Ancourt is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A forestry and farming village situated in the Petit-Caux, by the banks of the river Eaulne, some 5 miles east of Dieppe, at the junction of the D54 and D920 roads; the church of St. Saturnin, dating from the sixteenth century; the chateau of Pont-Trancard. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Ancourt on the Quid website
Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre; until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure. 1790 - Creation of the Seine-Inférieure department The department was created from part of the old province of Normandy during the French revolution, on 4 March 1790, through the application of a law of 22 December 1789.1815 - Occupation After the victory at Waterloo of the coalition armies, the department was occupied by British forces from June 1815 till November 1818.1843 – Railways and industry In Rouen and Bolbec, the number of textile factories is increasing. Metallurgy and naval construction as well.1851 - A republican department Following the president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's 1851 Coup d'état, Seine-Inférieure was one of several departments placed under a state of emergency following fears of significant resistance to the new government. World War II In 1942, during occupation by Nazi Germany, at the channel coast of Seine-Inférieure took place two Allied raids, the Bruneval raid and Dieppe raid.2005 - Inhabitants renamed Previously lacking a demonym, the inhabitants of Seine-Maritime determined, following a public consultation, that they should be known in official documents as "Seinomarins" and "Seinomarines".
The department can be split into three main areas: The Seine valley. The Seine flows through the provincial capital Rouen; the chalk plateau Pays de Caux, with its abrupt coastline. The Norman Pays de Bray, with its hills and bocage landscape; the département was created in 1790 as Seine-Inférieure, one of five departements that replaced the former province of Normandy. In 1800 five arrondissements were created within the département, namely Rouen, Le Havre, Dieppe and Yvetot, although the latter two were disbanded in 1926. On 18 January 1955 the name of the département was changed to Seine-Maritime, in order to provide a more positive-sounding name and in-keeping with changes made in a number of other French departements. In 1843 the railway from Paris reached the region; the département is connected to the adjacent Eure department via the Tancarville and Pont de Normandie bridge crossings of the Seine. Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is set in Seine Maritime; the novel La Place by Annie Ernaux takes place in Seine-Maritime and describes events and changes that take place in relation to French society in the 20th century in relation to the rural population.
The first story of the long-running series Valérian and Laureline is set in Seine-Maritime, with the character Laureline originating from the area. Cauchois is the dialect of the Pays de Caux, is one of the most vibrant forms of the Norman language beyond Cotentinais. Cantons of the Seine-Maritime department Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Seine-Maritime department General Council website Communes 76 Prefecture website
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system; the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.
The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth; some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was almost complete by 1760.
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam-powered factories; the earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". However, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term; some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians; the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500.
The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of w
Technopole refers to a center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based quaternary industry. The term was coined by Allen J. Scott in 1990 to describe regions in southern California which showed a rapid growth in high technology fields; this term now has a broader scope to describe regions worldwide dedicated to technological innovation. Technopoles may be developed by the private sector or by the co-operation or partnership between the public and private sectors. Governments of all levels promote them as a panacea for economies hurt by economic restructuring. Large corporations and small business operate within these high technology areas. Networking between companies is important and made possible by technological advances. Technopoles are combined technological and business centers established around recognized educational and research institutes. There are several definitions for "technopole" in an international context, whereby focus is placed on the existence of four factors: First, a critical mass of R&D facilities which carry out research in one or more relevant areas and which have established the appropriate infrastructure.
Second, the immediate spatial vicinity to university institutions is essential in order to link research to instruction. The third criterion is the presence of competent companies as source of demand for R&D competence and "users" of know-how generated at the Technopole on the international market. There must be sufficient interest to provide investments to enable technology-oriented start-ups and spin-offs. Factors important to investors include: Good buildings and building sites An attractive environmental setting Excellent highway access and proximity to an international airport Excellent international tele-communication facilities Good quality housing for managers and, Easy access to a substantial pool of well trained and motivated labourTechnopoles are vulnerable to global trends and can dissolve if they are not properly supported. Technopoles have to be flexible and willing to experiment with new ideas to be seen as a global competitor. Governments and corporations tend to continue to invest in technopoles in hopes of gaining economic prosperity.
