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Sail components

Sail components include the features that define a sail's shape and function, plus its constituent parts from which it is manufactured. A sail may be classified in a variety of ways, including by its orientation to the vessel and its shape. Sails are constructed out of flexible material, shaped by various means, while in use, to offer an appropriate airfoil, according to the strength and apparent direction of the wind. A variety of features and fittings allow the sail to be attached to spars. Whereas conventional sails form an airfoil with one layer of fabric, wingsails comprise a structure that has material on both sides to form an airfoil—much like a wing placed vertically on the vessel—and are beyond the scope of this article. Sails may be classified as either triangular, which describes sails that either come to one point of suspension at the top or where the sail comes to a point at the forward end, or quadrilateral, which includes sails that are attached to a spar at the top and have three other sides, or as square.

They may be classified as symmetrical or asymmetrical. Asymmetrical sails perform better on points of sail closer to the wind than symmetrical sails and are designed for fore-and-aft rigs. Symmetrical sails perform best on points of sail. Triangular sails have names for each of three corners. Rigs with such sails include Bermuda, cutter and vessels with mixed sail plans that include jibs and other staysails. Most triangular sails are classified as fore and aft. Gaff, lug and some sprit sails have four sides and are set fore and aft so that one edge is leading into the wind, forming an asymmetric quadrilateral shape. Naming conventions are consistent with triangular sails, except for corners. A square rig is a type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts—the sails themselves are not square but are symmetrically quadrilateral; these spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms.

A ship so rigged is called a square-rigger. The shape of a sail is defined by its edges and corners in the plane of the sail, laid out on a flat surface; the edges may be curved, either to extend the sail's shape as an airfoil or to define its shape in use. In use, the sail becomes a curved shape, adding the dimension of draft; the top of all sails is called the head, the leading edge is called the luff, the trailing edge is the leech, the bottom edge is the foot. Head – The head is the upper edge of the sail, is attached at the throat and peak to a gaff, yard, or sprit. For a triangular sail the head refers to the topmost corner. Leech – The aft edge of a fore-and-aft sail is called the leech; the leech is either side edge of a symmetrical sail -- square. However, once a symmetrical sail has wind blowing along its surface, whether on a reach or close-hauled, the windward leech may be called a luff. Luff – The forward edge of a fore-and-aft sail is called the luff, may be attached along a mast or a stay.

When on a reach, the windward leech of a spinnaker is called the luff and, when on a reach or close-hauled, the windward leech of a square sail may be called the luff or the weather leech. Foot – The foot of a sail is its bottom edge. On a fore-and-aft mainsail, the foot is attached, at the tack and clew, to a boom. A fore-and-aft triangular mainsail achieves a better approximation of a wing form by extending the leech aft, beyond the line between the head and clew in an arc called the roach, rather than having a triangular shape; this added area would flutter in the wind and not contribute to the efficient airfoil shape of the sail without the presence of battens. Offshore cruising mainsails sometimes have a hollow leech to obviate the need for battens and their ensuing likelihood of chafing the sail. Roach is a term applied to square sail design—it is the arc of a circle above a straight line from clew to clew at the foot of a square sail, from which sail material is omitted; the roach allows the foot of the sail to clear stays coming up the mast, as the sails are rotated from side to side.

The names of corners of sails vary, depending on symmetry. Head – In a triangular sail, the corner where the luff and the leech connect is called the head. On a square sail, the top corners are head cringles. Peak – On a quadrilateral sail, the peak is the upper aft corner of the sail, at the top end of a gaff, a sprit or other spar. Throat – On a quadrilateral sail, the throat is the upper forward corner of the sail, at the bottom end of a gaff or other spar. Gaff-rigged sails, certain similar rigs, employ two halyards to raise the sails: the throat halyard raises the forward, throat end of the gaff, while the peak halyard raises the aft, peak end. Clew – The corner where the leech and foot connect is called the clew on a fore-and-aft sail. On a jib, the sheet is connected to the clew. Clews are the lower two corners of a square sail. Square sails have sheets attached to their clews like triangular sails, but the sheets are used to pull the sail down to the yard

Zusho Hirosato

Zusho Hirosato was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, who served as karō of the Satsuma Domain. Known as Shōzaemon. Zusho was born in the son of Satsuma samurai Kawasaki Motoaki. At age 12 he was adopted by Zusho Kiyonobu. Shigehide recognized Zusho's talents, gave him further responsibilities, he was employed by the Satsuma lord, Shimazu Narioki, serving Narioki as messenger and city magistrate. In 1832, he was elevated to karō status; as karō, he was involved with finance and military reform. At the time, the Satsuma domain's debt totaled over 5 million ryō. In order to address this problem, he began a program of administrative and agricultural reforms, levied a no-interest loan on the merchants of Satsuma, to be repaid over the course of 250 years; this means that the domain had promised to repay the loan from until 2085. Zusho increased the level of illicit trade taking place with the Qing Empire, via the Ryukyu Islands. Zusho put a monopoly system in place on the local sugar trade, increased trade and production levels.

