Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was the ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire. Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti. In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who overturns space and time", Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, overtake, the Chimú, he began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America. According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, Pachacuti created the Inti Raymi to celebrate the new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. Pachacuti is linked to the origin and expansion of the Inti Sun Cult, he was the ninth ruler of the Inca state who, from ruling a simple chiefdom, came to rule a great empire, the Tawantinsuyu. He was born in the palace of Cusicancha, bordering the Coricancha temple, his tutor Micuymana was the one who taught him history and language, as well as the handling of quipus.
From a young age he was admired by the Inca nobles, because he had the courage and maturity that his brother Inca Urco needed so much, in the same way he showed aptitudes for the government and the conquests, that his brother lacked. Although he had not been designated as successor by his father Viracocha Inca, he led a military defense against the warlike army of Chanka while his father and his brother Urco Inca fled the manor; the victory over the Chankas made Inca Viracocha recognize him as his successor around 1438. As part of his vision of a statesman and warrior chieftain he conquered many ethnic groups and states, highlighting his conquest of the Collao that enhanced the prestige of the Inca Pachacutec. Due to the remarkable expansion of their domains he was considered an exceptional leader, enlivening glorious epic stories and hymns in tribute to his achievements. Numerous kurakas do not hesitate to recognize his skills and identify him as "son of the Sun", he conquered the provinces of Chinchay-Suyu.
Along with his sons, Tupac Ayar Manco, Apu Paucar Usnu, he defeated the Collas. Additionally, he left garrisons in subjugated lands. Pachacuti, son of Inca Viracocha and Mama Runtu, was the fourth of the Hanan dynasty, his wife's name was Quya Anawarkhi. He had three sons, Tupac Ayar Manco, Apu Paucar, Tupac Inca Yupanqui. Pachacuti had his two brothers, Ccapac Yupanqui and Huayana Yupanqui, killed after the military campaign against the province of Chinchay-Suyu, he killed his sons Tilca Yupanqui and Auqui Yupanqui. Amaru, the older son, was chosen to be co-regent and eventual successor. Pachacuti chose Tupac Inca because Amaru was not a warrior, he was the first one to retire. Pachacuti's given name was Cusi Yupanqui and he was not supposed to succeed his father Inca Viracocha who had appointed his brother Urco as crown prince; however in the midst of an invasion of Cuzco by the Chankas, the Incas' traditional tribal archenemies, Pachacuti had a real opportunity to demonstrate his talent. While his father and brother fled the scene, Pachacuti rallied the army and prepared for a desperate defense of his homeland.
In the resulting battle, the Chankas were defeated so that legend tells the stones rose up to fight on Pachacuti's side. Thus "The Earth Shaker" won the support of his people and the recognition of his father as crown prince after the death of Urco. Pachacuti rebuilt much of Cusco, designing it to serve the needs of an imperial city and as a representation of the empire; each suyu had a sector of the city. Each sector was further divided into areas for the hurin moieties. Many of the most renowned monuments around Cuzco, such as the great sun temple Qurikancha, were rebuilt during Pachacuti's reign. Despite his political and military talents, Pachacuti did not improve the system of succession, his son became the next Inca without any known dispute after Pachacuti died in 1471 due to a terminal illness, but in future generations, the next Inca had to gain control of the empire by winning enough support from the apos and military to win a civil war or intimidate anyone else from trying to wrest control of the empire.
