The Basílica de la Sagrada Família known as the Sagrada Família, is a large unfinished Roman Catholic minor basilica in Barcelona, Spain. Designed by Spanish/Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí, his work on the building is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On 7 November 2010, Pope Benedict XVI proclaimed it a minor basilica. On 19 March 1882, construction of the Sagrada Família began under architect Francisco de Paula del Villar. In 1883, when Villar resigned, Gaudí took over as chief architect, transforming the project with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted the remainder of his life to the project, he is buried in the crypt. At the time of his death in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete. Relying on private donations, the Sagrada Família's construction progressed and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War. In July 1936, revolutionaries set fire to the crypt and broke their way into the workshop destroying Gaudí's original plans and plaster models, which led to 16 years work to piece together the fragments of the master model.
Construction resumed to intermittent progress in the 1950s. Advancements in technologies such as computer aided design and computerised numerical control have since enabled faster progress and construction passed the midpoint in 2010. However, some of the project's greatest challenges remain, including the construction of ten more spires, each symbolising an important Biblical figure in the New Testament, it is anticipated that the building can be completed by the centenary of Gaudí's death. The basilica has a long history of splitting opinion among the residents of Barcelona: over the initial possibility it might compete with Barcelona's cathedral, over Gaudí's design itself, over the possibility that work after Gaudí's death disregarded his design, the 2007 proposal to build a tunnel of Spain's high-speed rail link to France which could disturb its stability. Describing the Sagrada Família, art critic Rainer Zerbst said "it is impossible to find a church building anything like it in the entire history of art", Paul Goldberger describes it as "the most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages".
The basilica is not the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Barcelona, as that title belongs to the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia. The Basílica de la Sagrada Família was the inspiration of a bookseller, Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of Asociación Espiritual de Devotos de San José. After a visit to the Vatican in 1872, Bocabella returned from Italy with the intention of building a church inspired by the basilica at Loreto; the apse crypt of the church, funded by donations, was begun 19 March 1882, on the festival of St. Joseph, to the design of the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar, whose plan was for a Gothic revival church of a standard form; the apse crypt was completed before Villar's resignation on 18 March 1883, when Antoni Gaudí assumed responsibility for its design, which he changed radically. Gaudi began work on the church in 1883 but was not appointed Architect Director until 1884. On the subject of the long construction period, Gaudí is said to have remarked: "My client is not in a hurry."
When Gaudí died in 1926, the basilica was between 25 percent complete. After Gaudí's death, work continued under the direction of Domènec Sugrañes i Gras until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Parts of the unfinished basilica and Gaudí's models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan anarchists; the present design is based on reconstructed versions of the plans that were burned in a fire as well as on modern adaptations. Since 1940, the architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluís Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner have carried on the work; the illumination was designed by Carles Buïgas. The current director and son of Lluís Bonet, Jordi Bonet i Armengol, has been introducing computers into the design and construction process since the 1980s. Mark Burry of New Zealand serves as Executive Researcher. Sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo and the controversial Josep Maria Subirachs decorate the fantastical façades. Barcelona-born Jordi Fauli took over as chief architect in 2012.
The central nave vaulting was completed in 2000 and the main tasks since have been the construction of the transept vaults and apse. As of 2006, work concentrated on the crossing and supporting structure for the main steeple of Jesus Christ as well as the southern enclosure of the central nave, which will become the Glory façade; the church shares its site with the Sagrada Família Schools building, a school designed by Gaudí in 1909 for the children of the construction workers. Relocated in 2002 from the eastern corner of the site to the southern corner, the building now houses an exhibition. Historical photographs of the Sagrada Família Chief architect Jordi Fauli announced in October 2015 that construction is 70 percent complete and has entered its final phase of raising six immense steeples; the steeples and most of the church's structure are to be completed by 2026, the centennial of Gaudí's death. Visitor entrance fees of €15 to €20 finance the annual construction budget of €25 million.
Computer-aided design technology has been used to accelerate construction of the building. Current technology allows stone to be shaped off-site by a CNC milling machine, whereas in the 20th century the stone was ca
Jackson Historic District in Jackson, Louisiana, is a historic district bounded by College Street, LA 952, Horton Street and Race Street. It was deemed significant as a "surviving rural town center from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with banks, residences, churches and all manner of other buildings which might be expected in such a town.... But the historic area of Jackson is superior to most historic town centers because it is unusually well-preserved."The district included 124 structures. Of these, 29 buildings are Federal or Greek Revival built from 1815 to 1845. Ten buildings are of a period spanning from 1845 to 1875, includes three churches and a few late Greek Revival houses. For 1875 to 1910, there are 15 buildings, including Late Victorian and Queen Anne styles. For 1910 to c.1930 there are 43 buildings. Twenty buildings are intrusions; the 135 acres area was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 4, 1980. It includes the Centenary College, individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 19, 1979.
