Seigneurial system of New France
The manorial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land tenure used in the North American French colonial empire. Both in nominal and legal terms, all French territorial claims in North America belonged to the French king. French monarchs did not impose feudal land tenure on New France, the king’s actual attachment to these lands was non-existent. Instead, landlords were allotted land holdings and presided over the French colonial agricultural system in North America. Manorial land tenure was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu granted the newly formed Company of One Hundred Associates all lands between the Arctic Circle to the north, Florida to the south, Lake Superior in the west, the Atlantic Ocean in the east. In exchange for this vast land grant and the exclusive trading rights tied to it, the Company was expected to bring two to three hundred settlers to New France in 1628, a subsequent four thousand during the next fifteen years. To achieve this, the Company subinfeudated all of the land awarded to it by Cardinal Richelieu — that is, parceled it out into smaller units that were run on a feudal-like basis, worked by habitants.
Despite the official arrangement reached between Cardinal Richelieu and the Company of One Hundred Associates, levels of immigration to French colonies in North America remained low. The resulting scarcity of labor had a profound effect on the system of land distribution and the habitant-seigneurial relationship that emerged in New France. King Louis XIV instituted a condition on the land, stating that it could be forfeited unless it was cleared within a certain period of time; this condition kept the land from being sold by the seigneur, leading instead to its being sub-granted to peasant farmers, the habitants. When a habitant was granted the title deed to a lot, he had to agree to accept a variety of annual charges and restrictions. Rent could be set in money, produce or labour. Once this rent was set, it could not due to inflation or time. An habitant was free to develop his land as he wished, with only a few obligations to his seigneur. A seigneur did not have many responsibilities towards his habitants.
The seigneur was obligated to build a gristmill for his tenants, they in turn were required to grind their grain there and provide the seigneur with one sack of flour out of every 14. The seigneur had the right to a specific number of days of forced labour by the habitants and could claim rights over fishing and common pastures. Though the demands of the seigneurs became more significant at the end of French rule, they could never obtain enough resources from the habitants to become wealthy, nor leave their tenants in poverty. Habitants were free individuals; the seigneur–habitant relationship was one where both parties were owners of the land, who split the attributes of ownership between them. In practice, the lands were arranged in long, narrow strips, called seigneuries or fiefs, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River, its estuaries, other key transit features; this physical layout of manorial property developed as a means of maximizing ease of transit and communication by using natural waterways and the few roads.
A desirable plot had to be directly bordering or in close proximity to a river system, which plot-expansion was limited to one of two directions—left or right. Estates in free socage were the most macro-level of land division in New France but, within them, there existed several tenurial subdivisions. Below the level of free socage was that of the villeinage. Throughout New France, several thousand estates in villeinage were developed. Furthermore, these villein tenancies were remarkably uniform in terms of size. Barring extreme cases, it is estimated that around 95% of all villein estates were between 40 and 200 arpents in size, though most were 120 arpents or less. Estates of less than 40 square arpents were considered to be of little value by villein socagers. To maximize simplicity when surveying, estates in villein socage were invariably distributed in rectangular plots following a rowed system, wherein the first row bordered the river, was the first to be filled, followed by the second behind it and so on.
The proportions of such rectangles coincided with the ratio of 1:10 for width and length, respectively. However, extremes all the way up to 1:100 are known to have occurred; this method of land division confers obvious advantages in terms of easy access to transportation and cheap surveying, but allowed socagers to live remarkably close to families on neighboring plots—often within a few hundred yards—creating something of a proto-neighborhood. Although legislation and enforcement varied depending on the period and administration, a socager’s rights of entitlement to their villeinage could not be revoked as long as they paid their duties and fees to the lord of the manor and satisfied the requirements of tenir feu et lieu; this stipulated that they were obliged to improve their landholdings or these would be confiscated. By ordinance of the Intendant in 1682, a socager could not hold more than two villeinages; the lord of the manor rented most of the land to tenants, known as censitaires or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, farmed the land.