Pachacuti is credited with having displaced hundreds of thousands in massive programs of relocation and resettling them to colonize the most remote edges of his empire. These forced colonists were called mitimaes and represented the lowest place in the Incan social hierarchy; the Incan imperial government was authoritative and repressive. He sent his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui an army to repeat his conquests and tyranny, extend his realm to Quito. Pachacuti built irrigating channels, cultivated terraces, made roads and hospices; the Road of the Inca stretched from Quito to Chile. Pachacuti was the author of the Sacred Hymns of the Situa city purification ceremony. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa attributed one song to Pachacuti on his deathbed: "I was born as a lily in the garden, like the lily I grew, as my age advanced / I became old and had to die, so I withered and died." Pachacuti is featured as the leader of the Inca in the video games Civilization III, Civilization V, Civilization VI. Pachacutec, a resurrected Sapa Inca king, over 500 years old, plays a major role in James Rollins' novel Excavation, whose major action occurs in
Vince Lee (explorer)
Vincent "Vince" Richards Lee, now retired, has served as a Marine Corps officer and chief instructor of his own mountaineering school, western residential architect, Andean explorer, scholar of megalithic monuments, avocational Southwest archaeologist, author of several books on many of those subjects. Although born in Gainesville and his older brother Claude Jr. were raised in downstate New York. His father, Claude Francis Lee, was an owner and manager of several Paramount movie theaters in 1930s Florida, manager of Paramount's newly formed East Coast public relations division in New York City; the Lees were long time friends of Claude Pepper, the redoubtable Florida Senator and Congressman of the Roosevelt and Truman years. Recognizing Claude Lee's influence, Pepper named him to his "band of brothers" who advised him at critical times in his career. Lee attended North Tarrytown High School selected Princeton University and entered its Regular Naval ROTC program during 1956-60, incurring a three-year obligation for military service.
He elected duty with the U. S Marine Corps and went through the Officer Candidates School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in his junior year. Enrolled in the School of Architecture, he graduated in 1960 with a BA in Architecture and was commissioned a US Marine Corps 2nd Lieutenant. After Marine Officer Basic School, again at Quantico, he was assigned as an Infantry Officer in the 2nd Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California, he married Danielle Hayn just before his transfer to Fleet duty. They soon had identical twin sons, James Scott and Jon Richard, some years a third son, Christopher Tobin, they divorced in 1977. Lee served with the 3rd Marine Division on Okinawa, on deployments in the Western Pacific, South Korea and Japan. With a year remaining in his 3-year obligation, he transferred to the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center in California's Sierra Nevadas After completing the courses, he became an Instructor/Guide in the Mountain Leadership School. While assigned to the MWTC, Lee applied his knowledge of civilian professional mountaineering techniques to improve the school's techniques, as recounted in the Marine Corps history of the MWTC that provided a brief summary of his contributions to its mission, stating, "Over time he skillfully modernized the syllabus of the Mountain Leadership Course by introducing the latest climbing techniques and lightweight equipment that he believed would have equal application in military mountaineering".
In the same publication, the chief instructor at the Center, Orlo K. Steele, a subsequent Marine 2-star General, placed him in its "list of superb mountain leaders". Lee applied for entrance to Princeton's Graduate School of Architecture, in the Fall 1964 began his graduate studies when released from active duty. During the summer between his graduate school years, Lee taught climbing for Maine's Hurricane Island Outward Bound program. Following graduation, while still involved with the startup North Carolina Outward Bound School, he became friends with its founding director, Jim Hollandsworth, an outdoor educator at the Asheville School. In 1968, Lee and Hollandsworth conducted the first of what became three seasons of Asheville School mountaineering expeditions. While maintaining his architectural practice in Jackson Hole, he developed the Asheville School program into what became'High Country West, Wilderness Expeditions', with several three-week sessions each summer for the next 23 years, as described in his book, Old School.
He taught climbing skills to hundreds of beginning climbers, leading parties to nearly 500 peaks in the Rockies and overseas. As advertised in the local newspaper, HCW's expeditions offered 30-day trips varying in degree of difficulty from "mellow outing" to "strenuous". Lee received his MFA in Architecture Magna cum Laude from Princeton in 1966. For his Master's thesis, he created a design for the newly formed, all-year North Carolina Outward Bound School in Asheville, NC. Adapting to the remote rugged building site, Lee produced a design utilizing small, light-weight structural components that could be assembled by the students, his unique design got favorable "local boy makes good" news in local newspapers and the Tarrytown Daily News. Favorably reacting to his design, the NCOBS Board hired him in Fall 1966 for its construction drawings. Accepting his first architectural commission, the Lee family moved to Asheville where Lee joined a local firm and began the detailed plans. However, the NCOBS program was downsized and the new building project fell through.
