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Safed

Safed is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres, Safed is the highest city in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed experiences warm summers and cold snowy, winters. Safed has been identified with Sepph, a fortified town in the Upper Galilee mentioned in the writings of the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus; the Jerusalem Talmud mentions it as one of five elevated spots where fires were lit to announce the New Moon and festivals during the Second Temple period. In the 12th century CE Safed was a fortified city in the Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem, known to them as Saphet; the Mamluk Sultan Baibars captured the city in 1266 and appointed a governor to take charge of the fortress. The city became the administrative centre of Mamlakat Safad, a province in Mamluk Syria whose jurisdiction included the Galilee and the lands up to Jenin. Under the Ottomans, Safed functioned as the capital of the Safad Sanjak, which encompassed much of the Galilee and extended to the Mediterranean coast.

Since the 16th century, Safed has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem and Tiberias. Rabbi Isaac Luria introduced interest in the Kabbalah to the city in the 16th century. Due to its mild climate and scenic views, Safed has become a popular holiday resort frequented by Israelis and by foreign visitors. In 2018 it had a population of 35,715. Legend has it. According to the Book of Judges, the area where Safed is located was assigned to the tribe of Naphtali, it has been suggested that Jesus' assertion that "a city, set on a hill cannot be hidden" may have referred to Safed. Safed has been identified with Sepph, a fortified town in the Upper Galilee mentioned in the writings of the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus, it is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as one of five elevated spots where fires were lit to announce the New Moon and festivals during the Second Temple period. There is scarce information about the town of Safed prior to the Crusader conquest in 1099.

The city appears in Jewish sources in the late Middle Ages. In the 12th century, Safed was a fortified city in the Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem, known by the Crusaders as Saphet. King Fulk built a strong castle there on a steep hill, kept by the Knights Templar from 1168. Benjamin of Tudela, who visited the town in 1170, does not mention any Jews as living there; the remains of this castle can now be found under the "citadel" excavations, on a hill above the old city. Safed was captured by the Ayyubids led by Saladin in 1188 after one year's siege, following the Battle of Hattin in 1187. Saladin allowed its residents to relocate to Tyre. Samuel ben Samson, who visited the town in 1210, mentions the existence of a Jewish community of at least fifty there. In 1227, the Ayyubid emir of Damascus, al-Mu'azzam'Isa, had the Safed castle demolished to prevent it being captured and reused by potential future Crusades. In 1240, Theobald I of Navarre, on his own Crusade to the Holy Land, negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and of Egypt and finalized a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem and most of the region of Galilee, including Nazareth and Safed.

The Templars thereafter rebuilt the town's fortress. In 1260, the Mamluk sultan Baybars declared the treaty invalid due to the Christians working in concert with the Mongol Empire against the Muslims, launched a series of attacks on castles in the area, including on Safed. In 1266, during a Mamluk military campaign to subdue Crusader strongholds in Palestine, Baybars captured Safed in July, following a failed attempt to capture the Crusaders' coastal stronghold of Acre. Unlike the coastal Crusader fortresses, which were demolished upon their capture by the Mamluks, Baybars spared Safed from destruction. Instead, he appointed a governor to be in charge of the fortress. Baybars preserved Safed because he viewed its fortress to be of high strategic value due to its location on a high mountain and its isolation from other Crusader fortresses. Moreover, Baybars determined that in the event of a renewed Crusader invasion of the coastal region, a fortified Safed could serve as an ideal headquarters to confront the Crusader threat.

In 1268, he had the fortress repaired and strengthened. Furthermore, he commissioned numerous building works in the town of Safed, including caravanserais, markets and converted the town's church into a mosque. By the end of Baybars' reign, Safed had become the site of a prospering town, in addition to its fortress; the city became the administrative centre of Mamlakat Safad, a province in Mamluk Syria whose jurisdiction included the Galilee and the lands further south down to Jenin. According to al-Dimashqi, who died in Safed in 1327, writing around 1300, Baybars built a "round tower and called it Kullah..." after levelling the old fortress. The tower is built in three stories, it is provided with provisions, halls, magazines. Under the place is a cistern for rain-water, sufficient to supply the garrison of the fortress from year's end to year's end. According to Abu'l Fida, Safed "was a town of medium size, it has a strongly built castle, which dominates the Lake of Tabariyyah. There are underground watercourses, which bring drinking-water up to the castle-gate...

Its suburbs cover three hills... Since the place was conquered by Al Malik Adh Dhahir from the Franks, it has been made the central station for the troops who guard all

7526 Ohtsuka

7526 Ohtsuka, provisional designation 1993 AA, is a stony asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt 7 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Japanese astronomer Takeshi Urata at Nihondaira Observatory Oohira Station, Japan, on 2 January 1993; the asteroid was named after Japanese astronomer Katsuhito Ohtsuka. Ohtsuka orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–3.1 AU once every 3 years and 11 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 4 ° with respect to the ecliptic. First observed as 1953 XV at Heidelberg, the body's observation arc begins at Palomar in 1980. In September 2007, a rotational lightcurve of Ohtsuka was obtained from photometric observations by Maurice Clark at the Montgomery College in Rockville, Maryland. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 7.109±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.16 magnitude. According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Ohtsuka has an albedo in the range of 0.03 to 0.11 with a diameter between 6.64 and 11.34 kilometers.

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link, however assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates and much smaller diameter of 4.7 kilometers. This minor planet was named after Japanese astronomer Katsuhito Ohtsuka curator of the Tokyo Meteor Network and its meteorite collection. Ohtsuka studies the dynamics of small Solar System bodies, in particular 3200 Phaethon and 96P/Machholz with their complex members. A dynamical relationship between Phaethon and 2005 UD was discovered by him in 2005; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 12 July 2014. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 7526 Ohtsuka at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 7526 Ohtsuka at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

William Maxwell (Australian politician)

William Maxwell was a gold miner and member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Maxwell was born at New Zealand, to Peter Maxwell and his wife Isabella, he began his working career as a gold miner in Thames before moving to Queensland in 1886 to carry on his trade. Maxwell, representing the Labour Party, was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly as the member for Burke at the Queensland colonial election of 1899. In 1907 Maxwell left Labour to join William Kidston's "Kidstonites" party but he lost his seat at the state election of 1909. On the 30 May 1892, Maxwell married Alice Bending in Croydon. Alice died the next year, is buried in Georgetown cemetery. On the 26 September 1895 he married Mary Elizabeth Steele in Georgetown and together had 3 sons and 3 daughters. / They have a plaque together at Mt Gravatt Cemetery. Maxwell died in Brisbane in 1921, his funeral moved from his residence in Ascot to the Nundah Cemetery. All of his children have memorial plaques in the family plot in Nundah Cemetery, albeit for John Maxwell who married Nellie Purdie from Capella.

They have a plaque together at Mt Gravatt Cemetery. John Maxwell was the only one of his 6 children that had children. 1 daughter Elaine Steine, 2 sons John Maxwell and Raymond Maxwell. They lived on Oriel Rd Clayfield, near the Maxwell family home in Ascot, which all 5 of the other Maxwell siblings resided in together till their deaths