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Sail plan

A sail plan is a set of drawings prepared by a naval architect which shows the various combinations of sail proposed for a sailing ship. Alternatively, as a term of art, it refers to the way; the combinations shown in a sail plan always include three configurations: A light air sail plan. Over most of the Earth, most of the time, the wind force is Force 1 or less, thus a sail plan should include a set of huge, lightweight sails that will keep the ship underway in light breezes. A working sail plan; this is the set of sails that are changed in variable conditions. They are still lightweight. An economical sail in this set will include several sets of reefing ties, so the area of the sail can be reduced in a stronger wind. A storm sail plan; this is the set of small rugged sails flown in a gale, to keep the vessel under way and in control. In all sail plans, the architect attempts to balance the force of the sails against the drag of the underwater keel in such a way that the vessel points into the wind.

In this way, if control is lost, the vessel will avoid broaching, being beaten by breaking waves. Broaching always causes uncomfortable motion, in a storm, the breaking waves can destroy a built boat; the architect tries to balance the wind force on each sail plan against a range of loads and ballast. The calculation assures that the sail will not knock the vessel sideways with its mast in the water and sinking it. Fore-and-aft rig features sails that run fore and aft, controlled by lines called "sheets", that changes sides, as the bow passes through the wind from one side of the craft to the other. Three variants include: Bermuda rig features a three-sided mainsail. Gaff rig features a four-sided mainsail with the upper edge made fast to a spar called a gaff. Lateen rig features a three-sided sail set on a long yard, mounted at an angle on the mast and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Square rig features sails set square to the mast from a yard, a spar running transversely in relation to the hull.

Although these sails are more or less "square" in appearance, this is not the reason they are referred to as "square". In ships built using older designs of the square rig, sailors would have to climb the rigging and walk out on footropes under the yard to furl and unfurl the sails. In a modern square rigged design the crew can unfurl sails by remote control from the deck; some cruising craft with fore-and-aft sails will carry a small square sail with top and bottom yards that are rigged and hauled up from the deck. A modern version of this rig is the German-engineered DynaRig which has its yards fixed permanently in place on its rotating masts and has twice the efficiency of operation of the traditional square rig; each form of rig requires its own type of sails. Among them are: A staysail is a piece of cloth that has one or two sides attached to a stay, that is, one of the ropes or wires that helps hold the mast in place. A staysail was classically attached to the stay with wooden or steel hoops, but on modern yachts are attached by clips.

Sailors would test the hoops by climbing on them. A jib is a headsail that flies in front of the foremost vertical mast and attaches to a stay or roller furling gear, whether that be the mainmast or a somewhat shorter foremast. A genoa is a large jib. A mainsail is a sail attached to the main mast. For fore-and-aft sails it is triangular sail with the forward edge attached to the mast with the foot or lower edge attached to a boom. A gaff rig mainsail has a boom at the top of the sail and is truncated triangle. For square-rigged ships it is suspended on a cross spar attached to the mast, is the lowest of such sails A mizzen sail is a small triangular sail at the stern of a boat. A lug sail is a quadrilateral sail suspended on a spar on the mast to a square main sail but used as a fore-and-aft sail The standard terminology assumes three masts, from front to back, the foremast and mizzenmast. On ships with fewer than three masts, the tallest is the mainmast. Ships with more masts number them. From bottom to top, the sails of each mast are named by the mast and position on the mast, e.g. for the mainmast, from lowest to highest: main course, main topsail, main topgallant, main royal, main skysail, main moonraker.