A smaller portion of the land was kept as a demesne, economically significant in the early days of settl
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Maxime Bernier is a Canadian businessman and politician serving as Member of Parliament for the riding of Beauce since 2006. He is the current leader of the People's Party of Canada. Prior to being elected, Bernier held positions in law and banking fields. After being elected, he served as Minister of Industry, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of State for Small Business and Tourism, which become the Minister of State for Small Business and Tourism and Agriculture in the cabinet of then-Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Following the Conservatives' defeat in the 2015 election, he served as opposition critic for Innovation and Economic Development in the shadow cabinets of Rona Ambrose and Andrew Scheer, until June 12, 2018, he ran in the 2017 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election, came in a close second with over 49% of the vote in the 13th round, after leading the eventual winner, Andrew Scheer, in the first 12 rounds. On August 23, 2018, citing disagreements with Scheer's leadership, he resigned from the Conservative Party to create his own party.
The party's name, the People's Party of Canada, was announced on September 14, 2018. Bernier was born in Saint-Georges, the son of Doris and Gilles Bernier, a well known radio host, who represented the riding of Beauce from 1984 to 1997, first as a Progressive Conservative and as an independent. In a 2010 interview with John Geddes, Bernier said he respects his father as a Mulroney-era politician, but tries not to emulate his style. Bernier has stated, he is the second oldest child and has two sisters and Caroline, a brother, Gilles Jr. In his teens, Bernier played football as a member of the Condors, the team of the Séminaire St-Georges, that won the Bol d’Or in 1980 at the Olympic Stadium, he obtained a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the Université du Québec à Montréal, completed his law degree at the University of Ottawa and was called to the Quebec Bar in 1990, which he is still a member. For 19 years, Bernier held positions in law, several financial and banking fields, such as working as a lawyer at McCarthy Tétrault, rising up to become branch director at the National Bank, the office of the Securities Commission of Québec as Director of Corporate and International Relations, an adviser from 1996 to 1998 in the office of Bernard Landry—Quebec's finance minister and Deputy Primer of Quebec at the time—and Standard Life of Canada as the Vice-President of Corporate Affairs and Communication.
He served as Executive Vice-President of the Montreal Economic Institute, a prominent Quebec free-market think tank, where he authored a book on the topic of tax reform. In 2005, Bernier became the Conservative Party candidate for the riding of Beauce for the 2006 federal election. Stephen Harper had asked his father to re-enter politics who advised Harper that Bernier should run instead, he won handily, taking 67% of the popular vote, the largest majority for a Conservative outside of Alberta. His ties to the riding and his support for provincial jurisdictions were factors in his win; some political pundits believed Bernier's ideas led to the unexpected Conservative breakthrough in Quebec during the election. Bernier was one of the higher-profile freshman MPs from Quebec, as such, on February 6, 2006, was appointed Minister of Industry and minister responsible for Statistics Canada, by virtue of being appointed as the Minister of Industry, he served as the Registrar General. During his time as Industry Minister, Bernier set in motion steps that led to reformation of the telecommunications industry on local phone service.
Professor Richard J. Schultz from McGill University lauded his attempt to deregulate the telecommunications industry, calling him "the best Industry Minister in 30 years, without challenge." James Cowan from Canadian Business, called Bernier tenure " a golden age", by pointed out that his work on attracting investment was laudable while criticizing anyone who considered Bernier a lightweight. On August 14, 2007, Bernier was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs, replacing Peter MacKay, who became the Minister of National Defence; the rumour is that appointment had to do with preventing Bernier from pushing his personal views such as opposing corporate welfare farther as industry minister. During the beginning of his tenure, Bernier's personality and charm received praise among foreign dignitaries. In May 2008, it was revealed that Bernier became involved in an incident in which he inadvertently left a briefing book at the home of his girlfriend at the time, Julie Couillard. Although these types of incidents were not unique, he was expected to be demoted, but accepted responsibility and offered to resign his cabinet post on May 26, 2008.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper, who dismissed the relationship as irrelevant, accepted his resignation. Bernier explained that the incident made him rethink his political career and that he would avoid taking government information out of his parliamentary office in future. Recalling his tenure as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bernier felt unsatisfied due to the Prime Minister's Office controlling the portfolio, making it harder for him to implement his views into Canadian foreign policy. Six days before the 2008 election, Couillard released a book, supposed to reveal his confidential opinions such as his personal objection to the Iraq War; the English version peaked at No. 6 on La Presse's bestseller list while the French version reached No. 5. However, the book was viewed negatively by Bernier's constituents, he was reelected with 62% of
The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, part of the Algonquian language family. Culturally and linguistically, they are related to the Odawa and Ojibwe, with whom they form the larger Anicinàpe grouping; the Algonquin people call themselves the more generalised name of Anicinàpe. Though known by several names in the past, the most common term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik: "they are our relatives/allies"; the much larger heterogeneous group of Algonquian-speaking peoples, according to Brian Conwell, stretch from Virginia to the Rocky Mountains and north to Hudson Bay, was named after the tribe. Most Algonquins live in Quebec; the nine Algonquin bands in that province and one in Ontario have a combined population of about 11,000. The Algonquin are eastern Ontario in Canada. Today they live in one in Ontario; the Algonquin were a small tribe that lives in northern Michigan and southern Quebec and eastern Ontario.
