The mountain goat known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a hoofed mammal endemic to North America. A subalpine to alpine species, it is a sure-footed climber seen on cliffs and ice. Despite its vernacular name, it is not a member of Capra, the genus that includes all other goats, such as the wild goat, Capra aegagrus, from which the domestic goat is derived; the mountain goat is an even-toed ungulate of the order Artiodactyla and the family Bovidae that includes antelopes and cattle. It belongs to the subfamily Caprinae, along with true goats, wild sheep, the chamois, the muskox and other species. Notably, the takins of the Himalayan region, while not a sister lineage of the mountain goat, are nonetheless closely related and coeval. Other members of this group are the true goats and the Himalayan tahr; the chamois and true sheep lineages are very related, while the muskox lineage is somewhat more distant. The mountain goats diverged from their relatives in the late Tortonian, some 7.5 to 8 million years ago.
Given that all major caprine lineages emerged in the Late Miocene and contain at least one but several species from the eastern Himalayan region, their most place of origin is between today's Tibet and Mongolia or nearby. The mountain goat's ancestors thus crossed the Bering Strait after they split from their relatives before the Wisconsinian glaciation. No Pliocene mountain goats have been identified yet. In the Pleistocene, the small prehistoric mountain goat Oreamnos harringtoni lived in the southern Rocky Mountains. Ancient DNA studies suggest that this was the sister species of the living mountain goat, not its ancestor; the mountain goat is the only living species in the genus Oreamnos. The name Oreamnos is derived from the Greek term oros "mountain" and the word amnos "lamb". Both billy and nanny mountain goats have beards, short tails, long black horns, 15–28 cm in length, which contain yearly growth rings, they are protected from the elements by their woolly white double coats. The fine, dense wool of their undercoats is covered by an outer layer of longer, hollow hairs.
Mountain goats molt in spring by rubbing against rocks and trees, with the adult billies shedding their extra wool first and the pregnant nannies shedding last. Their coats help them to withstand winter temperatures as low as −50 °F and winds of up to 160 kilometres per hour. A billy stands about 1 m at the shoulder to the waist and can weigh more than the nanny. Male goats have longer horns and longer beards than females. Mountain goats can weigh between 45 and 140 kg, billies will weigh less than 82 kg; the head-and-body length can range from 120–179 cm, with a small tail adding 10–20 cm. The mountain goat's feet are well-suited for climbing steep, rocky slopes with pitches exceeding 60°, with inner pads that provide traction and cloven hooves that can spread apart; the tips of their feet have sharp dewclaws. They have powerful neck muscles that help propel them up steep slopes; the mountain goat inhabits the Rocky Mountains and Cascade Range and other mountain regions of the Western Cordillera of North America, from Washington and Montana through British Columbia and Alberta, into the southern Yukon and southeastern Alaska.
Its northernmost range is said to be along the northern fringe of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. Introduced populations can be found in such areas as Idaho, Utah, Oregon, South Dakota, the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Mountain goats are the largest mammals found in their high-altitude habitats, which can exceed elevations of 13,000 feet, they sometimes descend to sea level in coastal areas although they are an alpine and subalpine species. The animals stay above the tree line throughout the year but they will migrate seasonally to higher or lower elevations within that range. Winter migrations to low-elevation mineral licks take them several kilometers through forested areas. Daily movements by individual mountain goats are confined to areas on the same mountain face, drainage basin, or alpine opening. Daily movements reflect an individual's needs for foraging, resting and security from predators or disturbance. Seasonal movements reflect nutritional needs, reproductive needs, climatic influences.
