Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married. The inability to marry may be due to multiple factors such as differences in social rank status, an existing marriage, religious or professional prohibitions, or a lack of recognition by appropriate authorities; the woman or man in such a relationship is referred to as a concubine. In Judaism, a concubine is a marital companion of inferior status to a wife. A concubine among polygamous peoples is a secondary wife of inferior rank; the prevalence of concubinage and the status of rights and expectations of a concubine have varied among cultures, as have the rights of children of a concubine. Whatever the status and rights of the concubine, they were always inferior to those of the wife and neither she nor her children had rights of inheritance. Concubinage was entered into voluntarily as it provided a measure of economic security for the woman. Involuntary or servile concubinage sometimes involved sexual slavery of one member of the relationship the woman.
Sexual relations outside marriage were not uncommon among royalty and nobility, the woman in such relationships was described as a mistress. The children of such relationships were counted as illegitimate and were barred from inheriting the father's title or estates in the absence of legitimate heirs. While forms of long-term sexual relationships and co-habitation short of marriage have become common in the Western world, these are not described as concubinage; the terms concubinage and concubine are used today when referring to non-marital partnerships of earlier eras. In modern usage, a non-marital domestic relationship is referred to as co-habitation, the woman in such a relationship is referred to as a girlfriend, fiancée, lover or life partner. Concubinage was popular before the early 20th century all over East Asia; the main function of concubinage was producing additional heirs, as well as bringing males pleasure. Children of concubines had lower rights in account to inheritance, regulated by the Dishu system.
In China, successful men had concubines until the practice was outlawed when the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949. The standard Chinese term translated as "concubine" was qiè 妾, a term, used since ancient times, which means "concubine. Concubinage resembled marriage in that concubines were recognized sexual partners of a man and were expected to bear children for him. Unofficial concubines are of lower status, their children are considered illegitimate; the English term concubine is used for what the Chinese refer to as pínfēi, or "consorts of emperors", an official position carrying a high rank. In premodern China it was illegal and disreputable for a man to have more than one wife at a time, but it was acceptable to have concubines. In the earliest records a man could have as many concubines. From the Eastern Han period onward, the number of concubines a man could have was limited by law; the higher rank and the more noble identity a man possessed, the more concubines he was permitted to have.
A concubine's treatment and situation was variable and was influenced by the social status of the male to whom she was attached, as well as the attitude of his wife. In the Book of Rites chapter on "The Pattern of the Family" it says, “If there were betrothal rites, she became a wife. Wives brought a dowry to a relationship. A concubinage relationship could be entered into without the ceremonies used in marriages, neither remarriage nor a return to her natal home in widowhood were allowed to a concubine; the position of the concubine was inferior to that of the wife. Although a concubine could produce heirs, her children would be inferior in social status to a wife's children, although they were of higher status than illegitimate children; the child of a concubine had to show filial duty to two women, their biological mother and their legal mother—the wife of their father. After the death of a concubine, her sons would make an offering to her, but these offerings were not continued by the concubine's grandsons, who only made offerings to their grandfather’s wife.
There are early records of concubines being buried alive with their masters to "keep them company in the afterlife". Until the Song dynasty, it was considered a serious breach of social ethics to promote a concubine to a wife. During the Qing dynasty, the status of concubines improved, it became permissible to promote a concubine to wife, if the original wife had died and the concubine was the mother of the only surviving sons. Moreover, the prohibition against forcing a widow to remarry was extended to widowed concubines. During this period tablets for concubine-mothers seem to have been more placed in family ancestral altars, genealogies of some lineages listed concubine-mothers. Imperial concubines, kept by emperors in the Forbidden City, had different ranks and were traditionally guarded by eunuchs to ensure that they could not be impregnated by anyone but the emperor. In Ming China there was an official system to select concubines for the emperor; the age of the candidates ranged from 14 to 16.
