Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of where the rivers enter Suisun Bay; the Delta is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. The city of Stockton is located on the San Joaquin River on the eastern edge of the delta; the total area of the Delta, including both land and water, is about 1,100 square miles. The Delta was formed by the raising of sea level following glaciation, leading to the accumulation of Sacramento and San Joaquin River sediments behind the Carquinez Strait, the sole outlet from the Central Valley to San Pablo and San Francisco Bays and the Pacific Ocean; the narrowness of the Carquinez Strait coupled with tidal action has caused the sediment to pile up, forming expansive islands. Geologically, the Delta has existed since the end of the last Ice Age.
In its natural state, the Delta was a large freshwater marsh, consisting of many shallow channels and sloughs surrounding low islands of peat and tule. Since the mid-19th century, most of the region has been claimed for agriculture. Wind erosion and oxidation have led to widespread subsidence on the Central Delta islands. Much of the water supply for central and southern California is derived from here via pumps located at the southern end of the Delta, which deliver water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley and municipal water supply for southern California; the Delta consists of 57 reclaimed islands and tracts, surrounded by 1,100 miles of levees that border 700 miles of waterways. The southwestern side of the Delta lies at the foothills of the California Coast Ranges, while to the northwest sit the lower Montezuma Hills. Most of the Delta lies within Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Yolo Counties; the total human population of the Delta was 515,264 as of 2000. Altogether, the Delta covers 1,153 square miles, with 841 sq mi, or nearly 73 percent, devoted to agriculture.
About 100 sq mi of the Delta area is urban and 117 sq mi. The rivers, streams and waterways of the Delta total about 95 sq mi of surface, although this fluctuates with seasons and tides. Geologically, it is not considered a true river delta, but rather an inverted river delta, as it formed inward rather than outward; the only other major river delta in the world located this far inland is the Pearl River Delta in China. The main source rivers include the Sacramento River from the north, the San Joaquin from the southeast, the Calaveras and Mokelumne Rivers from the east; the Calaveras and Mokelumne are both tributaries of the San Joaquin River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers join at the western end of the Delta near Pittsburg, at the head of Suisun Bay, although they are linked upstream by the Georgiana Slough, first used by steamboats in the 19th century as a shortcut between Sacramento and Stockton; the southwestern part of the Delta is transected by the Middle River and Old River, former channels of the San Joaquin.
These rivers transport more than 30 million acre feet of water through the Delta each year – about 50 percent of all California's runoff. Nearby cities include Lodi and Stockton to the east and Manteca to the south, Brentwood to the southwest, Pittsburg and Antioch to the west; the state capital, Sacramento, is located just to the north of the Delta. The Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel connects the Delta to the Port of Sacramento, with its terminus located near Rio Vista, on the northwestern side of the Delta; the Stockton Ship Channel is a dredged and straightened section of the San Joaquin River cutting directly through the Delta from the Port of Stockton to the San Joaquin's confluence with the Sacramento near Antioch. The Delta was located at the bottom of a large inland sea in the Central Valley, which formed as the uplift of the California Coast Ranges blocked off drainage from the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific. About 560,000 years ago, water breached the mountains, carving out the present-day Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay.
The drainage of all the water through this narrow gap formed a bottleneck in the Central Valley's outflow. The Delta in its contemporary state began to form about 10,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. During the Ice Age global sea levels were about 300 ft lower than today, the Delta region, as well as Suisun Bay, the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay, were a river valley through which the continuation of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers flowed to the Pacific Ocean; when sea levels rose again, ocean water backed up through the Carquinez Strait into the Central Valley. The early delta was composed of shifting channels, sand dunes, alluvial fans and floodplains that underwent constant fluctuation because of rising seas – one inch per year. About 8,000 years ago, the rate of sea-level rise slackened, allowing wetland plants to take hold in the Delta, trapping sediment. Th
Redding the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento River, 162 miles north of Sacramento, 120 miles south of California's northern border, shared with the state of Oregon. Interstate 5 bisects the entire city, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, located 15 miles to the north; the 2010 population was 89,861. Redding is the largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, it is the sixth-largest city in the Sacramento Valley, behind Sacramento, Elk Grove, Roseville and Chico. During the gold rush, the area that now comprises Redding was called Poverty Flats. In 1868 the first land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, a former Sacramento politician named Benjamin Bernard Redding, bought property in Poverty Flats on behalf of the railroad so that it could build a northern terminus there. In the process of building the terminus, the railroad built a town in the same area, which they named Redding in honor of Benjamin Redding.