In general, seasonal movements are to exhibit a strong elevational component, whereby lower, forested elevations are used during the spring-summer to access lower elevation mineral licks, during winter to access forage. The farthest movements are expected to be by dispersing mountain goats; such movements are to involve mountain goats crossing forested valleys as they move between mountain blocks. Mountain goats spend most of their time grazing, their diets include grasses, sedges, mosses and twigs and leaves from the low-growing shrubs and conifers of the
Area codes 367, 418, and 581
North American area codes 367, 418 and 581 are overlaid telephone area codes serving the Canadian province of Quebec, encompassing the eastern portion of the province. Communities served by the 367, 418 and 581 area codes include Quebec City, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Rivière-du-Loup and the Gaspé Peninsula, Côte-Nord and southeastern Mauricie regions. 418 serves the tiny hamlet of Estcourt Station, in the U. S. state of Maine. The main area code, 418, was one of the original area codes created in 1947; as now, its boundaries were depicted as the eastern half of Quebec. Nominally, northwestern Quebec—one of the few areas of North America without telephone service—was shifted to 418 from 514 in 1957. From the 1950s to the 1970s, 418 was nominally the area code for the eastern Northwest Territories. However, in the 1970s, as direct distance dialling was introduced to the far northern and western portions of 418, these points were shifted to area code 819, leaving the present area. In 2008, area code 581 was implemented.
In 2018, Area code 367 was implemented as 581 were close to exhaustion. The incumbent local exchange carriers in 418/581 are Bell Canada, Bell Aliant and Vidéotron, plus some independent companies. Aguanish: 533 299 Albanel: 279 501 601 Alma: 212 319 321 450 480 481 482 487 662 668 669 719 720 758 769 200 216 230 265 431 533 728 828 Amqui: 330 629 631 713 335 l'Anse-Saint-Jean: 272 608 390 Armagh: 466 328 Bagotville: see La Baie, Chicoutimi Baie-Comeau: 294 296 298 921 Baie-Comeau: 280 282 293 295 297 378 445 589 381 642 726 823 829 929 987 Baie-des-Sables: 772 396 Baie-Johan-Beetz: 539 298 Baie-Sainte-Catherine: 237 236 Baie-Saint-Paul: 200 219 240 435 436 760 237 Baie-Trinité: 920 939 Barachois: 645 365 Batiscan: 362 274 Beauceville: 217 774 420 813 Bergeronnes: 232 238 324 Bic: 736 Biencourt: 499 373 Black Lake: 423 266 679 840 Blanc-Sablon: 461 297 Boischatel: 406 762 822 538 Bonaventure: 530 534 364 630 827 Bonne-Espérance: 379 296 Cabano: 854 938 Cap-aux-Meules: 986 Cap-Chat: 786 395 Cap-des-Rosiers: 892 635 Caplan: 388 363 Cap-Saint-Ignace: 246 715 Carleton: 364 362 Causapscal: 756 394 Chambord: 342 491 602 816 Chandler: 398 616 680 689 361 Chapais: 745 Charny: 488 761 832 988 247 838 Château-Richer: 824 972 978 Chevery: 787 295 Chibougamau: 748 770 430 445 464 579 627 Chicoutimi: 290 376 437 490 540 541 543 545 549 550 557 579 590 591 592 602 612 615 690 693 696 698 718 812 815 817 818 820 944 973 221 222 234 235 248 306 433 490 532 543 560 683 882 Chute-aux-Outardes: 567 643 Chute-des-Passes: 377 599 Clarke City: 583 294 Clermont: 201 439 489 239 Cloridorme: 395 637 Colombier: 565 644 Courcelles: 483 Delisle: 301 347 442 598 Desbiens: 346 597 817 Disraeli: 449 209 714 Dolbeau: 239 276 706 979 212 596 Donnacona: 283 284 285 326 462 510 552 850 971 343 377 740 821 833 East Broughton: 351 427 331 Esprit-Saint: 779 600 Estcourt and Estcourt Station, Maine - see Saint-Éleuthère Ferland: 676 382 Fermont: 287 231 444 Forestville: 578 586 587 989 623 Frampton: 479 227 426 Garthby: 458 228 330 835 Gaspé: 355 360 361 368 348 360 822 832 887 Girardville: 258 595 651 Godbout: 568 Grande-Entrée: 985 Grande-Rivière: 385 359 Grande-Vallée: 393 575 638 883 Harrington Harbour: 795 293 Havre-Aubert: 937 Havre-aux-Maisons: 969 Havre-Saint-Pierre: 532 538 553 984 292 Hébertville: 344 594 718 Hébertville-Station: 343 593 717 Île-aux-Coudres: 438 600 240 Inverness: 453 470 272 Jonquière: 213 412 512 542 546 547 548 695 699 771 249 383 434 544 684 La Baie: 306 477 544 677 697 389 435 545 682 Lac-au-Saumon: 778 392 