Raymond I. Klingbiel was an Illinois lawyer and judge who twice served as the Chief Justice of Illinois during sixteen years as justice of that court. In 1969, Klingbiel and Chief Justice Roy J. Solfisburg, Jr. were involved in a major state scandal, after Sherman Skolnick revealed that both had accepted stock from the Civic Center Bank & Trust Company of Chicago while litigation involving the CCB was pending at the Illinois Supreme Court. The scandal forced Klingbiel to resign. Klingbiel was born on March 2, 1901 in East Moline, Illinois to the former Minne Lebbert and her husband, Henry Klingbiel, his paternal grandparents had emigrated from Germany in 1881, his grandfather Henry Klingbiel worked for what was the John Deere Wagon Company, a major employer in the area. Ray Klingbiel attended public schools in East Moline and attended the University of Illinois, which awarded him a law degree in 1924. While there, he was a member of the Phi Delta Phi legal fraternity, he received an honorary doctorate of law from the Chicago-Kent College of Law and was active with the Rotary Club and the Masonic Lodge.
Upon admission to the bar, Klingbiel returned to East Moline and served as a city attorney for 12 years. He won election as mayor and served from 1939 until 1945. During this period, Klingbiel established a reputation as a kingpin in the Rock Island County Republican Party and Downstate Illinois political power structure, in part as he was the county campaign manager for Governor Dwight Green who won election in 1940 in the backlash against the New Deal. In 1945, Klingbiel won election as an Illinois circuit judge, a position which he held until 1953, when he joined the Supreme Court of Illinois, he served as member for the 4th District from 1953 to 1963, following an amendment to the judicial article in the Illinois Constitution in 1962, as member for the 3rd District from 1963 to 1969. He served as chief justice for the 1956–57 term and again from 1964 to January 1967. In 1969, Sherman Skolnick, head of the Citizens' Committee to Clean Up the Courts, examined the stockholder records of the Civic Center Bank & Trust Company and discovered that both Klingbiel and Chief Justice Roy Solfisburg owned stock in the CCB.
This made him suspicious, because in People v. Isaacs, the Supreme Court had upheld a dismissal of charges against Theodore J. Isaacs, the general counsel of the CCB, the records showed that the two justices acquired the stock shortly before their decision in Isaacs. Klingbiel's CCB stock was worth about $2500. Skolnick contacted several members of the media, the story was broken in the Alton Evening Telegraph before being picked up by all the major papers; the Illinois House of Representatives unanimously voted to appoint a special committee to investigate the matter, but before it could act, the Supreme Court, acting on its "inherent powers", granted a motion filed by Skolnick to appoint a special commission to investigate. The commission was co-chaired by the president of the Chicago Bar Association and the president of the Illinois State Bar Association, they named John Paul Stevens, a private practitioner with a thriving antitrust practice, as their independent counsel, thus setting the stage for Stevens' meteoric rise to the Supreme Court of the United States.
During the course of the investigation, Klingbiel said that he had purchased the stock long after the decision in Isaacs, but when it was revealed that he had received the stock as a gift before the decision, he claimed that the stock was a campaign contribution, which did not seem plausible since it was received after the campaign was over and his campaign fund still had money in it. Stevens' investigation further revealed that Klingbiel was assigned the decision in Isaacs, though it was not his turn in the court's rotation, he discovered evidence of Solfisburg suggesting that CCB officials "do something nice" for Klingbiel; when the commission reported back, it recommended that both Klingbiel and Solfisburg resign, which they grudgingly did a short while later. Klingbiel remained bitter about the "political push" which took him from the bench, to the end refused to admit that he had done anything wrong. Klingbiel died in East Moline less than a year after his wife, the former Julia L. Stone, was buried beside her at Rose Lawn Memorial Estate in Moline.
Kenneth A. Manaster, Illinois Justice: The Scandal of 1969 and the Rise of John Paul Stevens Motion Filed by Sherman Skolnick, June 11, 1969 Order Creating the Special Commission The Special Commission's Report