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Safety engineering

Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. It is related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, the subset system safety engineering. Safety engineering assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed when components fail. Analysis techniques can be split into two categories: quantitative methods. Both approaches share the goal of finding causal dependencies between a hazard on system level and failures of individual components. Qualitative approaches focus on the question "What must go wrong, such that a system hazard may occur?", while quantitative methods aim at providing estimations about probabilities, rates and/or severity of consequences. The complexity of the technical systems such as Improvements of Design and Materials, Planned Inspections, Fool-proof design, Backup Redundancy decreases risk and increases the cost; the risk can be decreased to ALAPA levels. Traditionally, safety analysis techniques rely on skill and expertise of the safety engineer.

In the last decade model-based approaches have become prominent. In contrast to traditional methods, model-based techniques try to derive relationships between causes and consequences from some sort of model of the system; the two most common fault modeling techniques are called failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. These techniques are just ways of finding problems and of making plans to cope with failures, as in probabilistic risk assessment. One of the earliest complete studies using this technique on a commercial nuclear plant was the WASH-1400 study known as the Reactor Safety Study or the Rasmussen Report. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method which may be performed at either the functional or piece-part level. For functional FMEA, failure modes are identified for each function in a system or equipment item with the help of a functional block diagram. For piece-part FMEA, failure modes are identified for each piece-part component.

The effects of the failure mode are described, assigned a probability based on the failure rate and failure mode ratio of the function or component. This quantiazation is difficult for software ---a bug exists or not, the failure models used for hardware components do not apply. Temperature and age and manufacturing variability affect a resistor. Failure modes with identical effects can be combined and summarized in a Failure Mode Effects Summary; when combined with criticality analysis, FMEA is known as Failure Mode and Criticality Analysis or FMECA, pronounced "fuh-MEE-kuh". Fault tree analysis is a deductive analytical method. In FTA, initiating primary events such as component failures, human errors, external events are traced through Boolean logic gates to an undesired top event such as an aircraft crash or nuclear reactor core melt; the intent is to identify ways to make top events less probable, verify that safety goals have been achieved. Fault trees are a logical inverse of success trees, may be obtained by applying de Morgan's theorem to success trees.

FTA may be quantitative. When failure and event probabilities are unknown, qualitative fault trees may be analyzed for minimal cut sets. For example, if any minimal cut set contains a single base event the top event may be caused by a single failure. Quantitative FTA is used to compute top event probability, requires computer software such as CAFTA from the Electric Power Research Institute or SAPHIRE from the Idaho National Laboratory; some industries use both fault trees and event trees. An event tree starts from an undesired initiator and follows possible further system events through to a series of final consequences; as each new event is considered, a new node on the tree is added with a split of probabilities of taking either branch. The probabilities of a range of "top events" arising from the initial event can be seen; the offshore oil and gas industry uses a qualitative safety systems analysis technique to ensure the protection of offshore production systems and platforms. The analysis is used during the design phase to identify process engineering hazards together with risk mitigation measures.

The methodology is described in the American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 14C Analysis, Design and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms. The technique uses system analysis methods to determine the safety requirements to protect any individual process component, e.g. a vessel, pipeline, or pump. The safety requirements of individual components are integrated into a complete platform safety system, including liquid containment and emergency support systems such as fire and gas detection; the first stage of the analysis identifies individual process components, these can include: flowlines, pressure vessels, atmospheric vessels, fired heaters, exhaust heated components, compressors and heat exchangers. Each component is subject to a safety analysis to identify undesirable events for which protection must be provided; the analysis identifies a detectable condition, used to initiate actions to prevent or minimize the effect of undesirable events. A Safety Analysis Table for pressure vessels includes the following details.

Other undesirable events for a pressure vessel are under-pressure, gas blowby and exces

Harry Hart (athlete)

Henry Beltsazer "Harry" Hart was a South African athlete who competed in the 1932 Summer Olympics. He was born in Harrismith, Orange River Colony, died in Reitz. In 1932 he finished tenth in the Olympic shot put event, eleventh in the decathlon competition, twelfth in the discus throw contest. At the 1930 Empire Games he won the gold medal in the discus throw event as well as in the shot put competition, he won the bronze medal in the javelin throw contest and finished fifth in the 120 yards hurdles event. In the 440 yards hurdles competition he was eliminated in the heats. Four years at the 1934 Empire Games he won again the gold medal in the discus throw event as well as in the shot put competition. In the javelin throw contest he won the silver medal. Hart was the owner of the Royal Hotel in Free State, South Africa, he was friends with Douglas Fairbanks, Errol Flynn, Clark Gable, Johnny Weissmuller and Blackie Swarts. He was offered the part of Tarzan but refused as he had to return home to his farm to practice for the Empire Games.