Lac-aux-Sables: 336 275 Lac-Bouchette: 348 591 818 Lac-Etchemin: 625 215 820 Lac-Frontière: 245 La Doré: 256 604 917 592 La Guadeloupe: 459 519 715 La Malbaie: 202 270 324 617 620 633 665 790 241 727 La Martre: 288 393 Lambton: 486 La Pocatière: 371 856 213 La Romaine: 229 291 Laterrière: 303 402 678 384 546 Leeds: 424 271 Les Boules: 936 Les Éboulements: 635 975 242 Les Escoumins: 233 243 322 Les Méchins: 729 391 Lévis: 304 603 741 830 833 834 835 837 838 839 903 250 500 534 629 920 L'Île-Verte: 898 648 L'Islet: 247 607 Loretteville: 407 574 767 840 842 843 845 847 915 251 450 836 Luceville: 739 Manicouagan 5: 584 Maria: 759 358 Matane: 429 556 560 562 566 232 261 334 379 631 834 Matapédia: 320 865 884 Métabetchouan: 349 590 716 Milot: 302 373 589 Mistissini: 923 Moisie: 927 290 Mont-Joli: 775 785 Mont-Louis: 797 347 Montmagny: 206 234 241 248 250 252 291 447 508 513 941 262 552 632 725 Murdochville: 784 639 Mutton Bay: 773 289 Natashquan: 726 288 622 Neuville: 791 876 909 New Carlisle: 375 751 752 233
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
La Doré, Quebec
La Doré is a parish municipality in Quebec, Canada, in the regional county municipality of Le Domaine-du-Roy and the administrative region of Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean. It is located along the banks of the Sauger River, between the Ashuapmushuan River and the Laurentian Mountains to the south, in the geographic township of Dufferin. In 1882, the Mission of Notre-Dame-de-la-Visitation-de-la-Doré was established; the village got its real start in 1889 when settlers from Saint-Méthode, Saint-Félicien, Saint-Prime, Lambton settled there and founded the Colony of Rivière-au-Doré. In 1891, it was for a large part destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt due to the courage and determination of the pioneers; the next year the Rivière-au-Doré Post Office opened. In 1904, the mission gained the status of parish, two years in 1906, it was incorporated as the Parish Municipality of Saint-Félicien-Partie-Nord-Ouest. In 1915, it changed its name to Notre-Dame-de-la-Doré, in 1983, it was changed again to the abbreviated form La Doré, because of its widespread common use.
Population trend: Population in 2011: 1453 Population in 2006: 1454 Population in 2001: 1553 Population in 1996: 1624 Population in 1991: 1668Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 613 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0% French as first language: 100% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 0% La Doré holds an annual truck festival, the Festival des camionneurs de La Doré, which took place for the first time in the summer of 1981. In 1991, the festival organizers decided to establish a snowmobile festival in January, the Rally des Loups de La Doré, now a snow-cross competition sanctioned by the SCM; the municipality includes one of the oldest water-powered sawmills still operating in Quebec. The Moulin des Pionniers, from circa 1904, is a major tourist attraction and historic site for the village and region. Municipalité de La Doré Moulin des Pionniers festival des camionneurs
Roberval is a city on the south-western shore of Lac Saint-Jean in the Le Domaine-du-Roy Regional County Municipality of Quebec, Canada. With a population of 10,227 in the Canada 2011 Census, it is the fourth largest city on this lake after Alma, Dolbeau-Mistassini and Saint-Félicien, it is the seat of the Domaine-du-Roy RCM and the main service centre for the region with a hospital and some government services. It is the seat of the judicial district of Roberval, it is the only Lac Saint-Jean town. Benoît Bouchard, former cabinet Minister and Canadian Ambassador in France, Michel Gauthier, former federal Leader of the Opposition, represented the area in the federal parliament. Bernard Lord the former Premier of New Brunswick was born here. Roberval was the 2008 winner of Kraft Hockeyville. In their newly renovated arena, Roberval hosted an NHL preseason game between the Montreal Canadiens and the Buffalo Sabres on September 23, 2008. Roberval is the home of the Traversée internationale du lac St-Jean, an annual swimming competition held since 1955.
The major competition feature the crossing of Lake St-Jean over a distance of 32 kilometres. The 2010 FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships were in 2010. Circa 1850, the first settlers began to colonize the area, followed afterwards by families from the Charlevoix area; the settlement, the oldest village on the shores of Lake Saint-Jean, was first known as Notre-Dame-du-Lac-Saint-Jean, named after the parish founded in 1854. A few years in 1857, the Municipality of Lac-Saint-Jean was formed but in 1859 was split into several municipalities including the Municipality of Roberval, it was named after the geographic township of Roberval, which in turn was named by surveyor Joseph Bouchette in honour of the first Lieutenant General of New France Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval. In 1862, the Roberval post office opened. In 1884, the settlement separated from the municipality to form the Village Municipality of Roberval, it experienced rapid growth in the 1880s when Horace Jansen Beemer, an American entrepreneur from Philadelphia, came to Roberval.
He established logging and sawmill businesses and led the construction of the railroad to Quebec City in 1888. Beemer took care of logging, land speculation, construction of railway bridges, he built a tourist complex in Roberval in 1898, centred on fishing for landlocked salmon and organized excursions to the Grande Décharge. A fire destroyed the Grand Hotel Roberval in 1908, putting an abrupt end to luxury tourism in the Lake Saint-Jean area. In 1903, the village of Roberval gained town status, in 1956, city status. In 1976, it merged with the Municipality of Roberval to form the current city. Population trend: Population in 2011: 10,227 Population in 2006: 10,544 Population in 2001: 10,906 Population in 1996: 11,640 Population in 1991: 11,628Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 4,571 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0.3% French as first language: 98.8% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 0.9% Roberval has two primary schools: Notre-Dame et Benoît-Duhamel and a secondary school la Cité Étudiante.
There are two centres for adult training: Ste-Ursules et le Centre de formation professionnelle. Founded in 1882 by Sister Saint-Raphaël, the Ursuline convent was the first domestic sciences school in Canada. There was an agricultural school. Fires in 1897 and 1919 led to improvement of facilities. Following a fire in 2005, a portion of the convent was replaced by the Jardin des Ursulines, a craft vendors market. In 2011, after 129 years of service to the community, the Ursuline community left Roberval. Roberval has a cold and seasonal humid continental climate, with mild summers, cold winters and high annual snowfall. Due to seasonal lag and influence from the nearby lake, September is well above the subarctic threshold as the fourth warmest month. Roberval, a provincial electoral district Roberval—Lac-Saint-Jean, a Canadian federal electoral district Ville de Roberval La Traversée du lac St-Jean
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
The Canada lynx is a lynx species native to North America. It ranges across Alaska extending into the Rocky Mountains and New Mexico, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2002. With a dense silvery-brown coat, ruffed face and tufted ears, the Canada lynx resembles the other species of the mid-sized feline genus Lynx, it is larger than the bobcat, with which it shares parts of its range, over twice the size of the domestic cat. In his 1792 work The Animal Kingdom, Scottish scientific writer Robert Kerr described a lynx from Canada, giving it the name Felis lynx canadensis; the taxonomy of the Canada lynx remained disputed through the early 21st centuries. In 1912, American zoologist Gerrit Miller placed the Canada lynx under the genus Lynx, with the name L. canadensis. Till as late as the early 2000s, scientists were divided on whether Lynx should be considered a subgenus of Felis, or a subfamily itself. American zoologist W. C. Wozencraft revised the classification of Carnivora in 2005, recognized the Canada lynx as a species under Lynx, along with the bobcat, the Eurasian lynx and the Iberian lynx.
