Sagittarius A or Sgr A is a complex radio source at the center of the Milky Way which contains a supermassive black hole. It is located in the constellation Sagittarius, is hidden from view at optical wavelengths by large clouds of cosmic dust in the spiral arms of the Milky Way, it consists of three components, the supernova remnant Sagittarius A East, the spiral structure Sagittarius A West, a bright compact radio source at the center of the spiral, Sagittarius A*. These three overlap: Sagittarius A East is the largest, West appears off-center within East, A* is at the center of West. A study was done with the measured parallaxes and motions of 10 massive regions in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Milky Way where stars are formed. Data was gathered using the BeSSeL Survey with the VLBA, the results were synthesized to discover the physical properties of these sections; the results were that the spiral pitch angle of the arms is 7.3 ± 1.5 degrees, the half-width of the arms of the Milky Way were found to be 0.2 kpc.
The nearest arm from the Sun is around 1.4 ± 0.2 kpc away. This feature is 25 light-years in width and has the attributes of a supernova remnant from an explosive event that occurred between 35 000 and 100 000 BC. However, it would take 50 to 100 times more energy than a standard supernova explosion to create a structure of this size and energy, it is conjectured that Sgr A East is the remnant of the explosion of a star, gravitationally compressed as it made a close approach to the central black hole. Sgr A West has the appearance of a three-arm spiral, from the point of view of the Earth. For this reason, it is known as the "Minispiral"; this appearance and nickname are misleading, though: the three-dimensional structure of the Minispiral is not that of a spiral. It is made of several dust and gas clouds, which orbit and fall onto Sagittarius A* at velocities as high as 1,000 kilometers per second; the surface layer of these clouds is ionized. The source of ionisation is the population of massive stars that occupy the central parsec.
Sgr A West is surrounded by a clumpy torus of cooler molecular gas, the Circumnuclear Disk. The nature and kinematics of the Northern Arm cloud of Sgr A West suggest that it once was a clump in the CND, which fell due to some perturbation the supernova explosion responsible for Sgr A East; the Northern Arm appears as a bright North—South ridge of emission, but it extends far to the East and can be detected as a dim extended source. The Western Arc is interpreted as the ionized inner surface of the CND; the Eastern Arm and the Bar seem to be two additional large clouds similar to the Northern Arm, although they do not share the same orbital plane. They have been estimated to amount for about 20 solar masses each. On top of these large scale structures, many smaller cloudlets and holes inside the large clouds can be seen; the most prominent of these perturbations is the Minicavity, interpreted as a bubble blown inside the Northern Arm by the stellar wind of a massive star, not identified. Astronomers now have evidence.
Sagittarius A* is agreed to be the most plausible candidate for the location of this supermassive black hole. The Very Large Telescope and Keck Telescope detected stars orbiting Sgr A* at speeds greater than that of any other stars in the galaxy. One star, designated S2, was calculated to orbit Sgr A* at speeds of over 5,000 kilometers per second at its closest approach. A gas cloud, G2, passed through the Sagittarius A* region in 2014 and managed to do so without disappearing beyond the event horizon as theorists predicted would happen. Rather, it disintegrated, suggesting the gas cloud G2 and previous gas cloud G1, were star remnants with larger gravitation fields than gas clouds. In September 2019, scientists found that Sagittarius A* had been consuming nearby matter at a much faster rate than usual over the past year. Researchers speculated that this could mean that the black hole is entering a new phase, or that Sagittarius A* had stripped the outer layer of G2 when it passed through. In the 2014 space-sim videogame Elite: Dangerous players are able to travel to Sagittarius A*, with an achievement tied to it in the Xbox One version of the game.
