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Saginaw, Michigan

Saginaw is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the seat of Saginaw County. The city of Saginaw and Saginaw County are both in the area known as Mid-Michigan. Saginaw is adjacent to Saginaw Charter Township and considered part of the Great Lakes Bay Region, along with neighboring Bay City and Mount Pleasant; the Saginaw County MSA had a population of 196,542 in 2013. The city is the largest municipality in the Saginaw and Bay City Metropolitan Area. Saginaw was a thriving lumber town in the 19th century and an important industrial city and manufacturing center throughout much of the 20th century. During the late 20th century, its industry and strong manufacturing presence declined, leading to increased unemployment, a population decline. Neighboring communities, such as Saginaw Charter Township, saw subsequent population increases while the city itself is projected to return to normal population growth after the decades-long structural changes to the economy. Economic development is focused on comparative advantages in innovation, clean energy, continued manufacturing exports.

The city continues to have a higher proportion of manufacturing jobs than the US average. The name Saginaw is believed to mean "where the Sauk were" in Ojibwe, from Sace-nong or Sak-e-nong, due to the belief that the Sauk once lived there, but it is more that the name means "place of the outlet", from the Ojibwe sag and ong. When Natives told Samuel de Champlain that the Sauk nation was on the western shore of Lake Michigan, Champlain mistakenly placed them on the western shore of Lake Huron; this mistake was copied on subsequent maps, future references identified this as the place of the Sauks. Champlain himself never visited; the site of what became the city of Saginaw was inhabited by the Anishnabeg. French missionaries and traders first appeared in the area during the late 17th century and encountered the Ojibwe living in the area; the first permanent settlement by those other than Native Americans was in 1816 when Louis Campau established a trading post on the west bank of the Saginaw River.

Shortly thereafter the United States established Fort Saginaw. Campau's trading post was inhabited by Metis. During Michigan's territorial period, a county and township government were organized at Saginaw. Growth of the settlement was fueled during the 19th century by the lumber industry. Saginaw served as a port for Great Lakes vessels. What is now the city of Saginaw resulted from the consolidation of the cities of East Saginaw and Saginaw City in 1889. In 1819, Lewis Cass, in the Treaty of Saginaw, negotiated the prerogative for the United States to own and settle the area with the leaders of the Ojibwe. In 1820, Campau attempted to expand across to the east bank of the river but was rejected by the Chippewas. In 1822, the United States Army established a fort on the west bank of the Saginaw River and named it Fort Saginaw. Two companies were stationed at the fort. A group of investors purchased some land near the fort and had it platted under the name, Town of Sagana. Due to the harsh seasons and illnesses, Fort Saginaw was abandoned by 1824.

By the late 1820s, the American Fur Company was operating a post at Saginaw. Few plots were sold and after the U. S. Army pulled out, the town languished for most of the following decade; the town was re-platted in December 1830, comprising riverfront from Cass Street, on the south, to Harrison Street, north to Jefferson. These plots sold slowly. By 1835, only 24 plots had been sold and the remainder were transferred to a new owner, who made another plat in February 1837. However, the financial crisis of the Panic of 1837 dampened interest in purchasing properties. After selling only 58 of the 407 plots, the remainder was sold again in 1841. Saginaw was the location of the annual government payment to the Ojibwe and Ottawa of the area, starting in the 1830s; this attracted many French-Canadian and Euro-American merchants involved in selling watered down whiskey. The main cause for the founding and subsequent development of Saginaw was the large demand for lumber as the United States expanded westward.

A virgin growth forest principally consisting of white pine trees covered most of Michigan. The convenient access to transportation provided by the Saginaw River and its numerous tributaries fueled a massive expansion in population and economic activity; as the trees were being cut down in the region, logs were floated down the rivers to sawmills located in Saginaw, destined to be loaded onto ships and railroad cars. Multiple settlements comprise present-day Saginaw. On the west side of the river the first settlement around what had been Fort Saginaw developed into Saginaw, incorporated as a city in 1857, containing the seat of the Saginaw County government. On the east side of the river a parallel settlement, East Saginaw, developed, incorporated first as a village in 1855, as a city in 1859. South of East Saginaw, on the east bank of the river, the village of Salina formed. Salina's name relates to the brine. Both Saginaw and East Saginaw became a hub for railroad transportation in addition to ships on the Saginaw River.