In 1874 there was a dispute over the name by local legislators and it was changed for a time to Reading, in order to honor Pierson B. Reading, who founded the community of Shasta, but the name was changed back to Redding by 1880, it has been called Redding since. Before European settlers came to the area, it was inhabited by a tribe of Native Americans called the Wintu. At their height, the Wintu had as many as 239 villages in the Shasta County area. Although Europeans had been to California as early as 1542, when Juan Cabrillo sailed to what is now the San Diego Bay, the indigenous Indians were the only inhabitants of far Northern California region until Russian fur trappers came through the area in 1815; the first European settlement in the area was established in 1844 by Pierson B. Reading, an early California pioneer who received a Rancho Buena Ventura Mexican land grant for 26,632 acres, now covered by Redding and Cottonwood, California. At the time, it was the northernmost nonnative settlement in California.
During the gold rush, the area, now Redding was called Poverty Flats. In 1868 the first land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, a former Sacramento politician named Benjamin Bernard Redding, bought property in Poverty Flats on behalf of the railroad for a northern terminus. In the process of building the terminus, the railroad built the town of Redding, incorporated on October 4, 1887. In the early twentieth century the town's economic growth was spurred by the significant copper and iron mineral extraction industry nearby. However, the mining industry declined, causing the economy and population to falter by 1920, it recovered in the thirties as the economy boomed due to the construction of Shasta Dam to the northwest. The building of the dam, completed in 1945, caused Redding's population to nearly double spurring the growth and development of other towns in the area. Redding continued to grow in the 1950es due to the region's growing lumber industry and tourism brought about by the newly completed dam.
The constructions of Whiskeytown and Keswick dams helped boost the economy by bringing new workers to the area. Highway Interstate 5 was built during the sixties and seventies, which added to development and tourism in the region. Growth in Redding during the'60s and'70s was caused by annexation of an area east of the Sacramento River made up of the unincorporated community of Enterprise. Enterprise residents voted to support the annexation to acquire less expensive electricity via Redding's municipal utility, which receives power from the dam. During the 1970s, the lumber industry suffered from decline. Lumber mills in the area closed down and impacted the Redding area. Things picked up, due to a retail and housing boom in the late-1980s that continued until the mid-1990s. In 2017, the city adopted a new flag after holding a redesign contest. In late July 2018, the Carr Fire in Shasta county impacted the Redding area with the destruction of at least 1100 buildings, with several thousand more threatened, 38,000 people instructed to evacuate and 6 deaths.
Redding is located at 40°34′36″N 122°22′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 61.2 square miles. 59.6 square miles of it is land, 1.5 square miles of it is beneath water. Redding is located at the northwestern end of the Central Valley, which transitions into the Cascade foothills; the city is surrounded by mountains to the north and west and fertile farm land to the south. Outermost parts of the city are part of the Cascade foothills, whereas southern and central areas are in the Sacramento Valley; the elevation in Redding is 495 feet on average, whereas anywhere to the north, east, or west of downtown ranges between 550 feet and 800 feet feet. Southern portions range between 500 feet; the Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River provides a considerable level of flood protection for Redding. The dam is capable of controlling flows up to 79,000 cubic feet per second; the flow rate exceeded this threshold in both 1970 and 1974. Soils in and around town are composed of clay or gravelly loam texture, with red or brown mineral horizons.
They are or moderately acidic in their natural state. Redwood Estates Los Robles Estates Mountain Shadows Mobile Home Estates Twin View Terrace Mobile Home Park Redding Lakeside Mobile Homes Estates There are several rare and endangered species in Redding and its immediate vicinity; the Redding Redevelopment Plan EIR no
Corning is a city in Tehama County, California, located about 19 miles south of Red Bluff and about 100 miles north of Sacramento. The population was 7,663 at the 2010 census, up from 6,741 at the 2000 census. Corning had its start in 1882; the community was named after a railroad official. Corning is located at 39°55′34″N 122°10′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.55 square miles, all of it land / none of it water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Corning has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported. The population density was 2,158.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Corning was 5,510 White, 44 African American, 201 Native American, 82 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 1,496 from other races, 319 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,271 individuals; the Census reported that 7,638 people lived in households, 19 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 6 were institutionalized.