Many Algonquins still speak the Algonquin language, called Anicinàpemowin or Omàmiwininìmowin. The language is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Anishinaabe languages. Among younger speakers, the Algonquin language has experienced strong word borrowings from the Cree language. Traditionally, the Algonquins lived in wooden mìkiwàms. Today Algonquins live in housings like those of the general public. Traditionally, the Algonquins were practitioners of Midewiwin, they believed. French missionaries converted many Algonquins to Catholicism in the 18th centuries. Today, many of the people practice traditional Midewiwin or a syncretic merging of Christianity and Midewiwin. In the earliest oral history, the Algonquins say. Together with other Anicinàpek, they arrived at the "First Stopping Place" near Montreal. While the other Anicinàpe peoples continued their journey up the St. Lawrence River, the Algonquins settled along the Kitcisìpi, a long-important highway for commerce, cultural exchange and transportation.
Algonquin identity, was not realized until after the dividing of the Anicinàpek at the "Third Stopping Place". Scholars have used the oral histories and linguistics to estimate this took place about 2000 years ago, near present-day Detroit. After contact with the Europeans the French and Dutch, the Algonquin nations became active in the fur trade; this led them to fight against the powerful Iroquois, whose confederacy was based in present-day New York. In 1570, the Algonquins formed an alliance with the Montagnais to the east, whose territory extended to the ocean; the Algonquin first met Europeans when Samuel de Champlain came upon a party led by the Kitcisìpirini Chief Tessouat at Tadoussac, in eastern present-day Quebec, in the summer of 1603. They were celebrating a recent victory over the Iroquois, with the allied Montagnais and Etechemins. Champlain did not understand that the Algonquins were united by a strong totem/clan system rather than the European-styled political concept of nationhood.
The several Algonquin bands each had its own chief. Within each band, the chief depended on political approval from each of the band's clan leaders. Champlain needed to cultivate relationships with numerous chiefs and clan leaders. From 1603, some of the Algonquin allied with the French under Champlain; this alliance proved useful to the Algonquin, who had little to no access to European firearms. Champlain made his first exploration of the Ottawa River during May 1613 and reached the fortified Kitcisìpirini village at Morrison Island. Unlike the other Algonquin communities, the Kitcisìpiriniwak did not change location with the seasons, they had chosen a strategic point astride the trade route between the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, they prospered through the collection of beaver pelts from native traders passing through their territory. They were proud of their corn fields. At first, the French used the term "Algonquin" only for the Wàwàckeciriniwak. However, by 1615, they applied the name to all of the Algonquin bands living along the Ottawa River.
Because of keen interest by tribes to gain control of the lower Ottawa River, the Kitcisìpiriniwak and the Wàwàckeciriniwak came under fierce opposition. These two large groups allied together, under the leadership of Sachem Charles Parcharini, to maintain the Omàmiwinini identity and territory; the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Algonquins from their lands. They were aided by having been traded arms by the Dutch, by the English; the Iroquois and the English defeated the French and Algonquins. In 1623, after Sir David Kirke's occupation of New France demonstrated French colonial vulnerability, the French began to trade muskets to the Algonquins and their allies. French Jesuits began to seek Algonquin conversions to Roman Catholicism. Through all of these years, the Iroquois never attacked the Kitcisìpirinik fortress. But, in 1642, they made a surprise winter raid, attacking the Algonquin while most of the warriors were absent, causing severe casualties. On March 6, 1647, a large Mohawk war party attacked the Kitcisìpiriniwak living near Trois-Rivières and almo
The Chaudière River is a 185-kilometre-long river with its source near the Town of Lac-Mégantic, in southeast Quebec, Canada. From its source Lake Mégantic in the Estrie region, it runs northwards to flow into the St. Lawrence River opposite Quebec City; the river's drainage area is 6,682 square kilometres in the Appalachian Mountains in the low-lands of the St. Lawrence, include 236 lakes covering 62 square kilometres and 180,000 inhabitants, its annual medium flow at the station of Saint-Lambert-de-Lauzon is 114 cubic metres per second, varying from 11 cubic metres per second to 470 cubic metres per second, with historical maximum of 1,760 cubic metres per second. Its principal tributaries are: Rivière du Loup known as the Rivière Linière Famine River Beaurivage River Saint-Victor RiverThe river's basin has nearly 50 percent of the faunal richness of Quebec, namely 330 out of 653 vertebrate species known in the province can be found here; the river, the 40-metre-high Chaudière Falls which it passes over en route, are popular outdoor recreation areas.
The Abenaki indigenous people resided close to the Chaudière Falls and named it "Kikonteku", meaning "River of the Fields". On the charts of Samuel de Champlain, it was given the name "Etchemin River", it was called "Rivière du Sault de la Chaudière" for a period of time before it became "Rivière Chaudière" towards the end of the 18th century. This name refers to the waterfall close to its mouth, its location was strategic for French colonization during the 18th century because the river was a natural link between New France and the British colonies to the south. It was used by Benedict Arnold at the time of his 1775 expedition in the invasion of Quebec. In 1823, gold was found along its shores in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. On 6 July 2013 the Lac-Mégantic derailment caused a major oil spill which contaminated the river at its source at Lac Mégantic. Downstream communities such as Saint-Georges were forced to obtain potable water from alternate sources and residents asked to limit their water consumption.
Floating barriers were installed in an attempt to contain the contamination. The Chaudière valley crosses the Beauce area; the river impacts its industries and way of life during spring run-off, when it overflows into populated areas, in spite of the 160 dams and levees. The river flows through several cities and villages of the area such as Sainte-Marie, Saint-Georges and Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce; the river is a popular location for outdoor sports at Lac-Mégantic and at Parc des Chutes-de-la-Chaudière. Located close to the mouth of the river at Lévis, this park offers cycling and hiking trails, as well as a footbridge suspended above the river which offers a view of the waterfalls; the falls have been harnessed for hydro-electric power since the beginning of the 20th century. The dam was rebuilt in 1999 on the remains of the old installations, now consists of a small 24 MW power station. Le comité du bassin versant de la rivière Chaudière
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Beauce (electoral district)
Beauce is a federal electoral district in Quebec, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1867. In 2006, it had a population of 103,617 people; the Beauce riding has the highest percentage of people who answered "Canadian" as their ethnic origin in the 2006 Census. It is the riding with the highest percentage of White Caucasians; the riding is located south of Quebec City and covers the centre of the Beauce, straddling the Quebec regions of Chaudière-Appalaches and Estrie. The electoral district has the regional county municipalities of Robert-Cliche; the neighbouring ridings are Mégantic—L'Érable, Lotbinière—Chutes-de-la-Chaudière, Lévis—Bellechasse. The riding was created by the British North America Act of 1867, still exists today without any name changes, although its boundaries have been redefined numerous times. According to the 2012 federal electoral redistribution, this riding will lose a small territory to Mégantic—L'Érable; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: This riding lost a small portion of its territory to Mégantic—L'Érable in the 42nd Canadian federal election.
Note: Social Credit vote is compared to Ralliement créditiste vote in the 1968 election. Note: Ralliement créditiste vote is compared to Social Credit vote in the 1963 election. Note: results compared to results of 1900 general election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-07. Campaign expense data from Elections Canada 2011 Results from Elections Canada Parliamentary website, History of Federal Ridings since 1867