Lumber production peaked by the early 1870s, but had disappeared by the end of the 19th century. In addition to salt production, which experienced an eventual decline as well, growing industries, such as those supporting the area's agriculture and manufacturing, developed. On June 28, 1889, the Michigan state legislature passed Act 455 to consolidate the cities of Saginaw and East Saginaw into a single city. Prior to

Orders, decorations, and medals of India

The Indian Honors System is the system of awards given to individuals for a variety of services to the Republic of India. The categories of awards are as follows - The Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of the country, was instituted in the year 1954. Any person without distinction of race, position, gender or religion is eligible for this award, it is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour. On conferment of the award, the recipient receives a Sanad signed by a medallion; the Sardar Patel National Unity Award, one of the highest civilian awards of the country similar to Bharat Ratna, was instituted in the year 2019. Any person without distinction of race, position, gender or religion is eligible for this award, it is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in the unity and the integrity of the nation. On conferment of the award, the recipient receives a Sanad signed by a medallion.

It is not mandatory. The Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Foundation, was formed on June 18, 2003, in New Delhi under the Chairmanship of freedom fighter Ram Avtaar Sastry, for propagation of ideals and principles of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, driven by an extraordinary dream that no human being would be deprived of rights as basic as survival, participation and development, he felt that there is a need to improve the situation of the underprivileged Indian citizen and so as to help the society achieve substantial sustainable growth and human progress by placing responsibility in the mainstream of business practices. The Sardar Patel Foundation focuses on the issues related to national integrity, Humanity to work for the improvisation of the deprived section of the society; the foundation is creating health awareness, sanitation all over India and abroad. The main foresight of the Foundation is to concentrate on nationality issues, health awareness and education program with effective and implementation.

The Foundation catalyzes a strong national movement for universalization of the Sardars ideas for national unity, integrity starting from elementary education in India and abroad. In loving memory of Sardar Patel, the Foundation has been organizing International Prestigious Sardar Ratna and Sardar Patel Awards, annually to recognize and honor those individuals/institutions which are working for the national development, science, technology and military services in India and abroad; these distinguished awardees are selected based on the merits of their works who have contributed towards nation-building and/or towards technological and scientific advancements in a particular field of eminence, in which they are the well-known celebrities or experts. The foundation is working for generating a corpus fund for procurement of land in NCT of Delhi for building a suitable memorial, a comprehensive library, an exhibition theatre, meeting hall, research center, etc. in the name of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Padma Awards were instituted in the year 1954. Except for brief interruptions during the years 1977 to 1980 and 1993 to 1997, these awards have been announced every year on Republic Day; the award is given in three categories, viz. Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri, in the decreasing order of importance. Padma Vibhushan for "exceptional and distinguished service". Padma Vibhushan is the second-highest civilian award in India. Padma Bhushan for "distinguished service of a high order". Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award in India. Padma Shri is awarded for "distinguished service". Padma Shri is the fourth-highest civilian award in India. Unlike national honours, the Padma awards do not include cash allowances, benefits, or special concessions in rail/air travel. Per a December 1995 judgment of the Supreme Court of India, no titles or honorifics are associated with the Bharat Ratna or any of the Padma awards; this includes any such use on letterheads, invitation cards, books etc.

In the case of any misuse, the awardee will forfeit the award, he or she is cautioned against any such misuse upon receiving the honour. The decoration comprises a sanad issued under the seal of the President and a Medallion; the recipients are given a replica of the medallion, which they can wear during any ceremonial/State functions etc. if they desire. A commemorative brochure giving out brief details in respect of each award winner is released on the day of the investiture ceremony; these awards seek to recognize work of any distinction...... and is given for distinguished and exceptional achievements/service in all fields of activities/disciplines, such as art and education, medicine, social work and engineering, public affairs, civil service and industry, etc. All persons without distinction of race, position or sex are eligible for these awards. In 2015, the government decided to end the practice of ministers recommending names for Padma awards and replaced it with any Indian citizen recommending a person for Padma awards online.

The government said that this was done with the belief that every citizen has something to contribute to the nation and that contribution should be integrated with the country's growth. Accordingly, several hitherto unknown citizens were awarded Padma awards in 2017; the role of the state governments was minimised. While there are no specific criteria for withdrawing a Padma award, the President of India, per the awards' st

Neil McCormick

Neil McCormick is a British music journalist and broadcaster. He has been Chief Music Critic for The Daily Telegraph since 1996, presents a music interview show for Vintage TV in the UK, Neil McCormick's Needle Time. McCormick is a close associate of rock group U2. McCormick was born in England but moved with his family to Scotland Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin at the same time as all the future members of U2. McCormick's brother Ivan was an early member of the band that would be known as U2, but he was dropped from the group within a few weeks of founding. Neil was songwriter and vocalist in a succession of unsigned bands, Frankie Corpse & The Undertakers, The Modulators Yeah! Yeah! and Shook Up!. He released one solo album, Mortal Coil under the pseudonym The Ghost Who Walks in 2004, his song, "Harm's Way", features on Mel Gibson's Songs Inspired by the Passion of the Christ. Other artists featured on the compilation included Leonard Cohen and Nick Cave. Writing in The Daily Telegraph, McCormick said, "I should quit while I'm ahead."As a journalist, he worked for Irish music magazine Hot Press from 1978.