There were 2,630 households, out of which 1,193 had children under age 18 living in them, 1,136 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 533 had a female householder with no husband present, 179 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 224 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 12 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 633 households were made up of individuals and 259 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90. There were 1,848 families; the population was spread out with 2,479 people under age 18, 864 people aged 18 to 24, 1,931 people aged 25 to 44, 1,617 people aged 45 to 64, 772 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.2 years. For every 100 females there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. There were 2,871 housing units at an average density of 808.8 per square mile, of which 1,302 were owner-occupied, 1,328 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.1%.
3,765 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 3,873 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,741 people, 2,422 households, 1,642 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,320.3 people per square mile. There were 2,614 housing units at an average density of 899.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.48% White, 0.52% African American, 2.18% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 17.42% from other races, 4.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.82% of the population. There were 2,422 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.33 individuals.
In the city, the population was spread out with 32.5% under age 18, 10.0% aged 18 to 24, 28.0% aged 25 to 44, 17.7% aged 45 to 64, 11.8% aged 65 years or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 90.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,357, the median income for a family was $32,151. Males had a median income of $30,563 versus $19,736 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,357. About 21.1% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those aged 65 or over. These compare to the national median household income of $45,135 and national per capita income of $23,201. In the California State Legislature, Corning is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen, in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. In the United States House of Representatives, Corning is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa.
The major local industry is preparing table olives. Corning has a significant agricultural industry based on olive oil, dried plums and almonds. Bell-Carter FoodsCorning is home to Bell-Carter Foods, Inc. the second-largest table olive processor in the world and the largest in the United States. Bell Carter produces Lindsay Olives. Lucero Olive OilNorth America's most award-winning extra virgin olive oil company, Lucero Olive Oil, is based in Corning, with orchards, olive mill, bottling facility, a public tasting room. Other local destinations & landmarksThe House of Brews, a music-based coffee shop Rodgers Theater, a restored historic cinema building Corning Museum Rolling Hills Casino The Corning Equestrian Center Sevillano Links Golf Course, a championship 18 hole golf course, about one mile south of town The Olive Pit, a popular tourist stop since 1967 that specializes in many varieties of table olives with olive tasting, a wine bar, a cafe The annual Corni
A tornado is a rotating column of air, in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, they are visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour, are about 250 feet across, travel a few miles before dissipating; the most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles in diameter, stay on the ground for dozens of miles. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex tornado and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air develop in tropical areas close to the equator and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirl, steam devil. Tornadoes occur most in North America in central and southeastern regions of the United States colloquially known as tornado alley, as well as in Southern Africa and southeast Europe and southeastern Australia, New Zealand and adjacent eastern India, southeastern South America. Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes; the Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale.
An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers; the similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data and ground swirl patterns may be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating; the word tornado comes from the Spanish word tornado. Tornadoes opposite phenomena are the derechoes. A tornado is commonly referred to as a "twister", is sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone; the term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister. A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, visible as a funnel cloud".
For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word. Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A tornado is not visible; this results in the formation of a visible funnel condensation funnel. There is some disagreement over the definition of a condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, thus most tornadoes are included under this definition. Among many meteorologists, the'funnel cloud' term is defined as a rotating cloud, not associated with strong winds at the surface, condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. Tornadoes begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.
A single storm will produce more than one tornado, either or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area is a tornado outbreak sequence called an extended tornado outbreak. Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may
Red Bluff, California
Red Bluff is a city in and the county seat of Tehama County, United States. The population was 14,076 at the 2010 census, up from 13,147 at the 2000 census, it is located 131 miles north of Sacramento, 31 miles south of Redding, it is bisected by Interstate 5. Red Bluff is situated on the banks of the upper Sacramento River, it was known as Leodocia, but was renamed to Covertsburg in 1853. It got its current name in 1854. Red Bluff is on the northern edge of the Sacramento Valley, is the third largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, it is about 31 miles south of Redding, 40 miles northwest of Chico, 131 miles north of Sacramento. The city is located at 40°10′36″N 122°14′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.7 square miles. 7.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The total area is 1.48% water. A post office called Red Bluff has been in operation since 1853; the community was named for the red bluffs along the nearby Sacramento River.