However, Zusho soon became embroiled in the dispute over who would succeed Narioki: his eldest son Nariakira, or Nariakira's half-brother Hisamitsu. Narioki and Zusho's preference was Hisamitsu. Nariakira, aiming to remove his political enemies Narioki and Zusho from power, secretly revealed the illicit Ryukyu trade to the rōjū, Abe Masahiro. In 1848, while Zusho was in Edo, he was summoned by Abe for an inquiry into the secret trade. Soon after this trade was revealed, Zusho died in one of the Satsuma residences in Edo, his age at death was 73. After Zusho's death, his family had its residence and status confiscated by Nariakira. Zusho's grave is located in modern Kagoshima City. In the Bakumatsu period, the Satsuma domain was unlike most other domains in Japan, as it possessed large numbers of steam-driven warships and cannons; this is miraculous, given that only one generation the domain was over 5 million ryō in debt. It is thanks to Zusho Hirosato's budget-balancing efforts that this level of military buildup was possible for Satsuma.

A statue of Zusho now stands at Tenpōzan Park in Kagoshima City. Japanese Wiki article on Zusho Sagers, John H. Origins of Japanese Wealth and Power: Reconciling Confucianism and Capitalism, 1830-1885. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. "History of Zusho"

Peter Willebeeck

Peter Willebeeck or Petrus Willebeeck was a Flemish still life painter, active in Antwerp in the second quarter of the 17th century. He is known for his fruit still lifes, vanitas still lifes and banquet pieces executed in a delicate manner. Nothing is recorded about Willebeeck's life and training, it is believed he was born before 1620. It is known, it is possible that he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1646. He was the teacher of Pieter Cosijn. Willebeeck painted fruit still lifes, vanitas still lives and banquet pieces; the only dated work by his hand is a fruit still life dated 1647, which represents a fruit garland around a grisaille bust of Christ. This painting was at the Harrach Gallery in Vienna and was last auctioned on 18 January 1983 at Christie's New York. A vanitas still life, at B. Koetser in 1975 is related to a work of Joris van Son dated 1652 and may have served as the model for the van Son painting. Many of his still lifes reference the theme of vanitas and the transience of earthly glory and pleasure.

An illustration is the Still Life in the collection of the Rockox House in Antwerp. It shows precious objects to refer to ideas of vanities and hollowness: the fallen rummer, the silver candle holder and Westerwald jug are all empty, the lighted cigar is about to go out, the pipe is finished and there is no further life in the shell; these objects all point to the transitoriness of the pleasures of drink and tobacco. The pealed lemon references the bitterness of life. Willebeeck is deemed to be a member of the circle of painters who were influenced by Jan Davidsz de Heem, a Dutch still life painter, active in Antwerp at the same time as Willebeeck and was himself influenced by Flemish still life painters such as Frans Snyders and Daniel Seghers; as was common in Antwerp at the time, Willebeeck collaborated with other painters, who were specialists in a particular genre. He worked with staffage specialists on still portraits. One example of such collaboration is a painting of a garland of fruit around a female bust which he made with Erasmus Quellinus II who painted the female figure.

Media related to Peter Willebeeck at Wikimedia Commons


Jejuri is a city and a municipal council in Pune district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is famous for the main temple of Lord Khandoba, it is a famous temple town being the family deity of many houses in Karnataka. Its economy is centered on businesses catering to the numerous devotees coming to worship the Khandoba Temple there; the increase in property rates and the planning of an international airport near the town has seen a spurt of development happening there. Naik Hari Makaji and Naik Tatya Makaji were two Koli revolutionaries from Maharashtra, they revolted against British Hukumat. Naik Hari Makaji and Naik Tatya Makaji with Naik Rama Krishna of kalambi made an army of Ramoshis of Satara and revolted. In 1879 they raided in Poona fifteen times with ramoshi army. After that Hari Makaji and Tatya Makaji raided satara many time. In February 1879, Naik Hari Makaji attacked in Baramati portion of Bhimthadi. On the 8Th raid in Baramati, Naik Hari Makaji was attacked by British police but he escaped by fighting hand to hand with two British policemen and wounded them but two Ramoshis were captured.

