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Saguache County, Colorado

Saguache County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,108; the county seat is Saguache. Saguache County was formed December 29, 1866 in the Territory of Colorado when it was extracted from the northern half of Costilla County. A partition from Lake County in February 9, 1872 added the northwest section of the present-day county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,170 square miles, of which 3,169 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. It is the 7th largest of Colorado's 64 counties. Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve Great Sand Dunes Wilderness Gunnison National Forest La Garita Wilderness Rio Grande National Forest Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Liberty Road historic mail route open to foot and bicycle travel between Crestone and the ghost towns of Duncan and Liberty crossing the Baca Mountain Tract Rio Grande National Forest.

Medano Pass Primitive Road Montville Nature Trail Mosca Pass Trail Old Spanish National Historic Trail Sand Ramp Trail, a hiking trail within the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve which skirts the east and north of the dune field. Western Express Bicycle Route As of the census of 2000, there were 5,917 people, 2,300 households, 1,557 families living in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 3,087 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.29% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 2.06% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 23.00% from other races, 3.08% from two or more races. 45.26 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,300 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,495, the median income for a family was $29,405. Males had a median income of $25,158 versus $18,862 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,121. About 18.70% of families and 22.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.60% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. Bonanza Center Crestone Moffat Saguache Saguache County has nine locations listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado counties Colorado municipalities State of Colorado Lindsey, D.

A. et al.. Mineral resources of the Black Canyon and South Piney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Saguache County, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Saguache County Government website Crestone and Saguache County Visitor's Agency website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geographic data related to Saguache County, Colorado at OpenStreetMap

Solera

Solera is a process for aging liquids such as wine, beer and brandy, by fractional blending in such a way that the finished product is a mixture of ages, with the average age increasing as the process continues over many years. The purpose of this labor-intensive process is the maintenance of a reliable style and quality of the beverage over time. Solera means "on the ground" in Spanish, it refers to the lower level of the set of barrels or other containers used in the process. Products which are solera aged include Sherry, Lillet, Port wine, Mavrodafni and Muscadelle wines. Since the origin of this process is out of the Iberian peninsula, most of the traditional terminology is in Spanish and Portuguese. In the solera process, a succession of containers are filled with the product over a series of equal aging intervals. A group of one or more containers, called scales, criaderas, or clases are filled for each interval. At the end of the interval after the last scale is filled, the oldest scale in the solera is tapped for part of its content, bottled.

That scale is refilled from the next oldest scale, that one in succession from the second-oldest, down to the youngest scale, refilled with new product. This procedure is repeated at the end of each aging interval; the transferred product mixes with the older product in the next barrel. No container is drained, so some of the earlier product always remains in each container; this remnant diminishes to a tiny level, but there can be significant traces of product much older than the average, depending on the transfer fraction. In theory traces of the first product placed in the solera may be present after 50 or more cycles. In Andalusia, the latest regulations for labeling requires careful labeling and record-keeping via computer, allowing the winemaker or regulator to access the average age of each container, which depends not only on the refreshment interval and number of scales, but the relative volumes that are chosen for the refreshment process—a larger refreshment and final removal for bottling will result in a younger average age.

The upper quality levels implied by the labeling system requires the bottled wine to be greater in age than the regulatory requirements. The age of product from the first bottling is the number of containers times the aging interval; as the solera matures, the average age of product asymptotically approaches one plus the number of scales divided by the fraction of a scale transferred or bottled, or. For instance, suppose the solera consists of three barrels of wine, half of each barrel is transferred once a year. At the end of the third year, half the third barrel is bottled; this first bottling is aged three years. The third barrel is refilled with by transferring half of the wine from the second barrel; the wine transferred from the second barrel has an average age of 2.5 years. The second bottling will be half 3.5 years old and half four years old, for an average age of 3.75 years. The third bottling will be an average age of 4.25 years. After 20 years, the output of the solera would be a mix of wine from 3 to 20 years old, averaging slightly under five years.

The average age asymptotically converges on five years. The output of the solera is the fraction of the last scale taken off for bottling each cycle; the amount of product tied up in the solera is many times larger than the production. This means that a solera is a large capital investment for a winemaker. If done with actual barrels, the producer may have several soleras running in parallel. For a small producer, a solera may be the largest capital investment, a valuable asset to be passed down to descendants. An economic concomitant of the Andalusian wine industry are Almacenistas ('warehousers', small or larger investors who purchase solera-produced material and maintain it over many years so that it can be purchased for current needs by bodegas who are blending for the market. Wine produced from a solera cannot formally have a vintage date because it is a blend of vintages from many years. However, some bottlings are labeled with an age for marketing reasons, which could be the date that the solera was founded.

In most instances, It is unclear whether such age indications denotes the average age, or the age of the oldest batch. In Andalusia, the various average age categories, up to 30 years of age at present, are much better documented to the regulatory body and on the bottle labels at present than they were just a decade or two ago; this process is known as solera in Spanish, was developed by the producers of sherry. In a Spanish sherry solera, the vintner may transfer about a third of each barrel a year. A solera sherry has to be at least three years old w

Order of Saint Anthony (Ethiopia)

The Order of Saint Anthony was a apocryphal chivalric order of Ethiopia, which according to legend founded around 370 by the Emperor of Ethiopia. It was bestowed on clerics. Pedro Páez in his History of Ethiopia seems to write that, in his travels throughout the country, there was no person familiar with any such Order and that it was an invented fable. Mentioned more in Western sources than Ethiopian ones, it is speculated that it might have been a monastic order following Saint Anthony the Great, rather than a European-style chivalric order, but was perceived as such by medieval Western as the latter, who in turn re-imported their misconception into Ethiopia in the late Middle Ages, where it was adopted and purportedly awarded by both the Emperor and the Abuna of the Tewahedo Church. There are several references to the order in European texts in the Early modern period, some deeming it fraudulent while other recognising it as a powerful monastic order with thousands of members and a chapter house "in every town" of the country, a unusual occurrence in a period where what little Westerners "knew" about Ethiopia, such as its "ruler" Prester John, was wildly inaccurate.

Several works on Ethiopia during this period mentioned the order. In 1632, one Balthasar Giron, who purported he was "an Abyssinian", in Rome claimed he possessed the "ancient order" of "St. Anthony of Ethiopia", until he was exposed as a fraud by the Maronite scholar Abraham Echelensis, it is not clear whether the Order was dismissed as fraudulent or Giron's claim of membership. There does not appear to be any mention of the order until it was notionally revived by the Ethiopian monarchy-in-exile after 1987, is today awarded by the Crown Council of Ethiopia, it is an award given to clerics and to academics of distinction; the Order today has two different grades, that of the Knight Grand Cross, that of the Companion. Order of Saint Anthony