An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, rink bandy, broomball, speed skating, figure skating, ice stock sport and curling as well as exhibitions and ice shows. There are two types of rinks in prevalent use today: natural, where freezing occurs from cold ambient temperatures, artificial, where a coolant produces cold temperatures in the surface below the water, causing the water to freeze. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics. Rink, a Scottish word meaning ` course', was used as the name of a place; the name uses. Early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were first made in the'rink mania' of 1841–44; as the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Eliakim Littell's Living Age headed "The Glaciarium" reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon.
The area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". By 1844, these venues fell out of fashion, as customers grew tired of the'smelly' ice substitute, it was only thirty years that refrigeration technology developed to the point that natural ice could be feasibly used in the rink; the world's first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established; the rink was based with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water; the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, patented it as early as 1870.
Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps; the rink proved a success, Gamgee opened two further rinks in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the "Floating Glaciarium" at Charing Cross in London, this last larger at 115 by 25 feet. The Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition, it operated for two months. Ten years a larger rink was permanently installed on the same site; the oldest indoor artificial ice rink still in use is the one in Boston's Matthews Arena, on the campus of Northeastern University. Many ice rinks consist of, or are found on, open bodies of water such as lakes, ponds and sometimes rivers. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing a level area of ground, filling it with water, letting it freeze.
Snow may be packed to use as a containment material. A famous example of this type of rink is the Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa, Canada, estimated at 1,782,000 square feet and 7.8 kilometres long, equivalent to 90 Olympic size skating rinks. The rink is prepared by letting the canal water freeze; the rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow and flooding it with water from below the ice. The rink is recognized as the "world's largest frozen ice rink" by the Guinness Book of World Records because "its entire length receives daily maintenance such as sweeping, ice thickness checks and there are toilet and recreational facilities along its entire length"; the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway. The frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres. In any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space; this consists of a bed of sand or a slab of concrete, through which pipes run. The pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze.
This method is known as'artificial ice' to differentiate from ice rinks made by freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors, although both types are of frozen water. A more proper technical term is'mechanically frozen' ice. A famous example of this type of rink is the outdoor rink at Rockefeller Center in New York. Modern rinks have a specific procedure for preparing the surface. With the pipes cold, a thin layer of water is sprayed on the concrete to seal and level it; this thin layer is painted pale blue for better contrast.
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
The LAV III named the Kodiak by the Canadian Army, is the third generation of the Light Armoured Vehicle family of Infantry fighting vehicle built by General Dynamics Land Systems first entering service in 1999. It was developed in America and is the primary mechanized infantry vehicle of the Canadian Army and the New Zealand Army, it forms the basis of the Stryker vehicle used by the US Army and other operators. By July 1991, the Canadian Armed Forces had identified the need to replace their aging fleet of 1960s and 1970s era armoured personnel carriers; as a result, $2.8 billion was earmarked for the Multi-Role Combat Vehicle project by the sitting Conservative government. The mandate of the MRCV project was to provide a series of vehicles based on a common chassis which would replace the M113 armored personnel carrier, Lynx reconnaissance vehicle, Grizzly armoured personnel carrier, Bison armoured personnel carrier; the project was, deemed unaffordable and cancelled by March 1992. By 1994, after the Liberal Party had returned to government, the army was still in need of new vehicles.
As a result, the army embarked on the Light Armoured Vehicle Project, which would adapt parts of the MRCV Project, be implemented incrementally to spread out the costs. The requirement to replace the Bisons was dropped; the first phase of the project saw the selection of the Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle to replace the Lynx. On August 16, 1995, it was announced that General Motors Diesel Division had been awarded the contract to produce the LAV III which would replace the Grizzly and a large portion of the M113 armoured personnel carriers; the LAV III would incorporate the weapon system used with the Coyote. In July 2009, the Canadian Department of National Defence announced that $5 billion would be spent to enhance and repair the army's armoured vehicles. Part of the spending would be used to replace and repair damaged LAV III's due to wear and tear from operations in Afghanistan; as much as 33 percent of the army's light armoured vehicles were out of service. Furthermore, the LAV III's will be upgraded with automotive components.
