Baldev Raj Chopra
Baldev Raj Chopra was an Indian director and producer of Bollywood movies and television serials. Best known for making Hindi films like Naya Daur, Kanoon, Humraaz and the TV series, Mahabharat in the late 1980s, he was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1998, his younger brother Yash Chopra, son Ravi Chopra and nephew Aditya Chopra are directors in the Bollywood industry. His nephew Uday Chopra is an producer. Chopra was born on 22 April 1914 in Rahon to Vilayati Raj Chopra, an employee of the PWD, he shifted to Lahore. He was the second of several siblings. Chopra received an M. A. in English literature from University of the Punjab in Lahore. He started his career in 1944 as a film journalist with Cine Herald, a film-monthly published in Lahore, he took over the magazine and ran it until 1947. In the same year, he launched a film with a story by Chandni Chowk. Naeem Hashmi was hero of this movie and Erika Rukhshi was the heroine. Just as the production of film was to start, riots broke out in Lahore and he and his family had to flee from the city.
After the partition of India into India and Pakistan in 1947, he moved to Delhi. He moved to Mumbai, where his first production, began in 1948, though it turned out to be a flop, his first film as a director, was released in 1951 and featured Ashok Kumar in a double role – the film was a hit and established his name in Bollywood. Chopra made Chandni Chowk, with Meena Kumari as a lead, in 1954. In 1955, Chopra formed his own production house, B. R Films, his first movie for this production house was Ek hi Raasta, successfulhe followed it up with Naya Daur starring Dilip Kumar and Vyjayantimala Bali, the film became a golden jubilee hit. His subsequent releases like Kanoon, Humraaz were major hits in the sixties. In 1963, he was a member of the jury at the 13th Berlin International Film Festival, his second film with actor Dilip Kumar was Dastaan which became a flop in 1972. He directed successful film across genres after 1972, with films like suspense thriller Dhund, comedy film Pati Patni Aur Woh, crime film in Insaaf Ka Tarazu, Muslim social in Nikaah and the political thriller Awam.
Chopra was instrumental in developing the career of singer Mahendra Kapoor, whom he employed in most of his movies. One prominent thing about B. R. Chopra is the low number of songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar and Mohammed Rafi in his films, with Asha Bhosle and Mahendra Kapoor being his preferred singers; the reason behind this was never revealed by the singers. Incidentally, both Chopra and Kapoor died within a gap of little longer than a month in 2008, with the latter dying first. Chopra forayed into television with Mahabharat, one of the most successful TV serials in Indian television history. Nitish Bharadwaj played the role of Krishna in that series. Another of his memorable TV dramas is Bahadur Shah Zafar, he died in Mumbai at the age of 94 on 5 November 2008, survived by his son, Ravi Chopra, two daughters. Civilian awardsPadma Bhushan-2001National Film Awards1960: Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film in Hindi – Kanoon 1961: President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Hindi – Dharmputra 1998: Dadasaheb Phalke AwardFilmfare Awards1962: Filmfare Best Director Award: Kanoon 2003: Filmfare Lifetime Achievement AwardOther Awards1998: Kalakar Awards for Lifetime Achievement 2008: Phalke Ratna Award by the Dadasaheb Phalke Academy Baldev Raj Chopra on IMDb B R Chopra's unforgettable movies Rediff.com
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence, he emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India, he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.
He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.
Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.
He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which culminated...in The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.
He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary her
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking and reflection about society, proposes solutions for its normative problems and gains authority as a public figure. Coming from the world of culture, either as a creator or as a mediator, the intellectual participates in politics either to defend a concrete proposition or to denounce an injustice by rejecting, producing or extending an ideology, or by defending a system of values; the intellectual is a type of intelligent person who uses critical thinking. Many everyday roles require the application of intelligence to skills that may have a psychomotor component—for example, in the fields of medicine or the arts--but these do not involve the practitioner in the "world of ideas"; the intellectual scrutinizes cultural ideas and writings using abstract and esoteric aspects of human inquiry to evaluate the thinking of others. The intellectual and the scholarly classes are related: the intellectual may be a teacher involved in the production of scholarship and has an academic background, or may work in a profession or practice an art or a science.