Virtues, character and body condition were the selection criteria. Despite the limitations imposed on Chinese concubines, there are several examples in history
Pope Leo VI
Pope Leo VI was Pope for just over seven months, from June 928 to his death in February 929. His pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. Leo VI was born into a Roman family, his father was Christophorus, Primicerius under Pope John VIII around the year 876. Tradition has it. Just prior to his election as pope, Leo had been serving as the Cardinal-Priest of the church of Santa Susanna. Leo was elected pope during a period of anarchy, he was chosen by the senatrix Marozia, who had gained control of Rome via the domination of her husband Guy, Margrave of Tuscany, who had ordered the imprisonment and death of Leo’s predecessor, Pope John X. During his brief pontificate, Leo confirmed the decisions of the Synod of Split, he completed his predecessor’s investigations into the ecclesiastical situation in Dalmatia, proceeded to give the pallium to John, Archbishop of Salona, ordered all the bishops of Dalmatia to obey him. He ordered the Bishop of Nona and others to limit themselves to the extent of their dioceses.
Leo issued a ban on castrati entering into a union of marriage. He issued an appeal for help against the Arab raiders who were threatening Rome, stating that: ”Whoever died faithful in this struggle will not see himself refused entry into the heavenly kingdom.” The French chronicler Flodoard said of him: ”Through the virtue of Peter, Leo the sixth was taken and received, he was preserved for seven months and five days, like his predecessors, he joined the company of the prophets.” Leo died in February 929, was succeeded by Pope Stephen VII. He was buried at St. Peter’s Basilica. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999 Entry on Leo VI in the Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Forum: Leo VI New Catholic Dictionary: Leo VI
The Counter-Reformation called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence, initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent and ended with the 1781 Patent of Toleration, although smaller expulsions of Protestants continued into the 19th century. Initiated to preserve the power and material wealth enjoyed by the Catholic Church and to present a theological and material challenge to Reformation, the Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of apologetic and polemical documents, ecclesiastical reconfiguration as decreed by the Council of Trent, a series of wars, political maneuvering including the efforts of Imperial Diets of the Holy Roman Empire, exiling of Protestant populations, confiscation of Protestant children for Catholic institutionalized upbringing, heresy trials and the Inquisition, anti-corruption efforts, spiritual movements, the founding of new religious orders; such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.
It involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition and the expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Protestants. One primary emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was a mission to reach parts of the world, colonized as predominantly Catholic and try to reconvert areas such as Sweden and England that were at one time Catholic, but had been Protestantized during the Reformation. Various Counter-Reformation theologians focused only on defending doctrinal positions such as the sacraments and pious practices that were attacked by the Protestant reformers, up to the Second Vatican Council in 1962–1965. One of the "most dramatic moments" at that council was the intervention of Belgian Bishop Émile-Joseph De Smed when, during the debate on the nature of the church, he called for an end to the "triumphalism and juridicism" that had typified the church in the previous centuries. Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent; the 1530 Confutatio Augustana was the Catholic response to the Augsburg Confession.
Pope Paul III is considered the first pope of the Counter-Reformation, he initiated the Council of Trent, a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, the sale of indulgences, other financial abuses. The council upheld the basic structure of the medieval church, its sacramental system, religious orders, doctrine, it rejected all compromise with the Protestants. The council upheld salvation appropriated by grace through faith and works of that faith because "faith without works is dead", as the Epistle of James states. Transubstantiation, according to which the consecrated bread and wine are held to have been transformed and into the body, blood and divinity of Christ, was reaffirmed, as were the traditional seven sacraments of the Catholic Church. Other practices that drew the ire of Protestant reformers, such as pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, the use of venerable images and statuary, the veneration of the Virgin Mary were reaffirmed as spiritually commendable practices.