Red Bluff has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers. There are an average of 100.1 days annually with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 21.5 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record highest temperature was 121 °F on August 7, 1981, the record lowest temperature was 17 °F on January 9, 1937. Annual precipitation averages 23.21 inches with measurable precipitation falling on an average of 71 days. The wettest “rain year” was from July 1994 to June 1995 with 45.96 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 10.17 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 21.47 inches in January 1995 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.55 inches on January 8, 1995. The most snowfall in one month was 15.0 inches in January 1937. The 2010 United States Census reported that Red Bluff had a population of 14,076; the population density was 1,833.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Red Bluff was 11,366 White, 128 African American, 438 Native American, 187 Asian, 16 Pacific Islander, 1,168 from other races, 773 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,037 persons. The Census reported that 13,637 people lived in households, 150 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 289 were institutionalized. There were 5,376 households, out of which 2,033 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,969 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,022 had a female householder with no husband present, 404 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 537 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 27 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,629 households were made up of individuals and 678 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54. There were 3,395 families; the population was spread out with 3,950 people under the age of 18, 1,534 people aged 18 to 24, 3,561 people aged 25 to 44, 3,157 people aged 45 to 64, 1,874 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
There were 5,872 housing units at an average density of 764.9 per square mile, of which 2,277 were owner-occupied, 3,099 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%. 5,652 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 7,985 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,147 people, 5,109 households, 3,239 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,768.7 people per square mile. There were 5,567 housing units at an average density of 748.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.7% White, 0.6% Black, 2.2% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.8% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.7% of the population. There were 5,109 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,029, the median income for a family was $32,799. Males had a median income of $26,807 versus $21,048 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,060. About 17.7% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.6% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. According to the city's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, these are the top-10 employers: The annual Red Bluff Round-Up, first held in 1921, has become one of the west's largest rodeos; the town is well known throughout the nation due to its popular
Colusa County, California
Colusa County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,419; the county seat is Colusa. It is in the Central Valley of California, northwest of the state capital, Sacramento. Colusa County is one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county's territory were given to Tehama County in 1856 and to Glenn County in 1891; the county was named after the 1844 Rancho Colus Mexican land grant to John Bidwell. The name of the county in the original state legislative act of 1850 was spelled Colusi, in newspapers was spelled Coluse; the word is derived from the name of a Patwin village known as Ko'-roo or Korusi located on the west side of the Sacramento River on the site of the present-day city of Colusa. The name was established as Colusa by 1855. Present-day Colusa County was home to the Patwin band of the Wintun people, whose territory included areas along the Sacramento River as well as lands extending west towards Lake County, bounded in the north by the sources of Stony Creek near Stonyford and in the south by Putah Creek.
Linguistically, the Patwin people in the Colusa area spoke two dialects of the Southern Wintuan language. River Patwin was spoken in villages along the Sacramento River, including at Korusi, site of the present city of Colusa. Hill Patwin was spoken in the foothills to the west. Present-day Colusa County was included as part of three Mexican land grants: John Bidwell's smaller 1845 Rancho Colus grant, which included the modern city of Colusa. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,156 square miles, of which 1,151 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. A large number of streams drain the county, including Elk Creek, Salt Creek, Stony Creek and Bear Creek; the county's eastern boundary is formed, by the Sacramento River. Glenn County - north Butte County - northeast Sutter County - east Yolo County - south Lake County - west Butte Sink National Wildlife Refuge Colusa National Wildlife Refuge Delevan National Wildlife Refuge Mendocino National Forest Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Colusa County had a population of 21,419.
The racial makeup of Colusa County was 13,854 White, 195 African American, 419 Native American, 281 Asian, 68 Pacific Islander, 5,838 from other races, 764 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,804 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,804 people, 6,097 households, 4,578 families residing in the county. The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 6,774 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.3% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 2.3% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 26.7% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. 46.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 8.5% were of German, 5.6% English, 5.5% American and 5.4% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 58.7% spoke English and 40.4% Spanish as their first language. There were 6,097 households out of which 41.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.9% were non-families.
21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.51. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,062, the median income for a family was $40,138. Males had a median income of $32,210 versus $21,521 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,730. About 13.0% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. In its early history Colusa was one of the most reliable Democratic counties in California. Along with Mariposa County, it was one of only two counties in the Pacific States to support Alton B. Parker in 1904.
From 1892 until 1952, Colusa only went Republican during the GOP landslides of the Roaring Twenties. Since 1952, Colusa has become a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, with Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, being the last Democrat to win the county. Colusa County is in California's 3rd congressional district, represented by Democrat John Garamendi. In the State Assembly, Colusa County is split between the 3rd and 4th districts, represented by Republican James Gallagher and Democrat Cecilia Aguiar-Curry, respectively. In the State Senate, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen. On November 4, 2008 Colusa County voted 71.6% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Interstate 5 State Route 16 State Route 20 State Route 45 Colusa County Transit runs buses from Colusa to Williams, Arbuckle and College City, with limited service to Maxwell.
Colusa County Airport is a general-
The Klamath Mountains are a rugged and populated mountain range in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the western United States. They have a varied geology, with substantial areas of serpentinite and marble, a climate characterized by moderately cold winters with heavy snowfall and warm dry summers with limited rainfall in the south; as a consequence of the geology and soil types, the mountains harbor several endemic or near-endemic trees, forming one of the largest collections of conifers in the world. The mountains are home to a diverse array of fish and animal species, including black bears, large cats, owls and several species of Pacific salmon. Millions of acres in the mountains are managed by the United States Forest Service; the northernmost and largest sub-range of the Klamath Mountains are the Siskiyou Mountains. Physiographically, the Klamath Mountains include the Siskiyou Mountains, the Marble Mountains, the Scott Mountains, the Trinity Mountains, the Trinity Alps, the Salmon Mountains, the northern Yolla-Bolly Mountains.
They are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. These are the ten highest points in the Klamath Mountains: 1. Mount Eddy 2. Thompson Peak 3. Mount Hilton 4. Caesar Peak 5. Sawtooth Mountain 6. Wedding Cake Mountain 7. Caribou Mountain 8. China Mountain 9. Gibson Peak 10. Boulder Peak A large portion of the Klamath Mountains is managed by the United States Forest Service. Several national forests lie in the Klamath Mountains region, including the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Siskiyou National Forest, Klamath National Forest, Six Rivers National Forest, Mendocino National Forest; the Klamath Mountains contain 11 wilderness areas in both Oregon and California: There are extensive hiking trail systems, recreation areas, campgrounds both primitive and developed in the Klamaths. A 211-mile stretch of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through these mountains as well; this section of the PCT is known locally as "The Big Bend" and is the transition from the California Floristic Province to the Cascades.
The Bigfoot Trail is a 400-mile trail through the Klamath Mountains from the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness to Crescent City, California. Klamath Mountains is the name given to one of California's eleven geomorphic provinces; the rocks of the Klamath Mountains originated as island arcs and continental fragments in the Pacific Ocean. The island masses consisted of rifted fragments of pre-existing continents and volcanic island masses created over subduction zones; these island masses contain rocks as old as 500 million years, dating to the early Paleozoic Era. A succession of eight island terranes moved eastward on the ancient Farallon plate and collided with the North American plate between 260 and about 130 million years ago; each accretion left a terrane of rock of a single age. During the accretion, subduction of the plate metamorphosed the overlying rock and produced magma which intruded the overlying rock as plutons. Serpentinite, produced by the metamorphism of basaltic oceanic rocks, intrusive rocks of gabbroic to granodiorite composition are common rocks within the Klamath terranes.
Subsequent lava flows from active volcanoes in the Cascade Range and the erosion of the Oregon Coast Range to the north covered these rocks with basalt and sediments. As a consequence of the geology, the mountains harbor rich biodiversity, with several distinct plant communities, including temperate rain forests, moist inland forests, oak forests and savannas, high elevation forests, alpine grasslands; these communities form the Klamath Mountains ecoregion. One of the principal plant communities in the Klamath Mountains is Mediterranean California Lower Montane Black Oak-Conifer Forest; the ecoregion includes several endemic or near-endemic species, such as Port Orford cedar or Lawson's cypress, foxtail pine, Brewer's spruce, forming one of the largest collections of different conifers in the world. The flowering plant Kalmiopsis leachiana endemic to the Klamaths, is limited to the Siskiyou sub-range in Oregon. ConifersA large concentration of diverse coniferous species of trees exists in these mountains.
Thirty conifer species inhabit the area, including two endemic species, the Brewer's spruce and the Port Orford cedar, making the Klamath Mountains one of the richest coniferous forest regions of the world in terms of concentrated species diversity. The region has several edaphic plant communities, adapted to specific soil types, notably serpentine outcrops. In 1969, Drs. John O. Sawyer and Dale Thornburgh discovered 17 species of conifers in 1 square mile around Little Duck Lake and Sugar Creek in the Russian Wilderness, they called this diverse area the Miracle Mile. In 2013 Richard Moore identified western juniper, in the Sugar Creek canyon; this is now considered the richest assemblage of conifers per unit area in any temperate region on Earth. Conifer species in the Klamath Mountains include coast Douglas-fir, Port Orford cedar, ponder