Artemisia pygmaea is a North American species of sagebrush in the aster family known by the common name pygmy sagebrush. Artemisia pygmaea is native to regions of the Southwestern United States, encompassing parts of Nevada, Colorado and New Mexico, it is uncommon throughout much of its range but it can be locally abundant. Artemisia pygmaea grows in dry habitat types, it occurs in the desert grasslands, pinyon-juniper woodlands, playas of the American southwest in the Great Basin and Uinta Basin. It favors calcareous soils such as gypsum, alkali soils, salty soils, clay, it tolerates substrates. Its small size is an adaptation to its dry habitat. Artemisia pygmaea is a cushion-like shrub growing up to about 20 centimeters in height, it grows from a taproot. The small leaves are under a centimeter long and wide and are toothed or divided into several deep lobes; the flower heads contain 3 to 5 disc florets but no ray florets. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers occurring on separate individual plants.
Blooming occurs in September. This is one of several plants parasitized by the parasitic plant Orobanche fasciculata; the Nature Conservancy: Artemisia pygmaea Artemisia pygmaea in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley
Artemisia afra, the African wormwood, is a common species of the genus Artemisia in Africa, with a wide distribution from South Africa, to areas reaching to the North and East, as far north as Ethiopia. Artemisia afra is the only indigenous species in this genus. Artemisia afra grows in clumps, with ridged, woody stems, reaching from 0.5 meters to 2 meters in height. The leaves are dark green, of soft texture, similar in shape to fern leaves; the undersides of the leaves are a lighter green, are covered with white bristles. Artemisia afra blossoms in late summer, producing abundant bracts of butter-colored flowers, each 3 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Artemisia afra exudes a sweet smell when any part of the plant is bruised. Artemisia afra grows across a wide geographic area, including Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Namibia, it grows in areas that are damp, such as by the side of streams, in transitional areas between ecosystems. Artemisia afra is a well-known medicinal plant in Africa, is still used by people of many cultures.
A. afra has been used for treating a variety of aliments such as coughs, colds, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastric de-rangements, croup, whooping-cough, asthma, diabetes and kidney disorders and convulsions. The roots and leaves are used as enemas, infusions, inhaled, or as an essential oil. In addition, Artemisia afra is used as a moth repellent, in organic insecticidal sprays. Essential oil extracts of Artemisia afra are prepared by steam distillation using twigs and blossoms. Extracts contain the following components which are typical of extracts of the genus Artemisia: α-thujone 52.9% β-thujone 15.07% 1,8 cineole 10.66% camphor 5.72% germacrene 1.60% δ-cadinene 1.16% α-terpineol 0.96% e-chrysanthenyl acetate 0.78% camphene 0.71% β-pinene 0.51% α-pinene 0.46% trans-β-ocimene 0.45% myrcene 0.22%Research suggests that the extract of Artemisia afra could have properties that can protect against liver damage. Aretemisia afra is known by a variety of names due to the number of native dialects in regions where it grows.
Lanyana represents a Sotho-derived name for Artemisia afra. Other variants include: wild wormwood African wormwood wilde-als umhlonyane mhlonyane lengana zengana nyumba ariti Bremness, L; the complete book of herbs, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1988. Jackson, W. Origins and meanings of names of South African plant genera, Univ. Cape Town, 1990; the new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening, Huxley, A. et al. eds. Macmillan Press, London, 1992. Liu, N. Q. Van der Kooy, F. Verpoorte, R. Artemisia afra: A potential flagship for African medicinal plants?, 2009. Mangena, T. Muyima, N. Y. O. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains. 1999. Mukinda, J. & Syce, J. Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents. 2007. Thring, T. S. A. Weitz, F. M. Medicinal plant use in the Bredasdorp/Elim region of the Southern Overberg in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, 2006.
Watt, J. M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M. G. Medicinal and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, E. & S. Lvingstone Ltd. Edinburgh and London 1962 van Wyk, B-E. van Oudtshoorn, B. & Gericke, N. Medicinal plants of South Africa, Pretoria, 1997. Artemisia afra Growth Distribution from Discover Life website Dressler, S.. "Artemisia afra". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Artemisia arbuscula is a North American species of sagebrush known by the common names little sagebrush, low sagebrush, or black sagebrush. It is native to the western United States from Washington and California east as far as Colorado and Wyoming, it grows in exposed habitat on dry, sterile soils high in rock and clay content. Artemisia arbuscula is a gray-green to gray shrub forming mounds no higher than 30 centimetres, its many branches are covered in hairy leaves each less than a centimeter long. The inflorescence is a spike-shaped array of clusters of hairy flower heads; each head contains a few pale yellow disc florets but no ray florets. The fruit is a tiny achene less than a millimeter wide. SubspeciesArtemisia arbuscula subsp. Arbuscula Artemisia arbuscula subsp. Longiloba L. M. Shultz Artemisia arbuscula subsp. Thermopola Beetle - Idaho, Wyoming Calflora Database: Artemisia arbuscula Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Artemisia arbuscula United States Department of Agriculture National Forest Service Info Sheet Save The Sagebrush Sea UC Photos gallery: Artemisia arbuscula
Sagebrush steppe is a type of shrub-steppe, a grassland characterized by the presence of shrubs, dominated by sagebrush, any of several species in the genus Artemisia. This ecosystem is found in the Intermountain West in the United States; the most common sagebrush species in the sagebrush steppe in most areas is big sagebrush. Others include three-tip low sagebrush. Sagebrush is found alongside many species of grasses. Sagebrush steppe is a diverse habitat, with more than 350 recorded vertebrate species, it is open rangeland for livestock, a recreation area, a source of water in otherwise arid regions. It is key habitat for declining flora and fauna species, such as greater sage-grouse and pygmy rabbit. Sagebrush steppe is a threatened ecosystem in many regions, it was once widespread in the regions that form the Intermountain West, such as the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau. It has become degraded by a number of forces. Steppe has been overgrown with introduced species and has changed to an ecosystem resembling pine and juniper woodland.
This has changed the fire regime of the landscape, increasing fuel loads and increasing the chance of unnaturally severe wildfires. Cheatgrass is an important introduced plant species that increases fire risk in this ecosystem. Other forces leading to these habitat changes include fire overgrazing of livestock. Besides severe fire, consequences of the breakdown of sagebrush steppe include increased erosion of the land and sedimentation in local waterways, decreased water quality, decreased quality of forage available for livestock, degradation of habitat for wildlife and game crabs
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Artemisia michauxiana is a North American species of wormwood in the sunflower family. It is known by lemon sagewort, it is native to the western United States. It grows in mountain talus habitats in subalpine to alpine climates. Artemisia michauxiana is a rhizomatous perennial herb with lemon-scented foliage; the plant grows up to 100 cm tall with several erect branches. The leaves are divided into many narrow segments which are hairless or hairy and bear yellowish resin glands; the inflorescence is a spike up to 15 centimeters long full of clusters of small flower heads. Each head is lined with rough purplish green, glandular phyllaries and contains pale pistillate and disc florets; the fruit is a tiny hairless achene. Calflora Database: Artemisia michauxiana Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Artemisia michauxiana University of Washington, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture Plants for a Future Turner Photographics, Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest Eastern Washington University, Flora of Eastern Washington and Adjacent Idaho Paul Slichter, Sageworts and Wormwoods: The Genus Artemisia in the Columbia River Gorge of Oregon and Washington, Lemon Sagewort, Michaux Mugwort Artemisia michauxiana