In Spring 1967, Dani and the kids temporarily returned home to New York while Lee headed west to the Tetons in search of a job and home for his family. Stopping at Lander, he worked a season as an instructor/guide with the new National Outdoor Leadership School led by Paul Petzoldt. In the Fall of 1967, reunited with Dani and family, he settled into a small log cabin in Jackson Hole to endure their first of what would be many winters at the foot of the Tetons, he found employment with a local architect designing the new Jackson Hole Mountain Resort. After nearly a year with this first employer, he was fired in a disagreement over time off to climb with Pop Hollandsworth's Asheville School. Not losing a stride, he soon found a position with a long-time local designer. Lee and his new boss, John Morgan, formed their own architectural design firm'Design Associates, Architects', in Wilson, a small village near Jackson; when Morgan retired, Lee became sole owner. In 1968, he bought a 1 1/4 acre field.
Lee had become an active environmentalist at the time of the first Earth Day,1970. Hi
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and
For the extinct cephalopod genus, see Andesites. Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and rhyolite, ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide as illustrated in TAS diagrams; the mineral assemblage is dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, apatite, ilmenite and garnet are common accessory minerals. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts; the quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite, if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Characteristic of subduction zones, andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs; the average composition of the continental crust is andesitic.
Along with basalts they are a major component of the Martian crust. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. Magmatism in island arc regions comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge, the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. During subduction, the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature, leading to metamorphism. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole, chlorite etc. dehydrate as they change to more stable, anhydrous forms, releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. Due to the lower density of the molten material, it rises through the wedge until it reaches the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition, but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate.
Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may melt during this process, the relative contribution of the three components to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. Basalt thus formed can contribute to the formation of andesite through fractional crystallization, partial melting of crust, or magma mixing, all of which are discussed next. Andesite is formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. Partial melting of crustal material. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization, a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are removed from the melt; this removal can take place in a variety of ways, but most this occurs by crystal settling. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are amphiboles.
These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. There is geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. Once these mafic minerals have been removed, the melt no longer has a basaltic composition; the silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted; as this process continues, the melt becomes more and more evolved becoming andesitic. Without continued addition of mafic material, the melt will reach a rhyolitic composition. Molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Once there, the basaltic melt can either underplate the crust, creating a layer of molten material at its base, or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. If it underplates the crust, the basalt can cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. Models of heat transfer, show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100–1240 °C cannot provide enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite.
Basalt can, melt pelitic upper crustal material. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs, are the result of partial melting of the crust. In continental arcs, such as the Andes, magma pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat, these reservoirs cool. In order to remain active, magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system; when this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma, the composition is returned to andesite, its intermediate phase. In 2009, researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites that were discovered in the Graves Nunataks icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season; this points to a new mechanism to generate andesite crust. Andesite line Basaltic andesite Continental crust – Layer of rock that forms the continents and continental shelves Fractional crystallization – One of the main processes of magmatic differentiation List of rock types – A list of rock types recognized by geologists Metamorphism – The change of minerals in pre-existing rocks w
Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, other media and JSON files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Files from Wikimedia Commons can be used across all Wikimedia projects in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, Wikispecies and Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use; as of 2018, the repository contains over 50 million free media files and editable by registered volunteers. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000; the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7, 2004. A key motivation behind the setup of a central repository was the desire to reduce duplication of effort across the Wikimedia projects and languages, as the same file had to be uploaded to many different wikis separately before Commons was created; the aim of Wikimedia Commons is to provide a media file repository "that makes available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content to all, that acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation."
The expression "educational" is to be understood according to its broad meaning of "providing knowledge. Most Wikimedia projects still allow local uploads which are not visible to other projects or languages, but this option is meant to be used for material which local project policies allow, but which would not be permitted according to the copyright policy of Commons. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, including licenses which restrict commercial use of materials or disallow derivative works. For this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts licensed media and deletes copyright violations. Licenses that are acceptable include the GNU Free Documentation License, Creative Commons Attribution and Attribution/ShareAlike licenses, other free content and free software licenses, the public domain; the default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other available user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have been translated into various languages.
Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWiki's category system. In addition, they are collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to contain free text files, these continue to be hosted on a sister project, Wikisource; the site has been criticized for hosting large amounts of amateur pornography uploaded by exhibitionists who exploit the site for personal gratification, who are enabled by sympathetic administrators. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as "littered with dicks". In 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as "lolicon". After this was reported in the media, Jimmy Wales, founder of the Wikimedia Foundation which hosts Commons, used his administrator status to delete several images without discussion from the Commons community. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, including the ability to delete files.
Over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Daniel Kinzler wrote applications for finding appropriate categories for uploaded files, determining the usage of files across the Wikimedia projects, locating images with missing copyright information, relaying information about administrative actions such as deletions to the relevant wikis. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as "Commonist" have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to review free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process, which has resulted in more than 10,000 uploads to Commons; the site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works. One is known as "Featured pictures", where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination; this process began in November 2004. Another process known as "Quality images" began in June 2006, has a simpler nomination process comparable to "Featured pictures".
"Quality images" only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas "Featured pictures" additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA. A third image assessment project, known as "Valued images", began on June 1, 2008 with the purpose of recognizing "the most valued illustration of its kind", in contrast to the other two processes which assess images on technical quality; the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental and amateur files up to files of poor quality. Commons is not a competition but a collection. Files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files; the site held its inaugural "Picture of the Year" competition, for 2006. All images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, voted on by eligible Wikimedia movement members during two rounds of voting.
The winning picture was a picture of the Aurora Borealis over snowlands, taken by an airman f
The variable hawk is a polymorphic species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It is widespread and common in open habitats in western and southern South America, including the Falkland Islands, its taxonomy is disputed, with some splitting it into the widespread red-backed hawk and the Puna hawk or Gurney's hawk of the central and north Andean highlands, but the differences between the two are unclear. Most recent authorities have supported the lumping together of the two hawks although the issue still is controversial. On the contrary, the rare taxon from the Juan Fernández Islands is distinctive, worthy of species recognition as the Juan Fernández hawk. In this article and most current accounts, the three races are regarded as subspecies; the name variable hawk is deserved, as both sexes occur in several morphs. Adults of all have a white tail with a contrasting black subterminal band and grey wings barred dark; the remaining plumage varies from dark grey to whitish, some individuals have reddish-brown to the underparts.
Females have a reddish-brown back, which males lack, although at least some males have this. The taxon exsul from the Juan Fernández Islands is far less variable, being whitish below and grey above in adults of both sexes. At least 27 distinct adult plumages are known in this species the most of any raptor with no relationship to morphometric variables and only minor geographic variation. Size is variable in this confusing species. Length can range from 45 to 62 wingspan ranging from 113 to 151 cm. Weight can range from 800 to at least 1,800 grams; the Puna hawk subspecies considered to be at the larger end of the size spectrum and the red-backed hawk at the smaller, but these distinctions are difficult at best in the field. Overall, this species rates as a large Buteo. Variable hawks occupy open habitats at all elevations; the red-backed race inhabits the widest range of areas of the variable hawk races, including above tree line in mountains, Pacific coastal foothills, Patagonian steppes, agricultural areas and edges of river galleries, beech woods and humid premontane and lowland forests.
Though the most race to be found in lowlands the red-backed is less than common below an elevation of 500 m. The Juan Fernandez race is found on the islands' volcanic slopes and barren grazed grasslands at all elevations; the Puna race are a common element above tree line in páramo and puna habitat, at higher elevations than any other raptor. Smaller numbers of the latter race may visit mountain scrub and stunted Polylepis woodland at as low 900 m, they are most seen soaring on warm thermals but may be seen on any type of raised perch. They prey on any small to medium-sized animals that can be caught, but smallish mammals comprise more than 90% of prey in some studies; the most recorded prey includes cavies, tuco-tucos, mice and páramo rats. Earthworms, weevils and other invertebrates are taken. Birds are sometimes taken, including tired petrels around Juan Fernández Islands. Other prey include other rodents & lagomorphs, lizards and fish; the variable hawk hunts with prey being spotted while pinned on the ground.