On the television show Community, Pierce Hawthorne mentions that in his opinion, Sagittarius A is the only black hole worth studying. Melia, Fulvio; the Black Hole in the Center of Our Galaxy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09505-9. Recent Results of the MPE Infrared/Submillimeter Group Galactic Center Research at MPE Nature report, with link to the Schödel et al. paper Sagittarius A East Kinematic and structural analysis of the Minispiral in the Galactic Center from BEAR spectro-imagery Chandra Photo Album Sagittarius A The Galactic Center NASA Image of the Day Gallery 6 January 2010 Into the Heart of Darkness - Chandra X-ray Observatory image. Sagittarius A at Constellation Guide
The 2020 Tampa Bay Vipers season is the first season for the Tampa Bay Vipers as a professional American football franchise. They play as charter members of the XFL, one of eight teams to compete in the league for the 2020 season; the Vipers are led by head coach Marc Trestman. All times Eastern In the first week of the season, the Vipers took a loss to the New York Guardians, only scoring a field goal in the 3rd quarter, they lost to the Seattle Dragons in the second week of the season, losing 17-9 in Seattle. After the two losses, they put up a fight against the 2-0 Houston Roughnecks, only losing by a mere 7 points at home, they got their first win of the XFL season against the DC Defenders, shutting them out 25-0 to advance to 1-3. They are affectionately known as the FANG GANG. Tampa Bay entered the game as a 3½ point favorite, but went on to suffer a 20-point blowout loss on the road; the Vipers suffered 4 turnovers and gave up 3 touchdowns while only getting 1 field goal, despite getting inside the 5-yard line multiple times
The Battle of Wireless Ridge was an engagement of the Falklands War which took place on the night from 13 June to 14 June 1982, between British and Argentine forces during the advance towards the Argentine-occupied capital of the Falkland Islands, Port Stanley. Wireless Ridge was one of seven strategic hills within five miles of Stanley at 51°40′14″S 57°55′55″W that had to be taken in order for the Island's capital to be approached; the attack was successful, the entire Argentine force on the Islands surrendered that day. The British force consisted of 2nd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment, a troop of the Blues & Royals, with two FV101 Scorpion and two FV107 Scimitar light tanks, as well as artillery support from two batteries of 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery and naval gunfire support provided by HMS Ambuscade's 4.5-in gun. The Argentine force consisted of the 7th Infantry Regiment as well as detachments from other units; the first Argentine unit to arrive in the sector was that commanded by José Rodolfo Banetta that took up residence inside the Moody Brook Barracks, but this unit had to evacuate the area on 11 June when British fire struck the building, killing three conscripts and wounding the Argentine major.
At first, the 7th Regiment on Wireless Ridge was comfortable, shooting sheep and roasting them on old bed frames the soldiers had found nearby. Private Guillermo Vélez maintains that he shot and killed 50 sheep during his time on Wireless Ridge. After heavy losses during the Battle of Goose Green, including their commander, Lieutenant Colonel'H' Jones, command of 2 Para passed to Lieutenant-Colonel David Chaundler, in England at the time of the battle. Chaundler flew to Ascension Island on a Vickers VC10 and to the Falklands on a C-130 Hercules, dropping supplies by parachute. Chaundler jumped into the sea, where he was picked up by helicopter and delivered to HMS Hermes for a briefing with Admiral Sandy Woodward and to Major General Jeremy Moore's headquarters. Four days after Goose Green, Chaundler joined 2 Para. After debriefing the battalion's officers about Goose Green and the events following, he vowed that the unit would never again go into action without fire support. From Fitzroy, 2 Para were moved by helicopter to Bluff Cove Peak.
The first line of hills: Two Sisters, Mount Longdon and Mount Harriet, were taken. Three other hills were slated to be captured: Mount Tumbledown by the Scots Guards, Mount William by the Gurkhas and Wireless Ridge by 2 Para; the final phase of 3 Commando Brigade's campaign, the battle for Stanley, would follow the capture of these hills. On the morning of 13 June, it became clear that the attacks on Tumbledown had been successful, so 2 Para marched around the back of Mount Longdon to take up their positions for the assault on Wireless Ridge; as the action was expected to be concluded they took only their weapons and as much ammunition as possible, leaving most other gear behind in the camp. On Bluff Cove Peak, the Battalion's mortars and heavy machine guns were attacked by Argentine A-4 Skyhawks, which delayed their planned move forward, although they suffered no casualties. In the closing hours of 13 June, D Company began the attack sequence, advancing upon'Rough Diamond' hill north-west of Mount Longdon.
It had been hit by an intense barrage from land and sea. In the softening-up bombardment, British artillery had fired 6,000 rounds with their 105 mm pieces, as the British paratroopers began their push, they were further backed by naval fire and the 76 and 30 mm guns mounted on the light tanks; the 80 casualties sustained by 2 Para two weeks earlier at the Battle of Goose Green, had induced them not to take any unnecessary chances the second time around. The Argentine commanding officer, Lt. Col. Omar Giménez, says that three or four times he was nearly killed by a direct hit during the softening-up bombardment; when D Coy reached the hill, they found that the Argentine compañía C of the 7th Infantry Regiment had withdrawn due to the heavy bombardment. As Major Philip Neame's D Coy started to consolidate their position, the Argentine 7th Regiment launched a series of heavy recoilless rifle and mortar attacks on Mount Longdon, causing casualties to the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment. With this massive fire support, A and B Coys were convinced the enemy on the'Apple Pie' feature had been defeated, began to advance confidently, but they met fierce resistance when they left their trenches.