He returned to journalism in the early nineties after an unsuccessful music career, becoming a contributing editor at British GQ. He has been chief rock critic for the Daily Telegraph since 1996, a regular guest on BBC TV and radio shows as an expert on the music business, his memoir of an unsuccessful career in the music business, I Was Bono’s Doppelgänger was published by Penguin and Simon & Schuster in 2004. Elton John called it "the best book I have read about trying to make it in the music business." It has been translated into several languages. A 2011 film of Killing Bono starred Ben Barnes as Martin McCann as Bono. Following the film, a play adaptation entitled Chasing Bono ran in the Soho Theatre from December 2018 to January 2019, starring Niall McNamee as McCormick and Shane O'Regan as Bono. McCormick was ghostwriter of U2 by the band's bestselling 2006 autobiography. McCormick followed with the fiction book #Zero in 2019. To accompany the book, he released an album of tracks from the book's fictional musicians on Spotify and Amazon

Margaret Alva

Margaret Alva is an Indian politician, the governor of the Indian state of Rajasthan until the end of her tenure in August 2014. She took over in Rajasthan from the Punjab governor, Shivraj Patil, holding an additional charge of that state. Before being appointed governor, she was a senior figure in the Indian National Congress and was Joint Secretary of the All India Congress Committee, her mother-in-law, Violet Alva, was a member of Rajya Sabha in 1960s. Margaret Alva was born Margaret Nazareth on 14 April 1942 in a Christian family at Mangalore, Karnataka, she obtained a BA degree from Mount Carmel College, Bangalore and a law degree from Government Law College in the same city. She was a keen and appreciated debater during her time at college and had some involvement in students' movements. Alva combined her work as an advocate with involvement in welfare organisations becoming president of the Young Women's Christian Association. One of her early involvements was with the Karuna non-governmental organisation, which she founded and, focused on issues relating to women and children.

She married Niranjan Thomas Alva on 24 May 1964, with whom she has one daughter and three sons, including Niret Alva. The couple had met as students at Government Law College and her husband now operates a successful export business, which has given her financial security, beneficial to her career. Alva's decision to enter politics in 1969 was influenced by her husband and father-in-law, Joachim Alva, the latter and his wife, Violet Alva, being Members of Parliament representing the Indian National Congress, she has acknowledged this encouragement, saying that "I never had to face any family constraints on my political activities" and she has said that the death of Violet in 1969 provided the impetus. She aligned herself with the Congress faction led by Indira Gandhi and worked for its state unit in Karnataka, she served as Joint Secretary of the All India Congress Committee between 1975 and 1977 and as General Secretary of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee between 1978 and 1980, In April 1974, Alva had been elected to the Raiya Sabha as a representative of Congress.

She served a six-year term and was re-elected for a further three six-year terms, in 1980, 1986 and 1992. During her time in the Rajya Sabha, she was its vice-chairman and served terms as Union Minister of State in the ministries for Parliamentary Affairs and for Youth and Sports and Women and Child Development, an arm of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, she served on various House committees, which garnered her a considerable degree of procedural expertise, was Minister for Science and Technology. In her HRD role, between 1985 and 1989, Alva oversaw the Rajiv Gandhi-led government's 28-point plan intended to improve the rights and involvement of women and children. In addition, she made proposals for various development corporations for women, only some of which materialised, campaigned for a greater prominence of women in government and in her party's official posts, her 1989 proposal that 33 per cent of seats in panchayat raj elections should be reserved for women became law in 1993 and, according to Laura Jenkins, "marked a further shift from the former abhorrence of reservations as a nationally divisive policy".

She continued her efforts to improve the lot of women during her period as Minister of State for Personnel, Public Grievances and Parliamentary Affairs, where she tried to increase the number of female officeholders in various ministries and government organisations, such as the Union Public Service Commission and the judiciary. Alva has been involved with women's issues and related matters such as population growth on the international stage, notably through various United Nations bodies and in writings. Alva was elected to the 13th Lok Sabha as a Member of Parliament in 1999, she lost a subsequent re-election attempt in the Uttara Kannada constituency. Between 2004 and 2009, she served as General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee and was an advisor to the Bureau of Parliamentary Studies & Training, a government body that works with newly elected parliamentary representatives at both national and state level. In November 2008, Alva said that Congress seats for the elections in Karnataka were open to bidders rather than subject to meritocratic appointment.