The intellectual person is one who applies critical thinking and reason in either a professional or a personal capacity, so has authority in the public sphere of their society. In Latin language, at least starting from the Carolingian Empire intellectuals could be called litterati, a term, sometimes applied today. Intellectuals constitute the intelligentsia, a status class organised either by ideology, or by nationality; the contemporary intellectual class originated from the intelligentsiya of Tsarist Russia, the social stratum of those possessing intellectual formation, who were Russian society's counterpart to the German Bildungsbürgertum and to the French bourgeoisie éclairée, the enlightened middle classes of those realms. In the late 19th century, amidst the Dreyfus affair, an identity crisis of anti-semitic nationalism for the French Third Republic, the reactionary anti–Dreyfusards used the terms intellectual and the intellectuals to deride the liberal Dreyfusards as political dilettantes from the realms of French culture and science, who had become involved in politics, by publicly advocating for the exoneration and liberation of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish French artillery captain falsely accused of betraying France to Germany.
In the 20th century, the term intellectual acquired positive connotations of social prestige, derived from possessing intellect and intelligence when the intellectual's activities exerted positive consequences in the public sphere and so increased the intellectual understanding of the public, by means of moral responsibility and solidarity, without resorting to the manipulations of demagoguery and incivility. Hence, for the educated person of a society, participating in the public sphere—the political affairs of the city-state—is a civic responsibility dating from the Græco–Latin Classical era: I am a human; the determining factor for a Thinker to be considered a public intellectual is the degree to which he or she is implicated and engaged with the vital reality of the contemporary world. Being designated as a public intellectual is determined by the degree of influence of the designator's motivations and options of action, by affinity with the given thinker. Analogously, the application and the conceptual value of the terms intellectual and the intellectuals are negative when the practice of intellectuality is in service to the Establishment who wield power in a society, as such: The Intellectuals are specialists in defamation, they are political commissars, they are the ideological administrators, the most threatened by dissidence.
Chomsky's negative view of the Establishment Intellectual suggests the existence of another kind of intellectual one might call "the public intellectual", the following: omeone able to speak the truth, a courageous and angry individual for whom no worldly power is too big and imposing to be criticised and pointedly taken to task. The real or true intellectual is therefore always an outsider, living in self-imposed exile, on the margins of society, he or she speaks to, as well as for, a public in public, is properly on the side of the dispossessed, the un-represented and the forgotten. The term "man of letters" derives from the French term belletrist or homme de lettres but is not synonymous with "an academic". A "man of letters" was a literate man as opposed to an illiterate man, in a time when literacy was a rare form of cultural capital. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Belletrists were the
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established by the parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is composed of the executive and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court; the powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President passes bills; the President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house.
The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, anti-terrorism, the green courts; the full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, in legal cases; the "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names indicate affiliation with the federal government; as the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is used as a metonym for the federal government. The Constitution of Pakistan established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as State of Pakistan.
The Constitution reads as: The Federal Government is Subject to the Constitution. The executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation. In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime Minister may act either directly or through the Ministers; the basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga system has become an institution for local governance; the 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been influenced by the United States Of America' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has influenced the country's judicial development.
The legislative branch is known as the parliament, a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities. The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms; the Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament, according to the constitution; the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government the government collapses and a new one must be formed. By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy.
The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history; the Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive. Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations; the Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions. The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countriesThe Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent of the total strength of the Parliament; each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament. The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assi
Lata Mangeshkar is an Indian playback singer and music director. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in South Asia India, she has recorded songs in over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though in Marathi and Bengali. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. In 2001, in recognition of her contributions to the nation, she was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour and is only the second vocalist, after M. S. Subbulakshmi, to receive this honour. France conferred on her its highest civilian award in 2007, she is the recipient of three National Film Awards, 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards, four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards, two Filmfare Special Awards, Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award and many more. In 1974, she became the first Indian to perform in the Royal Albert Hall, she has four siblings—Meena Khadikar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar, Hridaynath Mangeshkar—of whom she is the eldest.