Since the early nineteenth century, the topsails and topgallants are split into a lower and an upper sail to allow them to be more handled. This makes the mast appear to have more "sails" than it has. On many warships, sails above the fighting top were mounted on separate masts held in wooden sockets called "tabernacles"; these masts and their stays could be rigged or struck as the weather and tactical situation demanded. In light breezes, the working square sails would be supplemented by studding sails out on the ends of the yardarms; these were called as a regular sail, with the addition of "studding". For example, the main top studding sail. Between the main mast and mizzen as well as between main mast and foremast, the staysails between the masts are named from the sail below the highest attachment point of the stay holding up that staysail. Thus, the mizzen topgallant staysail can b

Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station

Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant is located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in Alto Lucero, Mexico. It is the only nuclear power plant in Mexico and produces about 4.5% of the country's electrical energy. It consists of two units GE Boiling Water Reactors each one with installed capacity of 682 MW using low enriched uranium as fuel. Unit-1 started its operation on July 29, 1990. Unit-2 started its operation on April 10, 1995. Initial architects in 1975 for the plant were Burns and Roe Inc and Ebasco Services designed and supervised the project; the steam turbine and other components were manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric. The plant is owned and operated by Comisión Federal de Electricidad, the national electric company owned by the Mexican government. Laguna Verde has been considered a strategic facility for the National Power System due to its high power generation capacity, lowest operating cost, frequency and voltage regulation capacity. All the electric power generated is delivered to its single client, the National Energy Control Center.

CENACE is entrusted with the function of planning and supervising the transmission and distribution of electric power to end users. CENACE has classified LVNPP as Base Load Power Plant since the beginning of its operations; the annual generation average for LVNPP in the last 5 years has been of 10.5 TWh, electric energy sufficient to meet the demand of more than 4 million inhabitants. The generation of electric power at the CLV is based on the technology of nuclear fission of uranium atoms, which takes place in the reactor; the energy released by the nuclear fission is transferred as heat from the fuel to the cooling water, which boils into steam. The quality of steam is controlled through a dryer; the separator and dryer are part of the internal processes of the reactor pressure vessel. The turbine transforms power from steam into mechanical energy causing an electric generator to move. Once the steam has gone through the turbine, it is cooled in a condenser. Steam flow rate from each reactor is 3944 kilotons/hour.

Both Reactor Units operate using 444 enriched uranium assemblies, storing power equal to 38.9 million oil barrels. This nuclear fuel is designed to be admitted into the core of the reactor; the fuel is purchased only from qualified vendors worldwide. After 18 months of operation, between 25% and 30% of the nuclear fuel is replaced; this activity is called. In 2007 CFE signed a contract with an investment of USD 600 million to increase the original capability of each of the units of Laguna Verde by 20%, equivalent to 255 MW, in order to tend the growth of the demand of electric power in Mexico; this power uprate will allow to LVNPP an additional annual generation of 2.1 TWh, equivalent to the demand of a city of 800 thousand inhabitants. GE and CFE jointly performed the engineering analysis to determine the necessary plant modifications and to support the safety analysis report necessary for approval of the power uprate by the Mexican nuclear regulator National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards.

Work began in 2008 by Iberdrola and Alstom and is expected to finish late 2010. The main modifications consist in a turbine and condenser retrofit and the replacement of the electric generator, main steam reheater and the feedwater heater; the budget for the project is USD 605 million. The following table shows the chronologic developments at Laguna Verde. Laguna Verde has obtained several awards; the plant received the National Quality Award, Golden Award from Iberoamerican Foundation for Quality Management. In 2009, Laguna Verde obtained Annual recognition as a Socially Responsible Enterprise awarded by the Mexican Center for Philanthropy. Nuclear power Probabilistic Risk Assessment México apostará fuerte a explotar “energías limpias”, incluida la nuclear Repotenciación de la planta de energía nuclear en Laguna Verde Profile of Laguna Verde NPP Entrega Premio Fundación Iberoamericana Edición 2009 Conoce sobre la generación de Energía Eléctrica por medios Nucleares Listado de centrales nucleoeléctricas generadoras en México

List of ancient tribes in Illyria

This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria. The name Illyrians seems to be the name of a single Illyrian tribe, the first to come into contact with the ancient Greeks, causing the name Illyrians to be applied to all people of similar language and customs; the locations of Illyrian tribes/peoples prior to the Roman conquest are approximate, as sometimes many wholly different locations are given by ancient writers and modern authors. After the Great Illyrian Revolt, the Romans deported and resettled Illyrian tribes within Illyria itself and to Dacia, sometimes causing whole tribes to vanish and new ones to be formed from their remains, such as the Deraemestae and the Docleatae, some of them mixed with Celtic tribes. Many tribal names are known from Roman civitates and the number of their decuriae, formed of the dispersed tribes in Illyria. Albani or Albanoi were an Illyrian tribe whose first historical account appears in a work of Ptolemy, they were the citizens of Albanopolis, located in the center of modern Albania, in the Zgërdhesh hill fort, near the city of Krujë.

The national ethnonym of the Albanians is derived from this tribe. Ardiaei or Ouardiaei, was an Illyrian tribe, residing inland, that settled on the Adriatic coast; the Ardiaei had 20 decuriae. The Ardiaean dynasty ruled over the Illyrian Kingdom. Autariatae or Autariates was an Illyrian tribe that became prominent between the 6th and 4th centuries BC; the tribe had been Celticized. The Balaites were an Illyrian tribe known from epigraphical findings only who were organizing themselves in a koinon, it is that they lived in the vicinity of Apollonia. Bathiatae was an Illyrian tribe. Bylliones was an Illyrian tribe. According to Robert Elsie, the tribe was Illyrian. Cavii was an Illyrian tribe, they lived close to Lake Shkodër. Their main settlement was Epicaria, they are mentioned by ancient writers. Chelidones was an Illyrian tribe whose name in Greek meant'snail-men', they lived in the Drin valleys. Daorsi or Duersi or Daorsii or Daorsei was an Illyrian tribe. Another name of the tribe was Daversi; the Daorsi had suffered attacks from the Delmatae that made them along with Issa seek the aid of the Roman state.

The Daorsi fought on the Roman side. After the Illyrian Wars, the Daorsi were given immunity, their most important city was Daorson. They had 17 decuriae. Dardani or Dardanians were located at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone and their identification is uncertain. Dassareti was an Illyrian tribe, they were located between the Ardiaei. Appian of Alexandria wrote in his Illyrian wars that according to the Ancient Greeks, the ancestor of the Illyrians, had a daughter, from whom sprang the Dassareti, they are not to be confused with the ancient Greek Dassaretae the Lake Ohrid region. Deretini or Derriopes was an Illyrian tribe in Narona conventus with 14 decuriae. Deuri was an Illyrian tribe. Other possible names are Derbanoi; the Deuri had 25 decuriae. Dyestes or Dyestae was an Illyrian tribe located around the silver mines of Damastion. Only Strabo passingly mentions this tribe; the Enchelei or Sesarethii were an Illyrian tribe. Their name, given by the Greeks, meant "eel-men". In Greek mythology and Harmonia ruled over them.

Several locations are hypothesized for the Encheleans: around Lake Ohrid. Kinambroi was an Illyrian tribe, they surrendered to Octavian in 33 BC. Mazaei or Maezaei was a tribal group, including 269 decuriae. Melcumani or Merromenoi or Melkomenioi was an Illyrian tribe; the Melcumani had 24 decuriae. Narensi or Narensii or Narensioi or Naresioi or Naresii was the name of a newly formed Illyrian tribe from various peoples at the River Naron; the Narensi had 102 decuriae. Penestae was the name of an Illyrian tribe, their chief town was Uscana. Sardeates or Sardiotai was an Illyrian tribe close to Jajce. Sardeates were settled in Dacia; the Sardeates had 52 decuriae. Selepitani was an Illyrian tribe located below the Lake Scutari. Dalmatae were an ancient Illyrian tribe, they were Celticized. The Delmatae had 342 decuriae; the Iapydes were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians, off the Adriatic coast and eastwards of the Istrian peninsula. The first written mention of an Illyrian tribe known as "Iapydes" is by Hecataeus of Miletus.

Baridustae were an Illyrian tribe, settled in Dacia along with Pirustae and Sardeates. The Baridustae was a Dalmatian tribe. Docleatae or Dokleatai were an Illyrian tribe, their capital was Doclea, they are called after the town. They had settled west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire. They were composed of parts of the Taulantii, the Pleraei or Pyraei, Sasaei, Labeatae that came together after the Great Illyrian revolt; the Docleatae had 33 decuriae. Pleraei or Pyraei or Palarioi was