The council, in the Canon of Trent accepted the Vulgate listing of the Old Testament Bible, which included the deuterocanonical works on a par with the 39 books found in the Masoretic Text. This reaffirmed the previous Council of Rome and Synods of Carthage, which had affirmed the Deuterocanon as scripture; the council commissioned the Roman Catechism, which served as authoritative church teaching until the Catechism of the Catholic Church. While the traditional fundamentals of the church were reaffirmed, there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the Counter-Reformers were, willing to admit were legitimate. Among the conditions to be corrected by Catholic reformers was the growing divide between the clerics and the laity; these rural priests did not know Latin and lacked opportunities for proper theological training. Addressing the education of priests had been a fundamental focus of the humanist reformers in the past. Parish priests were to be better educated in matters of theology and apologetics, while Papal authorities sought to educate the faithful about the meaning and value of art and liturgy in monastic churches
Roman Catholic Diocese of Cremona
The Diocese of Cremona is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in northern Italy, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Milan. Its see; the diocese has 223 parishes, all located within the region of Lombardy, the majority within the Province of Cremona, besides 28 in the Province of Mantua, 17 in the Province of Bergamo, 4 in the Province of Milan. Cremona is in Italy, on the left bank of the River Po, it was built by the Cenomanni Gauls, but became a Roman colony and a frontier fortress. About 600 Cremona, until a part of the Byzantine Emperor, was captured by the Lombard king, Agilulf. Under the Emperor Otto I and his successors, its bishops acquired temporal sovereignty, but in 900 the people expelled Bishop Olderico and adopted a republican form of government; the Emperor Henry IV, confirmed Bishop Landulf in all imperial grants made to his predecessors. On the other hand Emperor Henry V restored to the people their communal rights. Thenceforth Cremona became a citadel of Ghibellinism and was favoured by Frederic Barbarossa and Emperor Frederick II, though for the same reason at war with the neighbouring cities.
In medieval times it had many lords or "tyrants", the Pallavicini, the Bovara, the Cavalcabo, the Visconti, the Sforza, until it became part of the Duchy of Milan. In 1702 it was taken by imperial troops, in 1796 and 1800 fell into the hands of the French; the people of Cremona venerate St. Sabinus as first bishop. Among the better-known early bishops are St. Syrinus, a valiant apologist of the Faith against the Arians, St. Silvinus. Liudprand of Cremona was sent as ambassador to Constantinople by the Emperor Otto II, is the most famous historical writer of the 10th century. Other important bishops were Gualtiero, in. Stephen I Sirino I Auderio Conrad Vincenzo St. Sirino II John I Eustasius, Eustachio Crisogono Felix Creato Sisto Desiderius I Anselm Eusebius Bernard Desiderius II Zeno, OSB Silvino Stephen II Walfred Atto Siniperto degli Addobati Pancoardo Benedict Lando John II Darimbert Liudprand Olderico Landolf Ubald Arnolf Oberto Ugo Uberto Presbitero Emanuele, O. Cist. Offredo degli Offredi Sicardo Omobono de Madalberti Giovanni Buono de Geroldi Bernerio Cacciaconte da Somma Ponzio Ponzoni Bonizone Rainerio de Casoli Egidiolo Bonseri Egidio Madalberti Ugolino di San Marco, OP Dondino Ugolino Ardengheri Pietro Capello Marco Porri Giorgio Torti Tommaso Visconti Francesco Lante, O.
F. M. Pietro Grassi Francesco Lante Bartolomeo Capra Costanzo Fondulo Venturino de Marni, OSB Bernardo Rossi Giovanni Stefano Botticelli Jacopo-Antonio dalla Torre Ascanio Maria Sforza Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere Gerolamo Trevisan, O. Cist. Pietro de Accolti de Aretio Benedetto de Accolti Francesco Sfondrati Federico Cesi Niccolò Sfondrati Cesare Speciano Paolo Emilio Sfondrati Giambattista Brivio Pietro Campori Francesco Visconti Pietro Isimbardi, O. Carm. Agostino Isimbardi, O. S. B. Lodovico Septala Alessandro Croce Carlo Ottaviano Guasco Alessandro Maria Litta Ignazio Maria Fraganeschi Omobono Offredi Carlo Emmanuelle Sardagna de Hohenstein Bartolomeo Casati Bartolomeo Carlo Romilli Antonio Novasconi Geremia Bonomelli Giovanni Cazzani Danio Bolognini Giuseppe Amari Fiorino Tagliaferri Enrico Assi Giulio Nicolini Dante Lafranconi Antonio Napolioni List of bishops of Cremona Timeline of Cremona Dragoni, Antonio. Sulla storia ecclesiastica Cremonese nei primi tre secoli del Cristianesimo Discorsi o disquisizioni critiche.