The Canadian Armed Forces has lost over 34 vehicles and 359 were damaged during the mission in Afghanistan. The Canadian army has lost more than 159 were damaged by roadside bombs or enemy fire. Of the $5 billion announced 20% of it will be used to upgrade LAV III models; the upgrade will extend the LAV III life span to 2035. The remaining $4 billion is to be spent on a "new family of land combat vehicles"; the Department of National Defence considered the purchase of vehicles meant to accompany the Leopard 2 and to sustain the LAV III into combat. The CV90, the Puma and the Véhicule blindé de combat d'infanterie were the most candidates for the role. A contract of 108 with an option for up to 30 more was considered, but a combination of budget cuts and upgrades to the existing fleet of LAV IIIs have led the Canadian Army to cancel its order for 108 CV90s. On October 21, 2011, the Canadian government announced a $1.1 billion contract to General Dynamics Land Systems to upgrade 550 LAV III combat vehicles.
The government said the upgrade is needed to improve protection against mines and improvised explosive devices, which have been the cause of a number of Canadian deaths in Afghanistan. The improvements will extend the service of the vehicles up to 2035 and will boost troop mobility; the upgrades include a new and more powerful engine, increased armour protection and brake systems. The turret hatches on the LAV III would be made larger and improved fire control, thermal and low-light sights, data displays; the weight of the vehicle would increase from 38,000 pounds to 55,000 pounds. The first of 66 upgraded LAV IIIs was delivered on February 1, 2013; the success of the upgrade program and budget pressures led to the cancellation of the Close Combat Vehicle replacement program that year. In September 2012, the original contract valued to at $1.064 billion to upgrade the 550 LAV III's variants, an infantry section carrier, a command post, an observation post and an engineer vehicle to the LAV 6.0 configuration, was modified.
This included an additional $151 million to upgrade 66 LAV III's to the LAV VI with a LAV Reconnaissance and Surveillance System fitted. On February 10, 2017, General Dynamics Land Systems – Canada of London, was awarded a $404 million order to work on 141 LAV Operational Requirement Integration Task vehicles; this contract will upgrade the remaining LAV III fleet in the Canadian Army to the LAV VI configuration. This brings the Canadian Army's Light Armoured Vehicle III Upgrade program to a total cost of $1.8 billion. Final completion and delivery of the Canadian Army's Light Armoured Vehicle III Upgrade to upgrade the LAV III to the LAV VI is expected to be completed by December 2019; the LAV III is powered by a Caterpillar 3126 diesel engine developing 350 horsepower when chip locked to protect the driveline from damage, but over 400 hp if unlocked for wartime. If unlocked it requires full-time 8x8 to avoid damaging the T-case and differentials, can reach speeds above 100 kilometres per hour.
The vehicle is fitted with 8x8 drive and equipped with a central tire inflation system, which allows it to adjust to different terrain, including off-road. The LAV III is fitted with a traction control system. Unlike earlier versions of the LAV, the LAV III does not have amphibious capabilities; the LAV III faces th
Chambly is an off-island suburb in southwestern Quebec, about 25 km to the south east of Montreal. It was formed from the old city of Chambly, it sits on the Richelieu River in the Regional County Municipality of La-Vallée-du-Richelieu, at 45°27′00″N 73°17′27″W. Descendants of European immigrants have lived in Chambly since the 17th century, but Chambly was not incorporated as a city until 1965. Samuel de Champlain passed through the area that came to be the site of the town of Chambly, QC, in 1609; when he wrote the following in his journal: The approach to the rapids is a sort of lake into which the water flows down, it is about three leagues in circumference. Near by are meadows were no Indians live, by reason of the wars. At the rapids there is little water, but it flows with great swiftness, there are many rocks and boulders, so that the Indians cannot go up by water. All this region is level and full of forests and butternut trees. No Christian has visited this land and we had all the misery of the world trying to paddle the river upstream.