Breeding may be variable for all races. They build large stick nests on any elevated structure available, sometimes breed cooperatively. One to three eggs are laid; the incubation period is 26 to 36 days. The nestlings fledge anywhere from 40 to 74 days; the larger-bodied, high-elevation hawks take longer to incubate and much longer to fledge than lower elevation hawks. "Raptors of the World" by Ferguson-Lees, Franklin, Mead & Burton. Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-12762-3
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species. Falcons are distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica, though related raptors did occur there in the Eocene. Adult falcons have thin, tapered wings, which enable them to fly at high speed and change direction rapidly. Fledgling falcons, in their first year of flying, have longer flight feathers, which make their configuration more like that of a general-purpose bird such as a broad-wing; this makes flying easier while learning the exceptional skills required to be effective hunters as adults. There are many different types of falcon; the falcons are the largest genus in the Falconinae subfamily of Falconidae, which itself includes another subfamily comprising caracaras and a few other species. All these birds kill with their beaks, using a "tooth" on the side of their beaks—unlike the hawks and other birds of prey in the Accipitridae, which use their feet; the largest falcon is the gyrfalcon at up to 65 cm in length.
The smallest falcons are the kestrels. As with hawks and owls, falcons exhibit sexual dimorphism, with the females larger than the males, thus allowing a wider range of prey species; some small falcons with long, narrow wings are called "hobbies" and some which hover while hunting are called "kestrels". As is the case with many birds of prey, falcons have exceptional powers of vision. Peregrine falcons have been recorded diving at speeds of 200 miles per hour, making them the fastest-moving creatures on Earth; the fastest recorded dive for one is 390 km/h. The Late Latin falco is believed to derive from falx as meaning a sickle, referencing the claws of the bird. In Middle English and Old French, the term faucon refers generically to several captive raptor species; the traditional term for a male falcon is tercel or tiercel, from the Latin tertius because of the belief that only one in three eggs hatched a male bird. Some sources give the etymology as deriving from the fact that a male falcon is about one-third smaller than a female.
A falcon chick one reared for falconry, still in its downy stage, is known as an eyas. The word arose from Latin presumed nidiscus from nidus; the technique of hunting with trained captive birds of prey is known as falconry. Compared to other birds of prey, the fossil record of the falcons is not well distributed in time; the oldest fossils tentatively assigned to this genus are from the Late Miocene, less than 10 million years ago. This coincides with a period in which many modern genera of birds became recognizable in the fossil record; the falcon lineage may, however, be somewhat older than this, given the distribution of fossil and living Falco taxa, is of North American, African, or Middle Eastern or European origin. Falcons are divisible into three or four groups; the first contains the kestrels. Kestrels feed chiefly on terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates of appropriate size, such as rodents, reptiles, or insects; the second group contains larger species, the hobbies and relatives. These birds are characterized by considerable amounts of dark slate-gray in their plumage.
They feed on smaller birds. Third are the peregrine falcon and its relatives, variably sized powerful birds that have a black malar area, a black cap, as well. Otherwise, they are somewhat intermediate between the other groups, being chiefly medium gray with some lighter or brownish colors on their upper sides, they are, on average, more delicately patterned than the hobbies and, if the hierofalcons are excluded, this group contains species with horizontal barring on their undersides. As opposed to the other groups, where tail color varies much in general but little according to evolutionary relatedness, the fox and greater kestrels can be told apart at first glance by their tail colors, but not by much else; the tails of the large falcons are quite uniformly dark gray with inconspicuous black banding and small, white tips, though this is plesiomorphic. These large Falco species feed on terrestrial vertebrates. Similar to these, sometimes included therein, are the four or so species of hierofalcons.
They represent taxa with more phaeomelanins, which impart reddish or brown colors, more patterned plumage reminiscent of hawks. Their undersides have a lengthwise pattern of lines, or arrowhead marks. While these three or four groups, loosely circumscribed, are an informal arrangement, they contain several distinct clades in their entirety. A study of mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data of some kestrels identified a clade containing the common kestrel and related "malar-striped" species, to the exclusion of such taxa as the greater kestrel, the lesser kestrel, the American kestrel, which has a malar stripe, but its color pattern–apart from the brownish back–and the