Congress denied her claims and a meeting with the party president, Sonia Gandhi resulted in Alva resigning or being removed from her numerous official responsibilities in the party. Subsequently, Alva patched up her differences with Congress leadership, she has declined to go into details of the 2008 controversy as her resignation letter continues to be a subject of media speculation. On 6 August 2009, Alva became the first female Governor of Uttarakhand. Although she said that she was enthusiastic about the challenges facing the nascent state, she found herself sidelined outside national politics and frustrated by the Bharatiya Janata Party state government, she remained in the post until May 2012, at which time she was appointed Governor of Rajasthan, a more important region in political terms. Of her time in Uttarakhand, Alva said that "The quietude allowed me to recharge my batteries and spare some time for working on my biography"; the autobiography is not expected to appear until after her retirement.

The move to Rajasthan relieved Shivraj Patil, the Governor of Punjab, of his temporary adjunct responsibility for that state which had arisen due to the death of the incumbent governor, Prabha Rau, in April 2010


Furcellaria is a genus of red algae. It is a monotypic genus, the only species being Furcellaria lumbricalis, which has commercial importance as a raw material for carrageenan production, it is harvested from the waters of Denmark and Canada. It grows on submerged rocks to a depth of about 12 metres, but it can grow in large floating mats, which are easier to harvest. F. lumbricalis is an important habitat-forming seaweed, forming underwater "belts" just below those of bladderwrack. These belts provide spawning habitat for many fish species, for this reason some governments place regulations on the harvesting of this seaweed. Furcellaria lumbricalis is a common red macroalgal species; the species has two different ecotypes -- loose-lying thallus forms. Attached F. lumbricalis is distributed sublittoral species on both sides of the North Atlantic. It is found near the coasts of Eastern Canada, British Isles and is the only distributed red algal species in the Baltic Sea; the attached form grows as an epilith on stable hard substrates such as stony bottoms, boulder fields and rocks.

It is a perennial macroalgae with a life-span up to 10 years, that tolerates salinities down to 3.6 psu. Although the species has been reported to grow up to 30 m deep, the main occurrence is between 8−12 m. F. lumbricalis forms monotypic dense meadows in the central and northern Baltic Sea, where most of the other perennial red algae are not able to sustain the low salinity. Over the last half a century, communities of loose-lying F. lumbricalis in Kattegat and Puck Lagoon, Poland have been disappeared due to overharvesting or eutrophication. In other places, the species is too sparsely distributed, making it incompatible for industrial practices; the drifting forms of F. lumbricalis and Coccotylus truncatus form a loose-lying algal stratum in Kassari bay, the most abundant community in the Baltic Sea. Because of its unique location and high biomass, it has been used for furcellaran production since the mid 1960s and is an example of a sustainable bioresource utilization; the stratum's density seems to differ year to year, ranging between 100 000 to 200 000 tons by wet weight.

The change could be as a result of meteorological factors such as harsher winters or hotter summers and the like. Key quantitative characteristics of the loose-lying Furcellaria-Coccotylus community in the Kassari Bay monitored by the Estonian Marine Institute. Due to the polysaccharides in the cell walls, F. lumbricalis is grouped with other commercially important carrageenophytes. From F. lumbricalis a polysaccharide called. Furcellaran is non-stoichometrically undersulphated κ-carrageenan, where every 3rd or 4th 3-linked-β-galactose monomer possesses a sulphate ester group at the 4th carbon position. For comparison, an ideal κ-carrageenan molecule would have a sulphate ester group at the 4th carbon in every 3-linked-β-galactose monomer. Furcellaran’s physical properties are similar to κ-carrageenan. Carrageenans found within certain seaweed species and locations are not universally similar, samples collected from different locations may have variable sulphation degrees. Studies show that total extraction yield is up to 31%.

However, in its unattached state, it is noted that polysaccharide yields are lower and some consider this to be the result of narrower thallus filaments giving way to a smaller amount of galactan present. Phycobiliproteins can be extracted from F. lumbricalis, from which the R-phycoerythrin yield is ~0.1% by dry weight. Cations need to be present to form a strong gel in an aqueous solution, it is a process that depends on the nature of the polysaccharide, polymer concentration and the ions. K+, Rb+ and Cs+ ions produce strong κ-carrageenan and furcellaran gels, whereas Ca2+ ions aid the gelling of ι-carrageenan. An initial coil-to-helix transition has been observed as the primary change in the gelling process, followed by the aggregation of these helices to form a gel; these sorts of gels are thermoreversible, meaning that they gel when temperature drops and melt when the gel is heated. The food industry depends on this natural component and are used to add texture as a way of additive to certain foods candies, ice cream and puddings.