Cremona: Giuseppe Feraboli. Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporum Cremonensium. Cremona: J. Feraboli. Source This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "articl
Cesare Baronio was an Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church. His best-known works are his Annales Ecclesiastici. Pope Benedict XIV conferred upon him the title of Venerable. Cesare Baronio was born at Sora in Italy in 1538 as the only child of Camillo Baronio and Porzia Febonia, he was educated at Veroli and Naples, where he commenced his law studies in October 1556. At Rome, he obtained his doctorate in civil law. After this, he became a member of the Congregation of the Oratory in 1557 under Philip Neri - future saint - and was ordained to the subdiaconate on 21 December 1560, to the diaconate on 20 May 1561, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1564. He succeeded Neri as superior in 1593. Pope Clement VIII, whose confessor he was from 1594, elevated him into the cardinalate on 5 June 1596 and appointed him as the Librarian of the Vatican. Baronio was given the red hat on 8 June and received status as Cardinal-Priest of Santi Nereo e Achilleo on 21 June. Baronius restored his titular church of Church of Sts Nereus and Achilleus and a procession in 1597 celebrated a transfer to it of relics.
He had work done on the Church of San Gregorio Magno al Celio. At subsequent conclaves, Baronio was twice considered to be papabile - the conclaves had the elections of Pope Leo XI and Pope Paul V. On each occasion, he was opposed by Spain on account of his work "On the Monarchy of Sicily", in which he supported the papal claims against those of the Spanish government. Baronio died in Santa Maria in Vallicella in Rome on 30 June 1607, was buried in that same church. Baronius is best known for his Annales Ecclesiastici undertaken at the request of Philip Neri as an answer to the anti-Catholic history, the Magdeburg Centuries, he began writing this account of the Church after three decades of lecturing at Santa Maria in Vallicella. In the Annales, he treats history in strict chronological order and keeps theology in the background. Lord Acton called it "the greatest history of the Church written". In the Annales, Baronius coined the term "Dark Age" in the Latin form saeculum obscurum, to refer to the period between the end of the Carolingian Empire in 888 and the first inklings of the Gregorian Reform under Pope Clement II in 1046.
Notwithstanding its errors in Greek history in which he had to depend upon secondhand information, the work of Baronius stands as an honest attempt to write history. Sarpi, in urging Casaubon to write a refutation of the Annales, warned him never to accuse or suspect Baronius of bad faith, he undertook a new edition of the Roman martyrology, in which he removed some entries implausible for historical reasons. He is known for saying, in the context of the controversies about the work of Copernicus and Galileo, "The Bible teaches us how to go to heaven, not how the heavens go." This remark, which Baronius made in conversation with Galileo, was cited by the latter in his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina. At the time of the Venetian Interdict, Baronius published a pamphlet "Paraenesis ad rempublicam Venetam", it took a stringent papalist line on the crisis. It was answered by the Antiparaenesis ad Caesarem Baronium of Niccolò Crasso in the same year. A Latin biography of Baronius by the oratorian Hieronymus Barnabeus appeared in 1651 as Vita Caesaris Baronii.
Another Oratorian, Raymundus Albericus, edited three volumes of his correspondence from 1759. There are other biographies by Amabel Kerr, by Generoso Calenzio. Baronio left a reputation for sanctity, which led Pope Benedict XIV to proclaim him "Venerable". In 2007, on the 400th anniversary of his death, the cause for his canonization, stalled since 1745, was reopened by the Procurator General of the Oratory of St Philip Neri. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. "Il cardinale Cesare Baronio. Nel terzo centenario della sua morte," in La Scuola Cattolica, XXXVI, 1908, no. 12, pp. 1–29. Roncalli's episcopal motto'Obedientia et. Salvador Miranda. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Biographical Dictionary - Consistory of June 5, 1596" Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baronius, Caesar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Articles relating to the 400th Centenary of the death of Venerable Cardinal Caesar Baronius from Oratoriani - Procura Generalis Confoederationis Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX was Pope from May 1024 to his death in 1032. Born Romanus in Rome was Count of Tusculum and his wife Mary. While his brother Theophylactus held the papacy as Pope Benedict VIII, Romanus held the temporal power in the city as consul and senator. Upon the death of Benedict, Romanus, a layman, was elected to succeed him, he was ordained in all the orders in succession, consecrated bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair. He took the name of John, he played a role in the process leading to the Schism of 1054 by rejecting a proposal by Patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople to recognise that Patriarchate's sphere of interest in the east. Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid a large bribe, to recognize the Patriarch of Constantinople's claim to the title of ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, compelling him immediately to withdraw from the agreement. John invited the celebrated musician, Guido of Arezzo, to visit Rome and explain the musical notation invented by him.
He encouraged the Benedictine to instruct the Roman clergy in music. On the death of the Emperor Henry II in 1024, he gave his support to Emperor Conrad II, who along with his consort was crowned with great pomp at St. Peter's Basilica on Easter of 1027. Two kings, Rudolph of Burgundy and Canute of Denmark and England, took part in this journey to Rome. Consistent with his role as a Christian king, Cnut went to Rome to repent for his sins, to pray for redemption and the security of his subjects, to improve the conditions for pilgrims, as well as merchants, on the road to Rome. Rudolph had control of many of the toll gates. Negotiations being successful, the solemn word of the Pope, the Emperor and Rudolph was given with the witness of four archbishops, twenty bishops, "innumerable multitudes of dukes and nobles", suggesting it was before the ceremonies were completed. In 1025 he sent the crown to Poland and blessed the coronation of the Polish king Bolesław I the Brave. On 6 April 1027, John held a Lateran synod in which he declared for the Patriarch of Aquileia against the Patriarch of Grado, giving its bishop, Poppo of Aquileia, the patriarchal dignity and putting the bishop of Grado under his jurisdiction.
In fact, the patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops. In 1029, John reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado. John enacted a Papal Bull endowing Byzantius, Archbishop of Bari, with the right to consecrate his own twelve suffragans after the reattachment of the Bariot diocese to Rome in 1025; this was part of a conciliatory agreement with Eustathius, whereby the existence of the Byzantine Rite would be allowed in Italy in exchange for the establishment of Latin Rite churches in Constantinople. Pope John XIX took the Abbey of Cluny under his protection, renewed its privileges in spite of the protests of Goslin, Bishop of Macon, he offered Odilo of Cluny the archbishopric of Lyons, but Odilo refused and the pope chided Odilo for disobedience. John XIX died shortly after and his successor did not press the matter any further, he was said to have been killed by a mob of angry peasants, but there is no evidence to support this. The actual cause of death is unknown. After John XIX's death, his nephew Pope Benedict IX was found as a successor, although he was still young.
The next Pope named John was Pope John XXI. List of popes Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John XIX.". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Benedict IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Runciman, Steven. Byzantine Civilisation. London, University Paparback, 1961; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope John XIX". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Pope Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX, born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was Pope on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged 20 at his first election, he is one of the youngest popes in history, he is the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man to have sold the papacy. Benedict was the nephew of his immediate predecessor, Pope John XIX. In October 1032, his father obtained his election through bribery. However, his reputed dissolute activities provoked a revolt on the part of the Romans. Benedict was driven out of Pope Sylvester III elected to succeed him; some months Benedict and his supporters managed to expel Sylvester. Benedict decided to abdicate in favor of his godfather, the Archpriest of St. John by the Latin Gate, provided he was reimbursed for his expenses. Gratian became Pope Gregory VI. Benedict subsequently had second thoughts and returned, attempted to depose Gregory. A number of prominent clergy appealed to King of the Germans to restore order. Henry and his forces crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, where he summoned the Council of Sutri to decide the matter.