He had a study-trophy room at his hotel where there were hundreds of photographs of himself in the company of the above-mentioned and Esther Williams, Maureen O'Sullivan and others. Harry Hart at the International Olympic Committee

4th Naval Warfare Flotilla (Sweden)

The 4th Naval Warfare Flotilla is one of three flotillas in the Swedish Navy and is a part of the Berga Naval Base. The unit is based at Berga south of the Swedish capital Stockholm, it was formed in 2005 when the former minelayer division was split and surface warfare units was edit. 41st Corvett Division HSwMS Gävle HSwMS Sundsvall HSwMS Visby HSwMS Helsingborg HSwMS Djärv HSwMS Händig HSwMS Hurtig 42nd Minelayer Division HSwMS Koster HSwMS Kullen HSwMS Ven HSwMS Spårö 43rd Supply Division HSwMS Trossö 1994–1997: Christer Nordling 1997–2000: Johan Fischerström 2000–2003: Claes-Göran Hagström 2003–2006: Lennart Bengtsson 2006–2009: Jan Thörnqvist 2009–2013: Jonas Wikström 2013–2013: Pontus Krohn 2014–2017: Ewa Skoog Haslum 2017–20xx: Fredrik Palmquist Sandberg, Bo. Försvarets marscher och signaler förr och nu: marscher antagna av svenska militära förband, skolor och staber samt igenkännings-, tjänstgörings- och exercissignaler. Stockholm: Militärmusiksamfundet med Svenskt marscharkiv. ISBN 978-91-631-8699-8.

LIBRIS 10413065. Handbok: parad 6: traditionsvård: H PARAD 6 2016. Stockholm: Försvarsmakten. 2017. LIBRIS 22459606. Official website

Chris Moraitis

Christos "Chris" Moraitis is a senior Australian public servant Secretary of the Attorney-General's Department. Moraitis was born in Melbourne in 1962, he joined the Australian Public Service in the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in 1989 as a Graduate Trainee. From November 2002 to December 2006, Moriatis held the position of Senior Legal Adviser in the Department. Between 2006 and 2009, Moraitis was Australian High Commissioner to Papua New Guinea. In April 2013 he was appointed a Deputy Secretary at the foreign affairs department, serving less than 18 months in the role before being promoted in September 2014 to head the Attorney-General's Department, his first job outside DFAT since he commenced his public service career. Moraitis was awarded a Public Service Medal in June 2014 for "outstanding public service to Australia's international affairs as Australia's High Commissioner to Port Moresby and in senior legal and corporate roles at the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade"

Elemeno P

Elemeno P is a New Zealand rock band. The band's first album, Love & Disrespect was released on 4 July 2003, reached number one on the RIANZ albums chart, their second album, Trouble in Paradise was released on 24 November 2005 and includes the singles 11:57, One Left Standing and You Are. Their third album, Elemeno P was released on 26 May 2008. Elemeno P has been referred to as New Zealand's biggest selling rock band and in 2006 won Best Group at the New Zealand Music Awards. CurrentScotty Pearson - drums, backing vocals Dave Gibson - vocals, Justyn Pilbrow - guitar Lani Purkis - bass, backing vocalsLive performance membersGodfrey DeGrut - guitar, saxophone, percussionFormer membersDave Goodison - guitar, backing vocals During Elemeno P's set at the 2009 Big Day Out it was announced that founding member Justyn Pilbrow would be leaving the band to seek opportunities overseas; the guitarist standing in for the live shows is Dave Goodison of Garageland and the City Newton Bombers. He returned to the band in late 2011.