Technopoles in South Africa include regions of Pretoria and East Rand. These areas have the largest concentration of national R&D facilities. In Japan, technopoles were planned and developed by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Since 1983, there have been over 25 technopoles in Japan as designated by MITI; some of the most successful technopoles in Japan include Okayama, Hiroshima and Kumamoto. UNIDO Viet Nam has compiled in 2015 a list of Technopoles in the ASEAN Economic Community in a report titled "Economic Zones in the ASEAN" written by Arnault Morisson In Australia, technopoles include the Technology Precinct Bentley WA, La Trobe Research and Development Park, Ballarat Technology Park VIC, The Australian Technology Park NSW, Brisbane Technology Park QLD, Tasmanian Technopark and Adelaide University Research Park SA. Technopoles in the United Kingdom include counties such as Berkshire and Hampshire in the “Western Crescent” of London, as well as Hertfordshire in the Northern section of London.
In France, there are technopoles located near Rennes, Toulouse and Paris. Writer Joel Stratte-McClure of Time Magazine described a technopole in southern France called Sophia Antipolis which had 1,200 companies in a sprawling development twenty minutes away from the airport in Nice. According to the report, the technopole featured hiking trails and jogging paths and riding stables and golf courses and signs which indicate the names of various species of plants, with street names which were "slightly pretentious" such as "Rue Dostoevski" and "Rue Albert Einstein" criss-crossing rolling hills with pine trees. There are reflecting pools, although the layout was criticized as somewhat "confusing" for taxi drivers; the Technopole Program of Lower Austria is a trendsetter in implementing the linkage of education/training and business. Lower Austria’s three Technopoles are setting international standards: Technopole Krems in the fields of biotech and regenerative medicine, Technopole Tulln in environmental biotechnology and agrobiotechnology, Technopole Wiener Neustadt in microsystems engineering and medical systems technology.
Silicon Valley is one of the most innovative technopoles in the world. It is located in the San Francisco Bay area of California; the area consists of a 70 kilometre by 15 kilometre radius stretching from Palo Alto to San Jose. In the late 1950s, there were little computing and technology jobs in the region, this changed in the 1970s and 1980s where in 1985 there was a reported 56,126 jobs in the high-tech field. Frederick Terman, a professor at Stanford University who became the Dean of electrical engineering, initiated many R&D initiatives in Silicon Valley. Terman helped his students, such as William Hewlett and David Packard, to initiate their own companies and at times personally invested in them. In 1951, Terman helped to establish Stanford Industrial Park. Universities surrounding Silicon Valley have provided a constant stream of students who take interest in projects and companies within Silicon Valley. With the various numbers of small companies in the area, it is common for employees to move from one company to another.
Employees tend to maintain informal social connections with past coworkers which expand professional and social networks. These expanded networks have enabled a rapid exchange of information resulting in the formation of new businesses and development opportunities. Silicon Valley remains one of the leading technopoles of the world to date
Allouville-Bellefosse is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A farming village situated in the Pays de Caux, some 30 miles northeast of Rouen at the junction of the D33, D34 and the D110 roads; the church of St. Quentin, dating from the sixteenth century. Chêne chapelle, a 1000-year-old oak tree with a chapel built into it; the sixteenth-century abandoned church at Bellefosse. A natural history museum; the eighteenth-century château, in Louis XV style. Two manorhouses, at Bellefosse and Ismenil. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Official website of Allouville-Bellefosse Allouville-Bellefosse on the Quid website
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. One of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages, it was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais. Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000. Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocasses, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley.
They called. It was considered the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric and a capital of Merovingian Neustria. From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen. From 912, Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the local dukes, until William the Conqueror moved his residence to Caen. In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter. During the 12th century, Rouen was the site of a yeshiva. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town. On June 24, 1204, King Philip II Augustus of France entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom, he demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre.
A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were competitors, finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris. In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen numbering some five or six thousands. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle, it was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's river-traffic privileges once more. During the Hundred Years' War, on January 19, 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who annexed Normandy once again to the Plantagenet domains.
But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard hung English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in Rouen on May 30, 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, Joan of Arc's king enemy; the king of France Charles VII recaptured the town in 1449. During the German occupation, the Kriegsmarine had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School; the city was damaged during World War II on D-day and its famed cathedral was destroyed by Allied bombs. Rouen is known for its Rouen Cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent; the cathedral's gothic façade was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock dating back to the 14th century, it is located in the Gros Horloge street. Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture.
Rouen is noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings. There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault; the Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a notable botanical garden once owned by Scottish banker John Law dated from 1840 in its present form. It was the site of Élisa Garnerin's parachute jump from a balloon in 1817. In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan of A