The College of Chambly was chartered on March 1835 in Lower Canada. Chambly is home to the massive Fort Chambly, built with local stone between 1709 and 1711 in the style of Vauban's classic French fortifications, it was built at the mouth of a large basin, on the site of successive wooden forts dating back to 1665. Fort Chambly was the largest in a series of fortifications on the shores of what was known as the Iroquois River. Called Fort Saint-Louis, it soon came to be known by the name of its first commanding officer, Jacques de Chambly, to whom the surrounding seigniory was granted in 1672, it was intended to protect New France in general from attack from the English. Today, the fort is run by Parks Canada and is designated a National Historic Site of Canada, houses a museum and interpretive center, hosts historical re-enactments of military drills. A small local population clustered around the fort, the entire area became known as Chambly as well. Chambly is known for the Chambly Canal, a National Historic Site run by Parks Canada.
It was built in 1843 to bypass several kilometers of successive Richelieu River rapids between the towns of Chambly, QC, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. Part of a series of waterways connecting the Saint Lawrence River and New York City, Chambly Canal was built to facilitate commercial traffic between Canada and the United States. Trade dwindled after World War I, as of the 1970s, traffic has been replaced by recreational vessels. Today the canal is enjoyed by tourists and more than 7,000 pleasure boats in the summer, ice skaters in the winter; the St-Joseph of Chambly church is located at 164 Martel street. It was built between 1880 and 1881; the parish was founded in 1665. The population as of the Canada 2016 Census was 29,120. Although populated today by French Canadians, Chambly has long had a vibrant English citizenry; as of 2015, Chambly's largest local employers are: Les Aliments Cargill Kraft Canada inc. Marché Lambert et Frères inc. Métro Collin inc. Ostiguy et Frères Inc. Sleeman Unibroue inc. JG Rive-Sud Fruits & Légumes Maçonnerie Rainville & Frères Inc.
JER-B Syl inc. Division | Kkwit.com Dicom Express Inc. Manoir Soleil inc. Remtec inc. Fondrémy inc. Fourquet Fourchette Restaurant Tre Colori T. A. S. Techno Aero Services Inc. Maçonnerie Pro-Conseil inc. ISAAC Instruments inc. Zone Technologie Électrique Inc. Caisse populaire Desjardins du Bassin-de-Chambly Chambly Honda http://chamblyhonda.com Carapex Inc. | http://carapex.ca The exo Chambly-Richelieu-Carignan region provides commuter and local bus services. In English, the South Shore Protestant Regional School Board and the Richelieu Valley School Board served the municipality. Chambly is served by the Riverside School Board and by William Latter Elementary School. In French, the Commission scolaire des Patriotes serves Chambly, with the following schools located in the municipality: École De Bourgogne École De Salaberry École Jacques-De Chambly École Sainte-Marie École Madeleine-Brousseau École secondaire de Chambly Chambly is served by a local weekly newspaper called the "Journal de Chambly", first published in 1966.
A small daily news sheet called Chambly Matin maintains a journalistic presence on the internet reporting on local issues. Emma Albani – Opera singer Ricardo Larrivée – Television personality Robert Lebel – Former mayor of Chambly, Hockey Hall of Fame inductee Étienne Lucier – Fur trader Étienne Provost – Fur trader List of cities in Quebec Town of Chambly website Fort Chambly page at Parks Canada website Chambly Canal page at Parks Canada website
Lake Champlain is a natural freshwater lake in North America within the borders of the United States but situated across the Canada–U. S. Border, in the Canadian province of Quebec; the New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of Clinton County and Essex County. Most of this area is part of the Adirondack Park. There are recreational facilities in the park and along the undeveloped coastline of Lake Champlain; the cities of Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont are on the lake's western and eastern shores and the Town of Ticonderoga, New York is in the region's southern part. The Quebec portion is in the regional county municipalities of Le Haut-Richelieu and Brome-Missisquoi. There are a number of islands in the lake; the Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a landform system known as the Great Appalachian Valley, which stretches between Quebec, Canada, to the north, Alabama, US, to the south. The Champlain Valley is a physiographic section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division.