In May 2009, Elemeno P announced they are writing new material for a new album, a timeframe for release is yet to be confirmed. December 2011 saw Elemeno P release a new song called Slow Down Boy which they allowed fans to download for free after sharing on Twitter or Facebook. In an interview on The Edge radio station in January 2012, Dave Gibson has said that the band plan on releasing a greatest hits album with a couple of new tracks in March 2012, along with a tour; the band have toured with the Australian band End Of Fashion. Elemeno P toured New Zealand to promote their album Trouble In Paradise in late 2005/early 2006; this was part of the Summer Burn Tour which included New Zealand bands Deja Voodoo and Shihad. The band has toured with Goodnight Nurse, performing all age gigs around New Zealand. In the 2007/08 summer, Elemeno P toured New Zealand with The Atlas. Winter 2008 saw Elemeno P, Streetwise Scarlett and Deja Voodoo tour New Zealand playing all the main centres and many small towns.

Elemeno P teamed up with New Zealand music legends Supergroove in the summer of 2008/2009 for the Rock and Roll Caravan tour, playing all the summer hotspots such as the Coroglen Tavern, Riwaka Hotel, the Lake Hawea Motor Inn. In January 2011 they were a headliner for the annual Christian Parachute Music Festival. In March 2011 they played at the Jim Beam Homegrown festival. Dave Gibson has said in an interview with The Edge radio station 7 January 2012 that the band was looking at a tour in March 2012 to promote their greatest hits album, in the works. In March 2017, the members of Elemeno P are coming together from the USA and Auckland to play shows in Auckland, Christchurch and at Wellington's Homegrown festival. AudioCulture profile - Elemeno P Elemeno P Online Elemeno P Interview at

Brookwood, Surrey

Brookwood is a village in Surrey, about 3 1⁄2 miles west of Woking, with a mixture of semi-rural, woodland-set and archetypal suburban residential homes. It lies on the western border of the Woking Borough, with a small part of the village in Guildford Borough; as part of the 2016 boundary review Brookwood became part of the Heathlands ward which comprises Brookwood, Hook Heath, Sutton Green and Barnsbury and Wych Hill. The village is known for the 500-acre Brookwood Cemetery called the London Necropolis; the village gave its name to the former Victorian Brookwood Hospital, once the leading mental institution in Surrey. Since its closure in 1994, it has been redeveloped as housing; the village borders Knaphill, on the other side of the main A322 road, home to Brookwood Manor. The village borders the Basingstoke Canal which has a flight of locks there; the Army Training Centre, Pirbright is a short distance to the west, with the decommissioned Princess Royal Barracks, Deepcut further away to the west.

The village is surrounded by heathland such as Sheet's Heath, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, Smarts Heath and Brookwood Heath. The main road is Connaught Road, a long road containing mixed Victorian terraces, a variety of 1930's semi-detached and larger detached houses. Branching off are smaller cul-de-sacs with more modern houses, some which back onto the canal itself. Along the road, there is a primary school, established in 1906; the village has grown over the 150 or so years since the vast cemetery and station first set roots in this area. Many of London's dead were buried in Brookwood Cemetery during the Victorian era due to the over-population of the city at that time; the logistics were accomplished using the London Necropolis Railway, consisting of funeral trains running from London Waterloo railway station to Brookwood and subsequently down a small branch line into the cemetery grounds. This branch-line is now disused; the main station and nearby Brookwood Club private members bar are at least 100 years old.

It is possible that the village was founded in the Anglo-Saxon period, as the word Brook is derived from'Brock'.'Brock' being Old English for Badger, so in a literal sense the village of Brookwood translates to'badger wood'. The badger can be seen on the school uniform. Brookwood railway station is with four trains per hour each way; the junction with the Alton Line is about 1 1⁄4 miles further west. There is a regular bus service to Guildford and Frimley. Brookwood has a football team and District Football Club. Formed in 2007, B & D FC play in the Surrey and Hants Border League Division 3. Last season 2009/10 they were winners of the Prince Albert Cup, beating Abbey Rangers 5-4 in the match at Surrey Sports Park. Brookwood is home to quite a number of youth clubs. Most of these are based in the school. Brookwood Scout Group meets in the Memorial hall every week during term time and offers both boys and girls between the ages of six and fourteen with the opportunity to take part in a wide range of activities and adventure.

The group is a member of the Scout Association and covers the youngest three age bands that the Association caters for. Goldsworth Park Angling Club, established 2015, manages angling at Goldsworth Park Lake and Brookwood Ponds, under license with Woking Borough Council. St. Edward the Martyr Orthodox Church List of places of worship in Woking Community website