In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy, considering the Canada lynx a monotypic species. Wozencraft recognized three subspecies of the Canada lynx in Mammal Species of the World: L. c. canadensis Kerr, 1792 - Found in the North American mainland. L. c. mollipilosus Stone, 1900 – Described by American mammalogist Witmer Stone from a skin and skull of a male lynx killed near Wainwright, Alaska. L. c. subsolanus Bangs, 1897 – Described by American zoologist Outram Bangs from a lynx skin and skull collected near Codroy in Newfoundland. A study of the differences between L. c. canadensis and L. c. subsolanus showed that apart from a few variations, the standard measurements are not distinct. The researchers noted that, given that only a few differences exist between the two forms, L. c. subsolanus appears to have diverged only from the mainland form. The lack of appreciable subspecific distinctions led them to doubt the identity of the Newfoundland lynx as a separate subspecies.
According to a 2006 study based on genetic analysis, the ancestor of five felid lineages – Lynx, Puma and Prionailurus plus Otocolobus – arrived in North America after crossing the Bering Strait 8.5–8 mya. Lynx diverged from the Puma and Prionailurus plus Otocolobus lineages around 3.24 mya. The Issoire lynx, that originated in Africa 4 mya and occurred in Europe and northern Asia until it became extinct around 1 mya, is believed to be the ancestor of the four modern species of Lynx. A 1987 study suggested that the populations of the Eurasian lynx that reached North America 20,000 years ago moved toward the southern half of the continent, as the northern part was covered by glaciers; the southern populations evolved into the modern bobcat. When the continent was invaded by the Eurasian lynx for a second time, the populations that settled in the northern part of the continent, now devoid of glaciers, evolved into the Canada lynx; the 2006 study gave the phylogenetic relationships of the Canada lynx as follows: The Canada lynx is a medium-sized cat, similar in many ways to the bobcat.
This lynx is between 80 and 100 centimetres in head-and-body length, stands 48–56 centimetres tall at the shoulder and weighs 5–18 kilograms. At half the size of the Eurasian lynx, physical proportions do not vary across its range and are naturally selected to allow the animal to survive on smaller prey; the Canada lynx is sexually dimorphic, with males heavier than females. Like the bobcat, the Canada lynx has forelimbs shorter than the hindlimbs, so that the back appears to be sloping downward toward the front; the stubby tail, typical of lynxes, measures 5–15 centimetres. The coat is yellowish brown, can change colour seasonally; the dense, long fur insulates it in its frosty habitat. Although no melanistic or albinistic forms of the Canada lynx are known, "blue" lynxes have been reported from Alaska. Black hair tufts, a feature common to all lynxes, emerge from the tips of the ears, which are lined with black. In winter, the hair on the lower cheeks grow so long that it appears to form a ruffle covering the throat.
Some dark spots can be seen on the underbelly, where the fur is white. There are four nipples; the coat is short and reddish brown to greyish in summer, but becomes notably longer and greyer in winter, with a mix of greyish brown and buff hairs. The tail is marked with dark rings and, unlike the tail of the bobcat, terminates in a black tip; the paws, covered in long and thick fur, can support nearly double the weight the paws of a bobcat can bear. The Canada lynx has 28 teeth, same as in other lynxes but unlike other felids, with four long canines for puncturing and gripping; the lynx can feel where it is biting the prey with its canines because they are laced with nerves. It has four carnassial teeth that cut the meat into small pieces. In order for the lynx to use its carnassials, it must chew the meat with its head to its side. There are large spaces between the four canines and the rest of the teeth