Lake Champlain is one of numerous large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States, the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the thirteenth largest lake by area in the US. 1,269 km2 in area, the lake is 172 km long and 23 km across at its widest point, has a maximum depth of 400 feet. The lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft above mean sea level. Lake Champlain is in the Lake Champlain Valley between the Green Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, drained northward by the 106-mile -long Richelieu River into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec and downstream of Montreal, Quebec, it receives the waters from the 32-mile -long Lake George, so its basin collects waters from the northwestern slopes of the Green Mountains and the northernmost eastern peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, 250,000 people get their drinking water from the lake; the lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Missisquoi and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, Otter Creek.
In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy and Saranac rivers, along with Putnam Creek. In Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River, it is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal. Parts of the lake freeze each winter, in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as "closing". In July and August, the lake temperature reaches an average of 70 °F; the Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation that extends from Tennessee to Quebec and Newfoundland. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the northernmost island in Lake Champlain; the oldest reefs are around "The Head" of the south end of the island. Together, these three sites provide a unique narrative of events that took place over 450 million years ago in the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere, long before Lake Champlain's emergence 20,000 years ago; the lake has long acted as a border between indigenous nations much as it is today between the USA and Canada.
The lake is located at the frontier between Mohawk traditional territories. The official toponym for the lake according to the orthography established by the Grand Council of Wanab-aki Nation is Pitawbagok, meaning'middle lake','lake in between' or'double lake'; the Mohawk name in modern orthography as standardized in 1993 is Kaniatarakwà:ronte, meaning "a bulged lake" or “lake with a bulge in it." An alternate name is Kaniá:tare tsi kahnhokà:ronte, meaning'door of the country' or'lake to the country'. The lake is an important eastern gateway to Iroquois Confederacy lands; the lake was named after the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, who encountered it in July 1609. While the ports of Burlington, Port Henry, New York, Plattsburgh, New York today are used by small craft and lake cruise ships, they were of substantial commercial and military importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. New France allocated concessions all along lake Champlain to French settlers and built forts to defend the waterways.
In colonial times, Lake Champlain was used as a water passage between the Saint Lawrence and Hudson valleys. Travelers found it easier to journey by boats and sledges on the lake rather than go overland on unpaved and mud-bound roads; the lake's northern tip at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, is a short distance from Montreal, Quebec. The southern tip at Whitehall is a short distance from Saratoga, Glens Falls, Albany, New York. Forts were built at Crown Point to control passage on the lake in colonial times. Important battles were fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the British and Americans conducted a frenetic shipbuilding race through the spring and summer of 1776, at opposite ends of the lake, fought a significant naval engagement on October 1
Saint-Jean (electoral district)
Saint-Jean is a federal electoral district in Quebec, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1968. The riding extends along the Richelieu River southeast of Montreal, in the Quebec region of Montérégie, it consists of the western parts of the RCM of Le Haut-Richelieu. The neighbouring ridings are Beauharnois—Salaberry, Brossard—La Prairie, Chambly—Borduas and Brome—Missisquoi, its population is 102,902, with 85,659 registered electors, has an area of 734 km². Long a Bloc stronghold, the riding of Saint-Jean turned orange as the NDP swept the province of Quebec in 2011. BQ support was spread evenly throughout the riding, like the victorious NDP; the Liberals did better in and around Lacolle than in other portions of the seat but had weak support in all parts of the riding. The Conservatives did have some pockets of good support, but they were isolated, their support was uniform, although they did better in the rural areas. It was created in 1966 from parts of Beauharnois—Salaberry, Châteauguay—Huntingdon—Laprairie and Saint-Jean—Iberville—Napierville ridings.
This riding was not changed during the 2012 electoral redistribution. Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Social Credit vote is compared to Ralliement créditiste vote in the 1968 election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-07. Campaign expense data from Elections Canada Riding history from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada