Penalty (gridiron football)
In American football and Canadian football, a penalty is a sanction called against a team for a violation of the rules, called a foul. Officials signal penalties by tossing a bright yellow or orange colored penalty flag onto the field toward or at the spot of a foul. Many penalties result in moving the football toward the offending team's end zone either 5, 10, or 15 yards, depending on the penalty. Most penalties against the defensive team result in giving the offense an automatic first down, while a few penalties against the offensive team cause them to automatically lose a down. In some cases, depending on the spot of the foul, the ball is moved half the distance to the goal line rather than the usual number of yards, or the defense scores an automatic safety; because football is a high-contact sport requiring a balance between offense and defense, many rules exist that regulate equality, safety and actions of players on each team. It is difficult to always avoid violating these rules without giving up too much of an advantage.
Thus, an elaborate system of fouls and penalties has been developed to "let the punishment fit the crime" and maintain a balance between following the rules and keeping a good flow of the game. Players and coaches are looking for ways to find an advantage that stretches the limitations imposed by the rules. For example, in 2016 the Baltimore Ravens had all of their offensive linemen commit holding penalties in order to allow the punter to keep possession of the ball so time would expire for a win, since the game can end on offensive penalties. However, the NFL changed the rules after this to prevent teams from manipulating the game clock; the frequency and severity of fouls can make a large difference in the outcome of a game as well, so coaches are looking for ways to minimize the number and severity of infractions committed by their players. It is a common misconception that the term "penalty" is used to refer both to an infraction and the penal consequence of that infraction. A foul is a rule infraction.
Officials signal fouls by tossing a bright yellow colored flag onto the field toward or at the spot of the foul. Because of this and fans use the terms "flag" or "flag on the play" to refer to fouls during the game. During a play, multiple officials may flag the same play, multiple flags may be thrown for separate fouls on the same play. If applicable, the same official can signal additional fouls on a given play by throwing a beanbag or their hat; when officials throw a flag during a down, play does not stop until the ball becomes dead under normal conditions, as if there were no fouls. Once the ball is dead, or when a foul is called after a play is over or prior to a snap, the referee, the official who threw the flag and other officials with a view of the play confer to come to a consensus on whether an infraction was committed, what it was, who committed it; the final determination and assessment of the penalty is the sole responsibility of the referee. The referee makes initial visual body signals to the press box indicating what fouls were committed and the team that committed them, the latter shown by extending the arm toward that team's end zone.
The referee confers with the offended team's on-field captain to find out whether the offended team would rather decline the penalty and take the result of the play. In certain situations, the result of the play may be more advantageous to the offended team for example, if time is running out in the half and a 7-yard gain is a better option than a 5-yard penalty. However, there are certain scenarios where the referee may not have to confer with the team captain because the enforcement cannot be declined or when the choice is obvious. After any final conference, the referee makes full visual signals describing the foul in detail, consisting of: the foul, committed, the team that committed it, whether or not the opposing team chooses to decline it, the resulting down or possession, any other penalties such as disqualification of a player from the game or a ten-second runoff from the game clock. In college football, the NFL and other professional leagues, in some high school games, the referee announces the fouls and their penalties over a wireless microphone to the members of the teams, the crowds in the stands, viewers/listeners of the televised/radio broadcast of the game.
In college and professional football, high school in some states, the referee will give out the numbers of the players who committed the fouls. During these announcements over the microphone, the referee does not use names of the respective teams or their cities, but rather will use the generic terms "offense", "defense", "kicking team", "receiving team", etc; some officials in high school and lower levels, will refer to teams by their jersey color. The following are general types of penalty enforcement. Specific rules will vary depending on the league, and/or level of football. Most penalties result in replaying the down and moving the ball toward the offending team's end zone; the distance is either 5, 10, or 15 yards depending on the penalty. However, such penalties, when enforced, are capped at half the distance to the offending team's goal line
2012 Kansas State Wildcats football team
The 2012 Kansas State Wildcats football team represents Kansas State University in the 2012 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Wildcats play their home games at Bill Snyder Family Football Stadium, in Manhattan, Kansas as they have done since 1968. 2012 is the 117th season in school history. The Wildcats are led by head coach Bill Snyder in his 21st overall and fourth straight season since taking over for his second tenure in 2009. K-State is a member of the Big 12 Conference. Conference play began with an upset victory over the Oklahoma Sooners, the first win for the Wildcats in Norman since October 25, 1997; the Wildcats started the season with an undefeated 10–0 record, were ranked as the #1 team in country after a Week 10 defeat of Oklahoma State. However, the Wildcats' undefeated season and #1 ranking were derailed two weeks after they were defeated by upstart Baylor; the regular conference season came to a close with a fifth straight win over the Texas Longhorns, ending with an 8–1 record to clinch a share of Big 12 title with Oklahoma.
Both teams made the postseason for the first time since the 2003 Big 12 Championship Game. Kansas State finished the regular season as the #5 ranked team and were invited to the Fiesta Bowl for the third time, where they were defeated by Oregon; the Wildcats suffered their second consecutive Fiesta Bowl loss since 2003 in the 2004 Fiesta Bowl, ending the season with an 11–2 record and were ranked #11 in the final polls. The 2011 Wildcats finished the season with a 10–3 record overall, 7–2 in Big-12 play, behind Oklahoma State, they were invited to the Cotton Bowl Classic, where they were defeated by the Arkansas Razorbacks, making it the first Cotton Bowl Classic loss for the Wildcats since the 1996 team lost to the BYU Cougars in the 1997 Cotton Bowl Classic. In mid-August, incoming freshman quarterback Tavarious Bender decided to leave the team and the university for undisclosed reasons; the Wildcats were favored by 34 going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 7 going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 28½ going into the game.
Oklahoma was favored by 14 going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 24 going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 7 going into the game. West Virginia was favored by 2.5 going into the game. The game was hyped as a matchup between Heisman Trophy hopefuls Geno Smith from West Virginia and Collin Klein from Kansas State. Kansas State took an early lead and had the score at 52–7 with 2:25 left in the third quarter; the final score was a Kansas State victory 55–14. After the conclusion of the season, ESPN sportswriter David Ubben named this the fifth best game of the Big 12 Conference for the season. Kansas State was favored by 7 going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 8.5 points going into the game. Kansas State was favored by 7 points heading to the game. Kansas State was favored by 11 points going into the game. Kansas State was favored 10.5 points heading to the game. Oregon was favored 9 points going to the game; the following is a list of coaches at Kansas State for the 2012 season
The end zone is the scoring area on the field, according to gridiron-based codes of football. It is the area between the end goal line bounded by the sidelines. There are two end zones, it is bordered on all sides by a white line indicating its beginning and end points, with orange, square pylons placed at each of the four corners as a visual aid. Canadian rule books use the terms goal area and dead line instead of end zone and end line but the latter terms are the more common in colloquial Canadian English. Unlike sports like association football and ice hockey which require the ball/puck to pass over the goal line to count as a score, both Canadian and American football need any part of the ball to break the vertical plane of the outer edge of the goal line. A similar concept exists in both rugby football codes; the difference between rugby and gridiron-based codes is that in rugby, the ball must be touched to the ground in the in-goal area to count as a try, whereas in the gridiron-based games possessing the ball in or over the end zone is sufficient to count as a touchdown.
Ultimate frisbee uses an end zone scoring area. Scores in this sport are counted; the end zones were invented as a result of the creation of the forward pass. Prior to this, the goal line and end line were the same, players scored a touchdown by leaving the field of play through that line. Goal posts were placed on the goal line, any kicks that did not result in field goals but left the field through the end lines were recorded as touchbacks. In the earliest days of the forward pass, the pass had to be caught in-bounds and could not be thrown across the goal line; this made it difficult to pass the ball when close to one's own goal line, since dropping back to pass or kick would result in a safety. Thus, in 1912, the end zone was introduced in American football. In an era when professional football was still in its early years and college football dominated the game, the resulting enlargement of the field was constrained by fact that many college teams were playing in well-developed stadiums, complete with stands and other structures at the ends of the fields, thereby making any substantial enlargement of the field unfeasible at many schools.
A compromise was reached: 12 yards of end zone were added to each end of the field, but in return, the playing field was shortened from 110 yards to 100, resulting in the physical size of the field being only longer than before. Goal posts were kept on the goal lines, but after they began to interfere with play, they moved back to the end lines in 1927, where they have remained in college football since; the National Football League moved the goal posts up to the goal line again in 1933 back again to the end line in 1974. As with many other aspects of gridiron football, Canadian football adopted the forward pass and end zones much than American football; the forward pass and end zones were adopted in 1929. In Canada, college football never reached a level of prominence comparable to U. S. college football, professional football was still in its infancy in the 1920s. As a result, Canadian football was still being played in rudimentary facilities in the late 1920s. A further consideration was that the Canadian Rugby Union wanted to reduce the prominence of single points in the game.
Therefore, the CRU appended 25-yard end zones to the ends of the existing 110-yard field, creating a much larger field of play. Since moving the goal posts back 25 yards would have made the scoring of field goals excessively difficult, since the CRU did not want to reduce the prominence of field goals, the goal posts were left on the goal line where they remain today. However, the rules governing the scoring of singles were changed: teams were required to either kick the ball out of bounds through the end zone or force the opposition to down a kicked ball in their own end zone in order to be awarded a point. By 1986, at which point CFL stadiums were becoming bigger and comparable in development to their American counterparts in an effort to stay financially competitive, the CFL reduced the depth of the end zone to 20 yards. A team scores a touchdown by entering its opponent's end zone while carrying the ball or catching the ball while being within the end zone. If the ball is carried by a player, it is considered a score when any part of the ball is directly above or beyond any part of the goal line between the pylons.