When carrageenans are used as food additives in the EU, they are referred to as E407. Additionally, it can be found in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries in which it's included to things such as foams and soluble tablets. Furcellaran can be used instead of κ-carrageenan as a beer wort fining agent. "Furcellaria lumbricalis". Seaweed Industry Association. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-12-01

Olukumi people

This article is about a historical group of Yoruba migrants, now in Delta State, Nigeria. For descendants of Yorubas in the diaspora sometimes referred to as Lucumí, see Afro-Cubans; the Olukumi people are a distinct group of Yoruba people, native to Nigeria's Delta State. The Olukumi occupy eight communities west of the Niger river and speak an isolated dialect of Yoruba. Ugbodu town is considered the historical headquarters of the Olukumi people and is traditionally administered by the Obi of Ugbodu; the present Obi is Oloza Ayo Isinyemeze. Olukumi villages select leaders through the okpala obi system, a borrowed feature from their neighbors, is a fusion of the Obi rulership system gotten from Benin, the Okpala system gotten from the Igbos; the Olukumi together with the Enuani, the Ika people and the Ukwuani people constitutes Nigeria's Delta North. The Olukumi are native to an area just west of the Niger River's right bank; the area is rich in Chalk and Kaolin deposits, known as "Efun" in Yoruba language, "Nzu" in Igbo, traditionally mined and used by the people of the area for various cultural purposes.

The word Olukumi means "My confidant" or "My friend" in Yoruba. Modern usage of the word remains just in the southern and eastern Yoruba dialects of Ijebu, Owé among the Okun people, Ekiti people, Owo and the Igala, but has been replaced by the word Ore in the Western dialects, by extension generalized Yoruba speech; the Olukumis according to their own oral traditions are said to have migrated from either the Owo, Akure or the Akoko areas of Yorubaland, depending on the Olukumi town in question. All the aforementioned towns are in the eastern sections of Yorubaland. Ugbodu for instance claims to have migrated in waves from the Akure axis. Ugbodu lore further claims that shortly after their migration from Owo/Akure, they settled in Benin, from where they left to settle in a place called Ewohimi, an Esan-speaking community and is today located in Edo State. From Ewohimi they settled in Ugbodu as a result of a war. A quarter of Ugbodu town named, they speak a variant of the Yoruba language which most resembles those of the South-Eastern Yoruba dialect grouping, which has remained intact hundreds of years in their new location after being detached from the main contiguous body of the Yoruba cultural area.

About three or four generations after the establishment, one Agbe said to be a relative of the founders of Usen, a town now in Edo state near the Ondo state boundary and the town of Okada moved eastwards and settled near the Ugbodu people. He and his group were thus settled there; this was the beginning of the town of Eko Efun. The Ukwu Nzu people began to earn revenue from the chalk mines and they for this reason were called a people settled on a chalk mining camp. "Ago or Eko Efun" would mean "chalk camp" in Yoruba. Due to the subsequent blend and location of their settlements with the Enuani speakers, they today speak both the Enuani dialect of Igbo language and Olukumi dialect though altered by Enuani which in itself is a nice dialect worth learning, in some of the villages, the Olukumi dialect is threatened, but the people are making active and conscious efforts to preserve the Olukumi language and culture; some of these measures adopted by them have been aimed at ensuring the retention and rejuvenation of their Olukumi names by making sure Olukumi children bear the names.

Some of the adults have changed their erstwhile non Olukumi names to Olukumi ones. Prayers and recitals in their native language are being encouraged, while making conscious efforts at speaking the language to their children and in their communities as a whole. According to a report published on the Sunday Tribune of October 24, 2010 by Banji Aluko, they have started to organize recitation and oratory quizzes and competitions in Olukumi as a way of preserving the language for the future generations. Digital and written documentation of the language is ongoing among linguists. Chief G B Nkemnacho, a lawyer of Olukumi origin, has over the past forty years, documented his people's history as told by the older generation, being the people who lived through it. Prior to his groundbreaking work, most of this history has been in oral form passed from one generation to the next. For the most part, the Olukumi people have culturally assimilated into their predominantly Igbo host communities. Nduka Ugbade - Helen Anyamelune - Mozin Oyomitole Raphael - Mozin Yewande Adetumininu - Media TycoonMozin Ogooluwa - Chinedum Mordi - (First Professor from Ugbodu, lectured at Delta State University, Abraka Anioma people Olukumi-Yoruba talking dictionary