They came under heavy machine-gun fire. One Mount Longdon survivor from 3 Para recalled the British attack, repulsed by the Argentines: They tried going over the top first, but the incoming fire was too heavy so they went back behind the peat and waited for more artillery to soften them up; the Argentine defenders there withdrew in the face of such withering fire and A and B Coys took their objective. By this stage of the battle, there were not many experienced Argentine officers left; the Forward Artillery Observation Officer, the Operations Officer and the compañía A and C commanders and at least three senior platoon commanders, were wounded. C Coy moved down from their northern start line to advance to a position east of Wireless Ridge where they found a platoon position to be unoccupied. By about 4.30am, Lieutenant-Colonel Gimenez knew that the 7th Infantry Regiment had been decisively defeated
Wyckoff Heights is an area within the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, straddling the border between Bushwick and southwest Ridgewood, Queens. Wyckoff Heights was urbanized starting in the late 19th century, took its name from the Wyckoff family, who owned the land; the area was home first to many German immigrants followed by Italian and more Latino and Eastern-European residents. Wyckoff Heights is located within ZIP Codes 11237 and 11385. Points of interest include Wyckoff Heights Medical Center and the former Wyckoff Heights Presbyterian Church. Wyckoff Heights was urbanized starting in the late 19th century, took its name from the Wyckoff family who owned and farmed much of the land. Development progressed from Brooklyn into Queens. In 1890, newspapers announced the creation of a new park to be located in Wyckoff Heights, within the 18th Ward of Brooklyn. In 1892, Queens County property owners established the Wyckoff Heights Improvement Association to lobby for water and gas service to the neighborhood, the next year, the Wyckoff Heights Water Company was formed to supply drinking water to the area.
In 1901 residents of the Queens section lobbied the City government to "adopt a system of house numbering" and erect street signs so that the postal service would begin delivery to the neighborhood. The last 18 acres of farmland were developed in the 1940s. D=== ZIP Codes === Initially, mail delivery to the Queens section was provided by the Brooklyn Post Office; the Wyckoff Heights Post Office at 86 Wyckoff Avenue was opened in 1951, serving north Bushwick and the Brooklyn portion of Wyckoff Heights. When ZIP Codes were assigned in 1963, all areas whose mail was routed through a Brooklyn post office were given the 112 prefix; the neighboring areas of Glendale and Ridgewood in Queens were given a Brooklyn mailing address, 11227, shared with Bushwick and Wyckoff Heights. In addition, parts of Bushwick and Wyckoff Heights were in ZIP Code 11237. After the 1977 New York City blackout, newspapers around the country published UPI and Associated Press' photos of Bushwick residents with stolen items and a police officer beating a suspected looter, Bushwick became known for riots and looting.
After the 1977 blackout, the communities of Ridgewood and Glendale expressed a desire to disassociate themselves from Bushwick. Following complaints from residents, Postmaster General William Bolger proposed that the ZIP codes would be changed if United States Representative Geraldine Ferraro could produce evidence that 70% of residents supported it. After Ferraro's office distributed ballots to residents, 93 percent of the returned ballots voted for the change; the change of the Queens side to ZIP Code 11385 was made effective January 13, 1980. 11237 was reassigned to cover only Bushwick and Wyckoff Heights, 11227 was eliminated. The first buildings constructed in the neighborhood were attached wood frame three- and six-family row houses. Around the turn of the century, as urbanization moved northeast towards the borough line and into Queens, developers switched to masonry construction in order to conform to new building and fire codes. Many of these buildings are now part of the Cypress Avenue West Historic District.
In the 1940s the last large-scale development in the neighborhood saw the construction of more automobile-oriented attached single-family homes with alleys and garages in the rear. Wyckoff Heights is home to the Wyckoff Heights Medical Center at Wyckoff Avenue and Stockholm Street, the former Wyckoff Heights Presbyterian Church at Harman Street and St. Nicholas Avenue. Fernandez, Manny. "Of Queens and Kings". The New York Times
Halfway is an unincorporated community in Allen County, United States. A post office was established in the community in 1877; the place name Halfway is said to have referred to the town's location halfway between Bowling Green and the Tennessee state line on the horse-drawn mail route. Though no Official Post Office had existed for many years there- owing in large part to the historical significance- the USPS would offer to make the owners of the local general store, the Halfway Trading Post, Honorary Postmasters; this allowed the owners of the store to operate a small letter drop inside the store, with postal boxes available only to residents of Halfway, giving the store the full federal protection of a building housing an official Post Office. In addition, the owners were entitled to a small stipend for their duties as "Postmaster", though they did not have official status as such; the Last honorary Postmaster of Halfway, Ky was Martha Shaddix. The Halfway Post Office closed in May 1997 upon Ms. Shaddix having sold the property
Lukiškės Prison was a prison in the center of Vilnius, near the Lukiškės Square. As of 2007, it housed 1,000 prisoners and employed around 250 prison guards. Most prisoners there were under temporary arrest awaiting court decisions or transfers to other detention facilities, but there was a permanent prison with about 180 inmates; the prison is located in a prestigious area, next to the Seimas Palace. After more than a century of continuous service, the prison suffered from overcrowding and was in need of improvements. Discussions about relocating it have continued for several years. According to a 2014 plan, the prison was relocated to Pravieniškės by 2018; the prison was closed on 2 July 2019. Until the late 19th century the main form of punishment in Russian-held part of partitioned Poland was the katorga, or forced resettlement to a remote area to heavy labour camps or prison farms; this was true to both political prisoners alike. The Russian Penal Code of 1845 further strengthened the notion.