Benedict and Gregory were all deposed. Henry nominated the bishop of Bamberg, Suidger von Morsleben, consecrated and became Pope Clement II in December 1046, thus clearing the way for Henry to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by a Pope recognized as legitimate. While Benedict IX has an execrable reputation as pope, R. L. Poole suggests that some of the calumnies directed against him be understood in the context that they were perpetrated by virulent political enemies. Benedict was the son of Alberic III, Count of Tusculum, was a nephew of Pope Benedict VIII and Pope John XIX, he was a grandnephew of Pope John XII. His father obtained the Papal chair for him by bribing the Romans. Horace K. Mann, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia says Benedict IX was about 20 when made pontiff in October 1032. Other sources state 11 or 12, based upon the unsubstantiated testimony of Rupert Glaber, a monk of St. Germanus at Auxerre. Benedict IX led an dissolute life and had few qualifications for the papacy other than connections with a powerful family.
In terms of theology and the ordinary activities of the Church he was orthodox. His life was scandalous, factional strife continued; the anti-papal historian Ferdinand Gregorovius wrote that in Benedict, "It seemed as if a demon from hell, in the disguise of a priest, occupied the chair of Peter and profaned the sacred mysteries of religion by his insolent courses." The Horace K. Mann calls him "a disgrace to the Chair of Peter", he was the first pope rumoured to have been homosexual. Pope Victor III, in his third book of Dialogues, referred to "his rapes and other unspeakable acts of violence and sodomy, his life as a pope was so vile, so foul, so execrable, that I shudder to think of it."According to Reginald Lane Poole, "In a time of acute political hostility accusations, as we know too well, are made and are believed, which in a calmer time would never have been suggested." He further suggests the credibility of such accusations was determined by probability rather than proof, a reaction to the Tusculum hegemony.
Poole observes that "we have to wait until he had discredited himself by his sale of the Papacy before we hear anything definite about his misdeeds. Poole considers Benedict "a negligent Pope likely a profligate man", but notes that the picture presented of Benedict is drawn at a time when the party opposed to him was in the ascendant, he had neither friends nor supporters, he was forced out of Rome in 1036, but returned with the help of Emperor Conrad II, who had expelled the bishops of Piacenza and Cremona from their sees. Bishop Benno of Piacenza accused Benedict of "many vile adulteries and murders". In September 1044, opposition to Benedict IX's dissolute lifestyle forced him out of the city again and elected John, Bishop of Sabina, as Pope Sylvester III. Benedict IX's forces returned in April 1045 and expelled his rival, who returned to his previous bishopric. Doubting his own ability to maintain his position, wishing to marry his cousin, Benedict decided to abdicate, consulted his godfather, the pious priest John Gratian, about the possibility of resigning.
He offered to give up the papacy into the hands of his godfather if he would reimburse him for his election expenses. Desirous of expurgating the See of Rome of such an unworthy pontiff, John Gratian paid him the money and was recognized as pope in his stead, as Gregory VI. Peter Damian hailed the change with joy and wrote to the new pope, urging him to deal with the scandals of the church in Italy, singling out the wicked bishops of Pesaro, of Città di Castello and of Fano. Benedict IX soon regretted his resignation and returned to Rome, taking the city and remaining on the throne until July 1046, although Gregory VI continued to be recognized as the true pope. At the time, Sylvester III reasserted his claim. A number of influential clergy and laity implored Emperor Henry III to cross the Alps and restore order. Henry intervened, at the Council of Sutri in December 1046, Benedict IX and Sylvester III were declared deposed while Gregory VI was encouraged to resign because the arrangement he had entered into with Benedict was considered simoniacal.
The German Bishop Suidger was crowned as Gregory's successor, Pope Clement II. Benedict IX did not accept his deposition; when Clement II died in October 1047, Benedict seized the Lateran Palace in November, but was driven away by German tro