and South America year round. During the summer breeding season, they are most prevalent in central, if they live in an area where the water freezes in the winter they will migrate. Migrating birds generally meet with year-round birds in September and October, most migratory birds leave in March or April.
They make occasional appearances in Europe and Hawaii, in the United Kingdom, pied-billed grebe visits have numbered 37 sightings as of 2007, appearing generally in October to January
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial.
The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead.
The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in Italy