In addition, a two-point conversion may be scored after a touchdown by similar means. In Ultimate Frisbee, a goal is scored by completing a pass into the end zone; the end zone in American football is 10 yards long by 53 1⁄3 yards wide. Each corner is marked with a pylon. A full-sized end zone in Canadian football is 20 yards long by 65 yards wide. Prior to the 1980s, the Canadian end zone was 25 yards long; the first stadium to use the 20 yard long end zone was B. C. Place in Vancouver, completed in 1983; the floor of B. C. Place was too short to accommodate a field 160
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph
High school football
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries, it is popular amongst American High school teams in Europe. High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many college and high school teams played against one another. Today, the oldest high school football rivalry dates back to 1875 in Connecticut, between the Norwich Free Academy Wildcats and the New London High School Whalers. High school football traditions such as pep rallies, marching bands and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Therefore, high school football is considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition, it is the first level of play in which a player will accumulate statistics, which will determine his chances of competing at the college level, the professional level if he is talented enough.
In the 2000s and beyond, there has been growing concern about safety and long-term brain health, both regarding the occasional concussion as well as the steady diet of lesser hits to the head. The National Federation of State High School Associations establishes the rules of high school football in the United States; as of the next high school season of 2019, Texas is the only state that does not base its football rules on the NFHS rule set, instead using NCAA rules with certain exceptions shown below. Through the 2018 season, Massachusetts based its rules on those of the NCAA, but it adopted NFHS rules for 2019 and beyond. With their common ancestry, the NFHS rules of high school football are similar to the college game, though with some important differences: The four quarters are each 12 minutes in length, as opposed to 15 minutes in college and professional football. Kickoffs take place at the kicking team's 40-yard line, as opposed to the 35 in college and the NFL. If an attempted field goal is missed it is treated as a punt it would be a touchback and the opposing team will start at the 20-yard line.
However, if it does not enter the end zone, it can be returned as a normal punt. Any kick crossing the goal line is automatically a touchback; the spot of placement after all touchbacks—including those resulting from kickoffs and free kicks following a safety—is the 20-yard line of the team receiving possession. Contrast with NCAA and NFL rules, which call for the ball to be placed on the receiving team's 25-yard line if a kickoff or free kick after a safety results in a touchback. All fair catches result in the placement of the ball at the spot of the fair catch. Under NCAA rules, a kickoff or free kick after a safety that ends in a fair catch inside the receiving team's 25-yard line is treated as a touchback, with the ball spotted on the 25. Pass interference by the defense results in a 15-yard penalty, but no automatic first down. Pass interference by the offense results in a 15-yard penalty, from the previous spot, no loss of down; the defense cannot return an extra-point attempt for a score.
Any defensive player that encroaches the neutral zone, regardless of whether the ball was snapped or not, commits a "dead ball" foul for encroachment. 5-yard penalty from the previous spot. Prior to 2013, offensive pass interference resulted in a loss of down; the loss of down provision was deleted from the rules starting in 2013. In college and the NFL, offensive pass interference is only 10 yards; the use of overtime, the type of overtime used, is up to the individual state association. The NFHS offers a suggested overtime procedure based on the Kansas Playoff, but does not make its provisions mandatory. Intentional grounding may be called if the quarterback is outside the tackle box; the home team must wear dark-colored jerseys, the visiting team must wear white jerseys. In the NFL, as well as conference games in the Southeastern Conference, the home team has choice of jersey color. Under general NCAA rules, the home team may wear white with approval of the visiting team. NFHS rules prohibit the use of replay review if the venue has the facilities to support it.
In Texas, the public-school sanctioning body, the University Interscholastic League, only allows replay review in state championship games, while the main body governing non-public schools, the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools, follows the NFHS in banning replay review. At least one unique high school rule has been adopted by college football. In 1996, the overtime rules utilized by Kansas high school teams were adopted by the NCAA, although the NCAA has made two major modifications: starting each possession from the 25-yard line, starting with the third overtime period, requiring teams to attempt a two-point conversion following a touchdown. Thirty-four states have a mercy rule that comes into play during one-sided games after a prescribed scoring margin is surpassed at halftime or any point thereafter; the type of mercy rule varies from state to state, with many using a "continuous clock" after the scoring margin is reached, while other states end the game once the margin is reached or passed.
For example, Texas uses a 45-point mercy rule only in six-man football.