Lata Mangeshkar was born in 1929, the eldest daughter of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, a Marathi musician and his Gujarati wife Shevanti in Indore. Her father, Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar, was a classical theatre actor, her mother, Shevanti, a Gujarati woman from Thalner, Bombay Presidency, was Deenanath's second wife. Mangeshkar's paternal grandfather, Ganesh Bhatt Navathe Hardikar, was a Goan Padye Brahmin priest who performed the abhishekam of the Shiva lingam at the Mangueshi Temple in Goa. Mangeshkar's maternal grandfather was Gujarati businessman, Seth Haridas Ramdas Lad, a prosperous businessman and landlord of Thalner; the family's last name used to be Hardikar. Lata was named "Hema" at her birth, her parents renamed her Lata after a female character, Latika, in one of her father's plays, BhaawBandhan. Mangeshkar the eldest child of the family. Meena, Asha and Hridaynath, in birth order, are her siblings, all accomplished singers and musicians. Mangeshkar received her first music lesson from her father.
At the age of five, she started to work as an actress in her father's musical plays. On the first day in school, she started teaching songs to other children; when the teacher stopped her, she was so angry. Other sources cite that she left school because they would not allow her to bring Asha with her, as she would bring her younger sister with her. In 1942, when Mangeshkar was 13, her father died of heart disease. Master Vinayak, the owner of Navyug Chitrapat movie company and a close friend of the Mangeshkar family, took care of them, he helped Lata get started in a career as a actress. Mangeshkar sang the song "Naachu Yaa Gade, Khelu Saari Mani Haus Bhaari", composed by Sadashivrao Nevrekar for Vasant Joglekar's Marathi movie Kiti Hasaal, but the song was dropped from the final cut. Vinayak gave her a small role in Navyug Chitrapat's Marathi movie Pahili Mangalaa-gaur, in which she sang "Natali Chaitraachi Navalaai", composed by Dada Chandekar, her first Hindi song was "Mata Ek Sapoot Ki Duniya Badal De Tu" for the Marathi film Gajaabhaau.
Mangeshkar moved to Mumbai in 1945. She started taking lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan of Bhendibazaar Gharana, she sang "Paa Lagoon Kar Jori" for Vasant Joglekar's Hindi-language movie Aap Ki Seva Mein, composed by Datta Davjekar. The dance in the film was performed by Rohini Bhate who became a famous classical dancer. Mangeshkar and her sister Asha played minor roles in Badi Maa. In that movie, Lata sang a bhajan, "Maata Tere Charnon Mein." She was introduced to music director Vasant Desai during the recording of Vinayak's second Hindi-language movie, Subhadra. After Vinayak's death in 1948, music director Ghulam Haider mentored her as a singer, he introduced Mangeshkar to producer Sashadhar Mukherjee, working on the movie Shaheed, but Mukherjee dismissed Mangeshkar's voice as "too thin". An annoyed Haider responded that in coming years producers and directors would "fall at Lata's feet" and "beg her" to sing in their movies. Haider gave Lata her first major break with the song "Dil Mera Toda, Mujhe Kahin Ka Na Chhora"—lyrics by Nazim Panipati—in the movie Majboor, which became her first big breakthrough film hit.
In an interview on her 84th birthday, in September 2013, Lata herself declared, "Ghulam Haider is my Godfather. He was the first music director who showed complete faith in my talent."Initially, Mangeshkar is said to have imitated the acclaimed singer Noor Jehan, but she developed her own style of singing. Lyrics of songs in Hindi movies are composed by Urdu poets and contain a higher proportion of Urdu words, including the dialogue. Actor Dilip Kumar once made a mildly disapproving remark about Mangeshkar's Maharashtrian accent while singing Hindi/Urdu songs.
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp