SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sadomasochism

Sadomasochism is the giving or receiving of pleasure from acts involving the receipt or infliction of pain or humiliation. Practitioners of sadomasochism may seek sexual gratification from their acts. While the terms sadist and masochist refer to one who enjoys giving and receiving pain, practitioners of sadomasochism may switch between activity and passivity; the word sadomasochism is a portmanteau of the words masochism. The abbreviation S&M is used for Sadomasochism, although practitioners themselves remove the ampersand and use the acronym S-M or SM or S/M when written throughout the literature. Sadomasochism is not considered a clinical paraphilia unless such practices lead to clinically significant distress or impairment for a diagnosis. Sexual sadism within the context of mutual consent known under the heading BDSM, is distinguished from non-consensual acts of sexual violence or aggression; the term sadomasochism is used in a variety of different ways. It can refer to cruel individuals or those who brought misfortunes onto themselves and psychiatrists define it as pathological.

However, recent research suggests that sadomasochism is simply a sexual interest, not a pathological symptom of past abuse, or a sexual problem, that people with sadomasochistic sexual interest are in general neither damaged nor dangerous. The two words incorporated into this compound, "sadism" and "masochism", were derived from the names of two authors; the term "Sadism" has its origin in the name of the Marquis de Sade, who not only practiced sexual sadism, but wrote novels about these practices, of which the best known is Justine. "Masochism" is named after Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, who wrote novels expressing his masochistic fantasies. These terms were first selected for identifying human behavioural phenomena and for the classification of psychological illnesses or deviant behaviour; the German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing introduced the terms "Sadism" and "Masochism"' into medical terminology in his work Neue Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Psychopathia sexualis in 1890. In 1905, Sigmund Freud described sadism and masochism in his Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie as stemming from aberrant psychological development from early childhood.

He laid the groundwork for the accepted medical perspective on the subject in the following decades. This led to the first compound usage of the terminology in Sado-Masochism by the Viennese Psychoanalyst Isidor Isaak Sadger in his work Über den sado-masochistischen Komplex in 1913. In the 20th century, BDSM activists have protested against these ideas, they argue, they are based on the philosophies of the two psychiatrists and Krafft-Ebing, whose theories were built on the assumption of psychopathology and their observations of psychiatric patients; the DSM nomenclature referring to sexual psychopathology has been criticized as lacking scientific veracity, advocates of sadomasochism have sought to separate themselves from psychiatric theory by the adoption of the term BDSM instead of the common psychological abbreviation, "S&M". However, the term BDSM includes B&D, D/s, S&M; the terms bondage and discipline refer to the use of either physical or psychological restraint or punishment, sometimes involves sexual role playing, including the use of costumes.

In contrast to frameworks seeking to explain sadomasochism through psychological, medical or forensic approaches, which seek to categorize behavior and desires, find a root cause, Romana Byrne suggests that such practices can be seen as examples of "aesthetic sexuality", in which a founding physiological or psychological impulse is irrelevant. Rather, according to Byrne and masochism may be practiced through choice and deliberation, driven by certain aesthetic goals tied to style and identity, which in certain circumstances, she claims can be compared with the creation of art. Both terms were introduced to the medical field by German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in his 1886 compilation of case studies Psychopathia Sexualis. Pain and physical violence are not essential in Krafft-Ebing's conception, he defined "masochism" in terms of control. Sigmund Freud, a psychoanalyst and a contemporary of Krafft-Ebing, noted that both were found in the same individuals, combined the two into a single dichotomous entity known as "sadomasochism".

This observation is verified in both literature and practice. However, French philosopher Gilles Deleuze argued that the concurrence of sadism and masochism proposed in Freud's model is the result of "careless reasoning," and should not be taken for granted. Freud introduced the terms "primary" and "secondary" masochism. Though this idea has come under a number of interpretations, in a primary masochism the masochist undergoes a complete, rather than partial, rejection by the model or courted object involving the model taking a rival as a preferred mate; this complete rejection is related to the death drive in Freud's psychoanalysis. In a secondary masochism, by contrast, the masochist experiences a less serious, more feigned rejection and punishment by the model. Secondary masochism, in other wor

EMX1

Homeobox protein EMX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMX1 gene. The transcribed EMX1 gene is a member of the EMX family of transcription factors; the EMX1 gene, along with its family members, are expressed in the developing cerebrum. Emx1 plays a role in specification of positional identity, the proliferation of neural stem cells, differentiation of layer-specific neuronal phenotypes and commitment to a neuronal or glial cell fate; the precise function of the Emx1 transcription factor is not known, however its ubiquitous nature throughout corticogenesis suggests it may confer cellular identity to cortical neurons. Emx - / - display only slight defects; these defects are restricted to the forebrain. Histologically and molecularly, the structures of the cerebral cortex appear to be normal; the hippocampus in Emx1 -/- mice, however, is smaller. The major deficit in Emx1-/- mice is that they lack the corpus callosum. Most of Emx1 transcript is detected in cell nuclei of the developing telencephalon, including the prospective cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs and hippocampus.

Emx1 is present in all cortical neurons during proliferation, migration and maturation. However, the amount of Emx 1 varies. Emx1 first appears at E9.5 in its respective mRNA, until E11.5. After this, the Emx1 signal becomes potent in the ventricular zone until E17.5. At birth and shortly thereafter, Emx1 levels in layers V and VI as well as in the SP increase. Emx1 and Emx2 each play a critical role in regulating dorsal telencephalic development and are amongst the earliest expressed pallial-specific genes. During embryonic development, the telencephalon is the birthplace of a diverse collection of neuronal and glial cells; these cells undergo varying patterns of cell migration in order to reach their final positions in what will become the mature cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. The embryonic telencephalon is subdivided into dorsal ventral subpallium; these two pallia become the mammalian cerebral basal ganglia, respectively. The dorsal telencephalon is further divided into: Each of the aforementioned pallial domains will give rise to a distinct neuroanatomical region of the developed human brain.

The ventral telencephalon can be subdivided into two distinguishable progenitor domains: The dorsal and ventral telencephalic domains can be distinguished embryonically through distinct gene expression patterns. These genes are regionally restricted and take part in identity specification of the area of the telencephalon in which they are expressed. Emx1 expression has been shown to start from E9.5. In the developing mouse embryo, the Emx genes are expressed principally in extended regions of the developing rostral brain, including the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium. Emx1 gene expression is constricted to the dorsal telencephalon. From E9.5 until post-natal stages, Emx1 expression is associated with cortical neurogenesis and migration, synaptic connection generation. This suggests. Emx1 is not only limited to the telencephalon, rather it is expressed in branchial patterns and in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limbs. At E9.5, Emx1 expression can be witnessed within the dorsal telencephalon anterior to the boundary between the diencephalon and telencephalon Emx1 is expressed in most cortical neurons within the developing telencephalon.

Expression can be seen irrespective of whether the neurons are proliferating, migrating or differentiating. This means that in the developed cerebral cortex, the transcript for Emx1 is distributed. While distribution of the transcript may be seen throughout the developed cortex, the transcript intensity varies according to developmental time. For example, the transcript for Emx1 is shown to be stronger in the ventricular zone between E10.5 and E17.5. However, around birth and thereafter, the Emx1 transcript is absent from the marginal zone, only becoming stronger in cortical layers V and VI as well as subset subplate neurons. In cortical layers V and VI as well as the SP neurons, Emx1 might take part in development of early functional circuitry, as well as in defining specific cellular identities; the distribution of Emx1 is so ubiquitous in the developing brain that in mid- and late-gestation embryos, as well as postnatal mice, it is found in cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs, dentate gyrus and hippocampus.

The Gli3 zinc finger transcription factor has been shown to play a role as a regulator of Emx1. In Gli3 Extra-toes mutants, the transcription factor Gli3 is mutated and as a result, Emx1 and Emx2 gene expression is lost

Lost Land of the Jaguar

Lost Land of the Jaguar is a 2008 British nature documentary series on the fauna of Guyana's rainforest. The four presenters are George McGavin, Steve Backshall, Justine Evans, Gordon Buchanan; the series is a production of the BBC Natural History Unit, was premiered on 30 July and ended on 13 August 2008. It has each 58 minutes long; the series received a Science and Natural History reward from the Royal Television Society. Guyana is a country located in South America, bordering Suriname and Venezuela; the country is known for its large, unspoiled rainforest, home to a wide range of animals, including the jaguar. The series documents the crew's journey through the rainforest, where they encounter the unique fauna of the region. BBC promoted Guyana as "the land of giants" inhabited by "the huge anaconda, the world's largest tarantula and giant otters." The series was named Expedition Guyana, but the title was changed to the Lost Land of the Jaguar by the BBC to appeal to a wider audience, as a reference to Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World.

Lost Land of the Jaguar is the second series in the BBC's "Expedition" collection, preceding Lost Land of the Volcano in 2009 and Lost Land of the Tiger in 2011 and following Expedition Borneo in 2006. Tim Walker of The Independent criticized the series for prosaic commentary and a lack of "spectacle." Walker praised the performance of the presenters, but wrote that despite the noble aims of the series in promoting rainforest conservation, "it doesn't always make for compelling television." Vicky Baker of The Guardian considered the title of the series misleading. She wrote that Guyana is not a lost land, but a "forgotten" or "ignored" one, "amazingly, considering it was known as British Guiana up until 1966." The Guardian's Gareth McLean was more positive on the series, writing that it was a "captivating series from the BBC's Natural History Unit," despite the department's funding cuts. Gerard O'Donovan of The Daily Telegraph was impressed by the series, stating that it was "eye-popping, absorbing and at times a little scary, this is wildlife film-making at its best."

Jaguar Lost Land of the Jaguar on IMDb Lost Land of the Jaguar at BBC Programmes