After that, at the beginning of March, Naik Hari Makaji again raised and revolted in Indapur and raided. But in middle of March, Hari was captured in Solapur. After capture of Naik Hari Makaji, His brother Naik Tatya Makaji led his revolution, Tatya Makaji continued till the end of the year. Naik Tatya Makaji raided the villages on the Sinhagad ranges. On 17 October, Koli Naik Tatya Makaji and some of his followers killed a Ramoshi, informer for British Major Wise. After that Tatya Makaji Naik brought to justice. Jejuri is located at18.28°N 74.17°E / 18.28. It has an average elevation of 718 metres mean sea level; as of 2011 India census, Jejuri had a population of 14,515. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Jejuri has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, female literacy is 67%. In Jejuri, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Jejuri Temple is located in the Jejuri town, which lies to the southeast of the Pune city of Maharashtra.

The town is known for being the venue of one of the revered temples in the state, known as the Khandobachi Jejuri. The temple is dedicated to Khandoba known as Mhalsakant or Malhari Martand or Mylaralinga. Khandoba is held in great reverence by the Dhangars; the temple was the site of a historic treaty between Tarabai and Balaji Bajirao on 14 September 1752. Jejuri Khandoba Temple can be divided into two separate sections - the Mandap and Garbhagriha. Jejuri has Lime deposits; the historic Shaniwar Wada fort at the central seat of Maratha Empire at Pune was completed in 1732 by the famed Peshwa Bajirao I, at a total cost of Rs. 16,110, from the Lime mined from the lime-belts of Jejuri. Jejuri by Arun Kolatkar Günter-Dietz Sontheimer: Some Incidents in the History of the Khandoba. In: Asie du Sud. Traditions et changements. VIth European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies 1973. Hrsg. von M. Gaborieau u. A. Thorner, Paris 1979, S. 11-117

Doug Allder

Douglas Stewart Allder is an English former professional footballer left winger who made over 200 appearances in the Football League for Millwall. He is a member of the Millwall Hall of Fame. Allder began his career with Second Division club Millwall and signed apprentice terms in April 1968 for £4 a week, he signed a professional contract in October 1969, worth £20 a week. He broke into the team during the 1969 -- 70 season, making 24 appearances. A dispute with Benny Fenton in 1971 saw Allder play on a week-to-week contract and he nearly moved to play under Gordon Jago at divisional rivals Queens Park Rangers; the move was cancelled after Jago replaced Fenton as Millwall manager, which meant Allder remained at The Den. The Lions challenged for promotion to First Division, but relegation to Third Division at the end of the 1974–75 season saw Allder depart the club. In his six years with Millwall he scored 12 goals. Allder is a member of the Millwall Hall of Fame. In July 1975, Allder moved to Second Division club Orient in exchange for Terry Brisley and Barrie Fairbrother.

He left Orient at the end of the 1976–77 season, after making 41 league appearances without scoring. Looking back in 2002, Allder said "I knew straight away it was a bad move. I wasn't happy there". Allder had a one month trial with Fourth Division club Torquay United in August 1977 and made one appearance as a substitute for Lindsay Parsons in a League Cup tie away at Cardiff City. In September 1977, he had a month-long trial with Watford and made a single appearance away at Rochdale, in which he was substituted at half-time. Watford went on to win the 1977–78 Fourth Division title and Allder received a winners' medal from chairman Elton John after the final game of the season against Brentford. In October 1977, Allder joined Fourth Division club Brentford on trial, he became the regular left winger in the team and signed a contract. The Bees were promoted to the Third Division at the end of the season, after securing a fourth-place finish. Allder had an infamous brawl with Sheffield United's Mick Speight during a match at Griffin Park in November 1979, which resulted in the fight spilling over into the Sheffield United dugout and both players being sent off.

Allder was released at the end of the 1979–80 season and made 95 appearances and scored three goals during his time at Griffin Park. Allder joined Isthmian League club Tooting & Mitcham in 1980, he moved to Staines Town before moving to Walton & Hersham. In 1992, he was working at the Millwall Centre of Excellence; as of 2002, Allder was working at Heathrow Airport. Watford Football League Fourth Division: 1977–78Brentford Football League Fourth Division fourth-place promotion: 1977–78Individual Millwall Hall of Fame

Krzysztof PoliƄski

Krzysztof "Polo" Poliński is a Polish rock drummer, session musician, arranger. Throughout his career, he has participated in numerous music projects encompassing genres such as jazz and hard rock, with particular focus on rock. In 1989, Krzysztof Poliński finished the Józef Elsner School of Music in Poland, he began his musical career in the late 1980s as a member of jazz groups Blue Set Off. Together with Blue Trane, he won the second place at the Jazz Juniors Festival in Kraków, Poland and the third place at a music festival in Dunkirk, France. Between 1988 and 1990, he was a member of a band Holloee Poloy with which he recorded and published The Big Beat; the album was a phonographic debut of a well-known and recognized Polish rock artist Edyta Bartosiewicz. During the next ten years, as a member of Bartosiewicz's band, Poliński recorded albums Love, Szok'N'Show, Dziecko and Dziś są moje urodziny as well as played concerts around the country and abroad. By the end of September 1997, more than 200,000 copies of Dziecko had been sold in Poland, which brought the album a Platinum status.

