Sacraments of the Catholic Church

There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church. Sacraments are visible rites seen as signs and efficacious channels of the grace of God to all those who receive them with the proper disposition; the sevenfold list of sacraments is organized into three categories: the sacraments of initiation, consisting of Baptism and the Eucharist. The Catechism of the Catholic Church lists the sacraments as follows: "The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments. There are seven sacraments in the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, Matrimony."The list of seven sacraments given by the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent, which stated: CANON I.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord. CANON IV.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous.

"Sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church." "In the liturgy, above all that of the sacraments, there is an immutable part, a part, divinely instituted and of which the Church is the guardian, parts that can be changed, which the Church has the power and on occasion the duty to adapt to the cultures of evangelized peoples." Baptism cannot be changed to allow a non-Trinitarian formula. "Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion." Regarding marriage, "basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered' contrary to the natural law." "The ordination of women is not possible."The efficacy of sacraments does not depend on the celebrant's being in the state of grace. Their power comes not from God. In them Christ himself is at work. However, the actual effects of the sacrament depends on the recipient's disposition: "in order that the liturgy may be able to produce its full effects, it is necessary that the faithful come to it with proper dispositions, that their minds should be attuned to their voices, that they should cooperate with divine grace lest they receive it in vain".

The Catholic Church teaches that the sacraments are "efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us." The Church teaches that the effect of a sacrament comes ex opere operato, by the fact of being administered, regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering it. However, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block the effectiveness of the sacrament in that person; the sacraments presuppose faith and through their words and ritual elements, are meant to nourish and give expression to faith. While the Church itself is the universal sacrament of salvation, the sacraments of the Catholic Church in the strict sense are seven sacraments that "touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase and mission to the Christian's life of faith". "The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation", although not all are necessary for every individual.

The Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "Christian initiation is accomplished by means of the sacraments which establish the foundations of Christian life. The faithful born anew by Baptism are strengthened by Confirmation and are nourished by the Eucharist." The Roman Catholic Church sees baptism as the basic sacrament of Christian initiation. In the Western or Latin Church, baptism is conferred today by pouring water three times on the recipient's head, while reciting the baptismal formula: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit". In the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite immersion or submersion is used, the formula is: "The servant of God, N. is baptized in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit." Though sprinkling is not used, its validity is accepted, provided that the water flows over the skin, since otherwise it is not a washing. Confirmation or Chrismation is the second sacrament of Christian initiation.

"It is called Chrismation. It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace." It is conferred by "the anointing with Sacred Chrism, done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite." These words, in both their Western and Eastern variants, refer to a gift of the Holy Spirit that m

Pulse foundation

PULSE Foundation is a Bulgarian non-governmental organization, registered on July 7, 1999 under the name “Animus – Pernik”. Since the beginning of 2002, the organization continues its charitable activity under the name “PULSE” – “Positive Personal Skills in Society”. In 2015, PULSE Foundation operates over 40 youth volunteers. By developing emotional and mental potential of people to create conditions for a harmonious relationship between them, based on equality and tolerance, leading to successful integration and realization in the society; the main organizational objectives are: to contribute to the intellectual and spiritual development and stimulate the rise of social status of Bulgarian women. For realization of organizational objectives, the Foundation team puts efforts in the following areas: promotes the Foundation's ideas and objectives and realizes consultation centers for specialized professional help and cooperates in the process of development of educational and training programs and operates in such programs, organizes symposium, workshops, related to the problems of Bulgarian family, establishes a lasting system of cooperation with state and municipal authorities and non-governmental organizations, makes contact with similar organizations in the country and abroad, performs consulting and therapeutic assistance to people, affected by violence, their families and hosts applied for in advance training programs, carries out psychological help, organizes training of its collaborators, publishes materials in the field of its activity, works with people, drug addicted to psychoactive substances and injecting, their families, family mediation and child protection.

The multidisciplinary approach of work, enables the organization to offer: crisis center, crisis intervention, psychological counseling, long-lasting psycho-therapeutic work, family counseling and couple therapy, legal services and litigation, social mediation, social assistance, occupational therapy, groups for sharing own experience, trainings. PULSE Foundation works in six general programs: integration and rehabilitation of persons and children, affected by violence and trafficking, by providing rehabilitation programs; the service works with government agencies and NGOs in the country and abroad, in order to provide protection to people, affected by violence, to identify best practices in the field of case management and to assist court prosecution of perpetrators, as well as effective implementation of Domestic Violence Prevention Act, Child Protection Act and Human Trafficking Prevention Act in Bulgaria. People, affected by physical, psychological and / or sexual abuse, victims or potential victims of violence and / or trafficking, or other forms of exploitation, living in dysfunctional families, antisocial behavior, homeless children and adolescents in hazardous environments, Roma community – a specific subgroup, injecting drug users and young people at risk, representatives of institutions and practicing experts, working in the area of child development, general public.

Methodology and innovative practices are concluded in several priority steps: team meetings, as well as the regular supervisions, are a leading factor in program implementation, the clients of our service have the opportunity to work with different professionals, within the multidisciplinary team of the organization, as well as beyond and group psychological work with people, affected by violence, individual approach

Internet Defense League

The Internet Defense League is a website, launched in March 2012 with the aim of organizing future online protests of anti-piracy legislation, following the success of the anti-SOPA and PIPA protests. The Internet Defense League site is a creation of the Fight for the Future nonprofit, a group noted for its participation in the anti-SOPA protests of 2011, Alexis Ohanian, founder of Reddit. According to Tiffiniy Cheng, co-founder of Fight for the Future, the aim of the Defense League site is to sign up thousands of websites, from giant organizations to individual bloggers, who can be mobilized if needed for future anti-piracy legislation protests, they will use a takeoff on the Bat signal, if there is need to act. "There's this academic theory... that talks about if you ban the ability of people to share cat photos, they'll start protesting en masse", Cheng explains to CNN as to why they chose a symbol of a cat. As of May 2012, several notable organizations have signed on to the protest network, including Mozilla, WordPress, the Cheezburger Network.

SOPA opposition Cute cat theory of digital activism Official website Fight for the Future