Furthermore, prior to the Emancipation reform of 1861 the serfs, who constituted most of the society in contemporary Russian-held Europe, could be incarcerated by their master rather than in state-run prisons. Because of that, for most of the 19th century the small criminal prison at Vilna's suburb of Łukiszki, converted from an earlier Roman Catholic monastery in 1837, was enough to suit the needs of the Russian authorities. Most prisoners spent only a short period in the prison before being either released, sent to the gallows or sent to distant regions of Russia for penal servitude. However, the 1874 revision of the criminal code of Russia introduced two additional penalties: a short-term prison confinement and long-term prison confinement. Meanwhile, the old prison became dilapidated and overcrowded, it was clear. Because of that in 1900 G. A. Trambitski, the official architect of the Main Prison Authority, was tasked with designing a modern, high-security prison complex. Instead of moving it out of the city, the tsarist authorities decided to demolish the old prison and build the new one in its place.
One of the reasons for it was the site's proximity to the newly built Provincial Court building. The project was inspired by Jeremy Bentham's idea of Panopticon, was based on the design of Kresty Prison in Sankt Petersburg, which in turn was modelled after Moabit Prison in Berlin and the Holmesburg Prison and Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia. In 1901 construction work began and the old prison was closed down and demolished; the works were supervised by General Anatoliy Kelchevskiy. The plot of land occupied by the old prison was too small to accommodate a modern prison; because of that an adjoining plot of land occupied by a Lipka Tatar cemetery was bought for the price of 20 thousand roubles. The new complex covered the entire block, it included a penal prison with cells for 421 inmates, a detention centre for 278 inmates, as well as several other buildings. Those included an office building, bakery, ice cellar and a laundry. In addition, there were family apartments for the warden, his four deputies and 37 officers, 24 smaller flats for single officers.
One of the most distinctive buildings in the complex was the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church, one of the finest Orthodox churches in Vilna. However, as most of the inhabitants of the Vilna Governorate were Catholics or Jews, a separate Catholic church and a small synagogue were built into one of the prison blocks; the new prison had its own sewage system. The complex was surrounded with a stone wall; the prison complex was the most expensive building constructed in the region in the early 20th century. The cells were equipped and ventilated, constructed of non-combustible materials; the prison block containing the churches alone cost 504,000 roubles. The building of the detention centre cost 285 thousand roubles, while the administrative building with offices and apartments for the staff cost 180 thousand roubles. Despite its complexity, the project was finished in a full year ahead of schedule. In the interwar Second Polish Republic, the prison was used by Polish authorities to hold numerous notable West Belarusian political prisoners, for example: writers Maksim Tank, Maksim Haretski, Michaś Mašara, Uladzislau Pauliukouski, teacher Barys Kit and composer Ryhor Šyrma, ballet dancer Janka Chvorast.
In June 1941, during the German invasion, the NKVD shot prisoners at Lukiškės Prison. The prison became more notorious during the Nazi occupation of Lithuania, when it was used by the Gestapo and Lithuanian Saugumas as a holding cell for thousands of Jews from the Vilna Ghetto and Poles, picked up in łapankas in reprisals for actions by the Polish resistance; the majority were executed at Ponary. When Soviets reoccupied the territory in 1944, the prison was returned to the NKVD who detained thousands of Polish activists and partisans of Armia Krajowa. Francišak Alachnovič, Belarusian dramatist Menachem Begin, future Prime Minister of Israel Mykolas Biržiška, Lithuanian politician Mykolas Burokevičius, Lithuanian communist political leader Bertrand Cantat, French singer Janka Chvorast, Belarusian ballet dancer Felix Dzerzhinsky, Russian statesman and founder of Cheka Mieczysław Gutkowski, Polish lawyer and economist Maksim Haretski, Belarusian writer Rom