In 2000, Poliński began an ongoing cooperation with another Polish rock artist – Urszula. As a member of her band, he has recorded albums Udar, The Best, Dziś już wiem, Eony Snu, Wielki odlot 2 – Najlepsze 80-te, Biała droga Live – Woodstock Festival Poland 2015, Biała droga Live and has performed around the country and abroad. In February 2017, the album Urszula z kwartetem smyczkowym – Złote przeboje akustycznie came out, it presents songs recorded during a concert that took place on November 20, 2016 in Pałac Młodzieży in Katowice, Poland. During this performance as well as the entire 2016 fall tournée, Urszula's band was accompanied by a string quartet of the AUKSO Chamber Orchestra of Tychy, Poland. Between 2007 and 2013, Poliński was a member of a rock band Vino. In 2007, the group participated in the national finals for the Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Come In My Heart" and ended at the fifth place; the same year, Vino qualified to the second phase of the Vena Festival with the song "Rolling Sun".

In 2012, Vino played several concerts which were part of Jack Daniel's Rocks as well as performed in the Hard Rock Café in Warsaw during the national finals for the global competition for upcoming bands – Hard Rock Rising. The ultimate winner had the opportunity to perform during the Hard Rock Calling festival in Hyde Park. Krzysztof Poliński has participated in a wide range of other projects which have resulted in albums Bananowe drzewa by rock band Róże Europy, Nie znasz mnie by singer Ewelina Flinta, The Triptic by hard rock band Sweet Noise, Goodbye by Anita Lipnicka and John Porter, he appeared on albums Kolory by band Firebirds and Zapamiętaj by band Bracia. Episodically, he worked with group Oddział Zamknięty. With addition to the recorded albums, the cooperation with Ewelina Flinta, Anita Lipnicka, John Porter led to numerous concert tours. Since 2016, Poliński has been a member of Polish band The group has prepared its own adaptations of 29 songs by legendary American musician Bob Dylan.

In March 2017, released its first album – a two-disc Niepotrzebna pogodynka, żeby znać kierunek wiatru. Its main publisher is a Polish media company Agora SA. Since 2000, Krzysztof Poliński has regularly performed in a musical "Jeździec Burzy" staged by the Rampa Theater in Warsaw, Poland; the play tells the story of legendary American singer and poet Jim Morrison and the band of which he was a member – The Doors. In the musical, Poliński impersonates The Doors' drummer John Densmore by performing the band's music live throughout the entire show. Moreover, as a result of the cooperation with a Polish composer Krzesimir Dębski, Krzysztof Poliński recorded music for a Polish TV series Ranczo as well as movies Magiczne Drzewo, 1920 Bitwa Warszawska, Sztos 2. During his artistic and professional career, Poliński has taken part in numerous charity events, such as the Grand Finale fundraiser of the Great Orchestra of Christmas Charity. In January 2009, Poliński co initiated and participated in a charity concert for a Polish alpinist Paweł Kulinicz.

The event was held in an art center Fabryka Trzciny in Poland. In January 2017, a Polish magazine for drummers Magazyn Perkusista recognized Poliński as one of the best 101 drummers in the country's history. Krzysztof Poliński is married to Katarzyna and they have two daughters – Aleksandra and Agata. Poliński lives in Poland. He's interested in history and sport, he runs on a regular basis. In his free time, he enjoys mushrooming and cooking. For many years, he's been a faithful fan of the Championship football team Bolton Wanderers F. C.. The Big Beat – Holloee Poloy Love – Edyta Bartosiewicz Sen – Edyta Bartosiewicz Szok'n'Show – Edyta Bartosiewicz Bananowe drzewa – Róże Europy Kolory – Firebirds Dziecko – Edyta Bartosiewicz Wodospady – Edyta Bartosiewicz Dziś są moje urodziny – Edyta Bartosiewicz Udar – Urszula The Best – Urszula Nie znasz mnie – Ewelina Flinta The Triptic – Sweet Noise Goodbye – Anita Lipnicka & John Porter Zapamiętaj – Bracia Dziś już wiem – Urszula Eony Snu – Urszula Wielki odlot 2 – Najlepsze 80-te – Urszula Biała droga Live - Woodstock