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A sailor, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. The profession of the sailor is old, the term sailor has its etymological roots in a time when sailing ships were the main mode of transport at sea, but it now refers to the personnel of all watercraft regardless of the mode of transport, encompasses people who operate ships professionally or recreationally, be it for a military navy or civilian merchant navy. In a navy, there may be further distinctions: sailor may refer to any member of the navy if they are based on land. Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, others. Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: master and his chief and third officers.

The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and ordinary seaman. With some variation, the chief mate is most charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea. A common deck crew for a ship includes: Captain / Master Chief Officer / Chief Mate Second Officer / Second Mate Third Officer / Third Mate Boatswain Able seamen Ordinary seamen Deck Cadet / unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Marine engineering staff deal with the "hotel" facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port; when underway at sea, the second and third engineers will be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks.

Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: Chief Engineer Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer Motorman Oiler Entry-level rating Wiper Engine Cadet / unlicensed Trainee engineerUSA ships carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman. A typical steward's department for a cargo ship is a chief steward, a chief cook and a steward's assistant. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals.

The chief steward plans menus, compiles supply and cost control records. The steward may purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the steward's assistant, the chief cook, other Steward's department crewmembers. A person in the United States Merchant Marine has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements; the only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department, is during the execution of the fire and boat drill. Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser, chief purser, medical doctor, professional nurse, marine physician assistant and hospital corpsman. In the USA these jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard.

Pilots are merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard. Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages. There is no job security after that; the length of time between voyages varies by personal preference. The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls are found in major seaports. At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Mariners work in

James' Journey to Jerusalem

James' Journey to Jerusalem is a 2003 Israeli film directed by Ra'anan Alexandrowicz and produced by Renen Schorr. The film's plot focuses on an African teenager named James, who goes on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land on behalf of his village. Upon arriving in Israel, James is suspected to be an illegal foreign worker and, as a result, is arrested. Shimi, a contractor of foreign workers, releases him on bail to work with him. After James explains to him that he did not travel to Israel to work, Shimi clarifies to him that since he paid for his release, James now owes him; therefore James is forced to begin working for Shimi. Shimi makes him work for other people as well. Shimi's wife sees him as a kind of an amusement. Salah, Shimi's father, soon discovers that James is exceptionally lucky rolling dice and he decides to exploit this in order to win in backgammon games against his friends. James hopes to pay his debt to Shimi so that he can reach Jerusalem, but as time passes he learns how to conduct with the locals.

Salah keeps telling good-hearted and guileless James "Don't be a frayer", James ceases to be one: he starts managing his foreign worker friends, soon he becomes a cheap labor contractor himself, just like Shimi. James buys himself nice clothes, a mobile phone and a TV; as a result, he forgets about the pilgrimage. James remembers the original reason for which he arrived in Israel, but it is too late – he is arrested by the immigration police and transferred to an Israeli prison; the prison is located in the Russian Compound in Jerusalem, so as he is handcuffed, James gets to see the city for which his village prays to. Alexandrowicz said that the plot was inspired by a true history of a Nigerian man he knew, who came to Israel on a tourist visa and became an illegal worker, he changed the nationality of James to Zulu intending for James to be from the place most remote from Western culture values. Accordingly, he picked Siyabonga Shibe, from South Africa; the situation described in the film is quite uncommon, but possible: after an arrest for an illegal stay in Israel, a person is either deported or someone may post a bail and give a work permit.

James' Journey to Jerusalem on IMDb

Rob Hopkins

Rob Hopkins is an activist and writer on environmental issues, based in Totnes, England. He is best known as the founder and figurehead of the Transition movement, which he initiated in 2005. Hopkins has written four books on activism. Born in Chiswick, Rob grew up in London until the age of 12, when he moved to Wiltshire, attending St John's School, before moving to Bristol where he went to the Bristol Waldorf School for 2 years, followed by Henbury School to do A'Levels; this was followed by an Art Foundation course at Bower Ashton Art College in Bristol. From 1988, he spent two and a half years living at Istituto Lama Tsong Khapa, a Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Tuscany, working as the House Manager. From here he spent a year travelling in India, China, Hong Kong and back to India where he met Emma, his partner since then, they settled in Bristol, where Rob did a degree in'Environmental Quality & Resource Management' at the University of the West of England, undertook his Permaculture Design Course.

In 1996, Rob and his young family moved to south west Ireland, to West Cork. He worked with An Taisce West Cork and illustrating a booklet called'Woodlands for West Cork!'. He began teaching permaculture as short courses, building up to running full design courses as an evening class. Together with another family, he and Emma set up Baile Dulra Teoranta, a charity, with the intention of creating an ecovillage project. In 1999, with another family, they bought a farm near Castletown, Enniskeane. After a few years, they were granted the first planning permission for an ecovillage development. In 2001, he started and taught the Practical Sustainability course at Kinsale Further Education College as a one-year course, as the first 2-year Permaculture course in the world. Between 2003 and 2005, the students built the'Wooden O Theatre', an amphitheatre using local materials; the Hollies ran a series of courses in natural building and built two new cob houses, using local and natural materials. In October 2004, Rob and Emma's house was destroyed in a fire.

In 2004, he became aware of the concept of peak oil, set his students the task of applying permaculture principles to addressing this challenge. The output of this student project was the ‘Kinsale Energy Descent Action Plan’, uploaded to the college website. Much to the surprise of the authors, it was downloaded by interested parties around the world. In July 2005, Kinsale FEC hosted Fuelling a conference on peak oil and solutions to it. In 2005, Rob and his family moved to Totnes and there co-founded, with Naresh Giangrande, Transition Town Totnes, the first official Transition Town; the project held its'Unleashing' event in September 2006. Many projects began; these include Keeping Totnes Warm, Open Eco Homes and the Eco Homes Fair, Transition Homes, Transition Streets, the Totnes & District Energy Descent Action Plan, Food in Community, Grown in Totnes, Incredible Edible Totnes, Nut Tree Planting, Seedy Sisters, Mentoring & Wellbeing Support, the REconomy Centre, the Totnes Local Economic Blueprint, the Local Entrepreneur Forum, the Totnes Pound, Totnes Transition Film Festival, TTT Film Club, Dr Bike, Caring Town Totnes, Transition Tours.

TV presenter Nicholas Crane, in an episode of his series'Town', visited Totnes and declared "This is the biggest urban brainwave of the century. A visionary, practical blueprint that took root in a town and is circling the globe". Michael Portillo, in Great British Railway Journeys, spent a Totnes Pound. Westlife once appeared on The One Show. Rob Hopkins presented the Totnes Pound in the documentary film Demain. In 2007, with Peter Lipman and Ben Brangwyn, he co-founded the Transition Network, a charity designed to support the many Transition initiatives emerging around the world, inspired by the processes begun in Kinsale and Totnes. Transition Network is based in Totnes. There are Transition initiatives in over 50 countries round the world, in around 1,400 communities. Transition Network has run seven conferences, Royal Agriculture College, Battersea Arts Centre, Dame Hannah's at Seale Hayne, Hope University, Battersea Arts Centre and Dame Hannah's at Seale Hayne. Hopkins holds a first class Honours degree in environmental quality and resource management from the University of the West of England, a Master of Science in social research and a doctorate at Plymouth University on the subject of transition.

He is a visiting fellow at Plymouth University, in July 2013 was awarded a honorary doctorate by the University of the West of England. The 4 October 2016, he was awarded a honorary doctorate by the University of Namur. Hopkins has five books in support of the Transition movement; the Transition Handbook The Transition Companion The Power of Just Doing Stuff 21 Stories of Transition. The transition starts here and together, with Lionel Astruc Hopkins is a founder and a director of New Lion Brewery, a social enterprise craft brewery in Totnes. New Lion Brewerys aims to be built on foundations of sustainability, profitability and innovation. In 2015, its Pandit IPA was voted Britain's 17th Hottest Beer. Hopkins is one of the directors of Atmos Totnes, a community-led development initiated by Totnes Community Development Socie

Hybrid solar lighting

Hybrid solar lighting or hybrid lighting systems combine the use of solar with artificial light for interior illumination by channelling sunlight through fiber optic cable bundles to provide solar light into rooms without windows or skylights, by supplementing this natural light with artificial light—typically LED—as required. The bundles are led from exterior/rooftop optical light collectors through small openings or cable ducts and carry the light to where it is needed; the optical fibers end in hybrid luminaires where the sunlight is joined with electric light, either on demand or to automatically maintain a constant light level as the available sunlight decreases. Solar lighting systems capture light from the sun and conduct it towards a room using optical fibers, they use large mirrored dishes, that track the sun. The collectors adjust to aim the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers which are conducted into a single chord; the optical fibers are flexible and can be connected into hybrid light fixtures that are joined to diffusing rods that disperse the light.

A single collector can power up to eight hybrid light fixtures covering 1,000 square feet. The hybrid lights use artificial lighting, mixed with the natural sunlight beamed in down the fiber optic chord. Photosensors focus on how much light needs to be generated to add to the natural light in order to keep a room illuminated at a constant brightness; when the sun is blocked by clouds around five percent of its sunlight requirement will need to be added. Hybrid solar lighting systems should be used in rooms with direct roof access; the price of each hybrid solar lighting system requires to be installed with each watt of light bulb used. It is about $5–$8 per watt. Solar energy Renewable energy Photovoltaics Sustainable energy Light tube Hybrid Solar Lighting – the Future of Solar Lights

Bucky O'Connor

Frank "Bucky" O'Connor was a college men's basketball coach. He was the head coach of the Iowa Hawkeyes men's basketball team from 1949 to 1958. Born in Monroe, Iowa, O'Connor spent much of his early life playing golf, as his parents managed a country club. O'Connor played basketball at Newton High School and Drake University. After graduating, he coached at Harrisburg High School; when the United States entered World War II, O'Connor joined the United States Army Air Corps, serving in Japan and climbing to the rank of captain. After the war, he held jobs in the athletic departments at Boone High and Boone Junior College, joined the Iowa Hawkeyes athletic staff as the freshman basketball coach and head golf coach in 1948. In 1950, O'Connor took charge of the Hawkeyes' basketball team after the first two coaches of the 1949–50 season stepped down, he became the official coach in the 1951–52 season, in which the team achieved a 19–3 record and a second-place finish in the Big Ten Conference. O'Connor is best known in Iowa basketball history for recruiting and coaching the players who comprised the "Fabulous Five": Sharm Scheuerman, Bill Seaberg, Carl Cain, Bill Schoof and Bill Logan.

This team first came together during the 1953–54 season, finishing second in the Big Ten with an 11–3 conference record. The team won the Big Ten in the next two seasons. In the 1955–56 season, the Fabulous Five's final season together, the Hawkeyes won 17 consecutive games and advanced to their only National Collegiate Athletic Association championship game in school history, where they lost to the University of San Francisco, marking the end of Iowa's most successful era of basketball. O'Connor coached the Hawkeyes for the next two seasons, compiling a combined record of 21–23 before dying in a highway accident on April 22, 1958, at the age of 44, he had one daughter, born to his wife Jane. In recent years several relatives of O'Connor were involved with the men's basketball program at Iowa, his grand-nephew, Jim O'Connor, played as a walk on from 1988–92 and three more of his great-nephews served as student managers with the team: Tom O'Connor, Pat O'Connor, Brendan O'Connor. List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach Finn, Mike.

Hawkeye Legends, Lists, & Lore. Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-512-8. Bucky O'Connor at Find a Grave

Charles Kushner

Charles Kushner is an American real estate developer. He founded Kushner Companies in 1985. In 2005, he was convicted of illegal campaign contributions, tax evasion, witness tampering, he served 14 months in federal prison and an additional ten months in a halfway house, resumed his career in real estate after his release. His son, Jared Kushner, is the husband of Ivanka Trump and son-in-law and senior advisor to President Donald Trump. Kushner was born on May 16, 1954, to Joseph and Rae Kushner, Jewish Holocaust survivors who came to America from the USSR in 1949. At birth, he was named Chanan, after a maternal uncle who died in a concentration camp during the Holocaust, he grew up in Elizabeth, New Jersey, with his elder brother Murray Kushner and sister Esther Schulder. His father worked as a construction worker and real estate investor. Kushner graduated from the Hofstra University School of Law in 1979. In 1985, he began managing his father's portfolio of 4,000 New Jersey apartments, he became its chairman.

In 1999, he won the Young New Jersey Entrepreneur of the Year award. At the time, Kushner Companies had grown to more than 10,000 residential apartments, a homebuilding business and industrial properties, a community bank. On June 30, 2004, Kushner was fined $508,900 by the Federal Election Commission for contributing to Democratic political campaigns in the names of his partnerships when he lacked authorization to do so. In 2005, following an investigation by the U. S. Attorney's Office for the District of New Jersey, U. S. Attorney Chris Christie negotiated a plea agreement with him, under which he pleaded guilty to 18 counts of illegal campaign contributions, tax evasion, witness tampering; the witness-tampering charge arose from Kushner's act of retaliation against William Schulder, his sister Esther's husband, cooperating with federal investigators. He was sentenced to two years in prison, served 14 months at Federal Prison Camp, Montgomery in Alabama before being sent to a halfway house in Newark, New Jersey, to complete his sentence.

He was released from prison on August 25, 2006. As a result of his convictions, Kushner was disbarred and prohibited from practicing law in New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. After being released from prison, Kushner shifted his business activities from New Jersey to New York City. In early 2007, Kushner Companies bought the 666 Fifth Avenue building in Manhattan for $1.8 billion. He and his family are estimated to have a net worth of $1.8 billion. He has employed two fellow inmates. Before 2016, Kushner was a donor to the Democratic Party, he serves on the boards of Touro College, Stern College for Women, Rabbinical College of America, the United Jewish Communities. Kushner has donated to Harvard University, Stern College, the St. Barnabas Medical Center, United Cerebral Palsy, he contributed to the funding of two schools, Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy and Rae Kushner Yeshiva High School, in Livingston, New Jersey, named them after his parents. Kushner Hall is a building, named after him on the Hofstra University campus.

The campus of Jerusalem's Shaare Zedek Medical Center is named the "Seryl and Charles Kushner Campus" in honor of their donation of $20 million. In August 2015, Kushner donated $100,000 to Donald Trump's Make America Great Again PAC, a super PAC supporting Trump's 2016 campaign for the presidency. Kushner and his wife hosted a reception for Trump at their Jersey Shore seaside mansion in Long Branch. Kushner Companies in the FBI's FOIA Library The Vault