Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling. The coagulation can be caused by adding rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, allowing it to coagulate; the increased acidity curds. Milk, left to sour will naturally produce curds, sour milk cheeses are produced this way. Producing cheese curds is one of the first steps in cheesemaking; the remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 90 percent of the proteins are caseins. In Indian English, used only in the Indian subcontinent, curd is used to refer to the traditional homemade yogurt known as dahi, while paneer and Chhena are used to denote curdled milk. There are two methods to make curd, with acid. Using acid, like lemon juice, to make curd releases the lactose into the water, thus the solid curd formed from this method is good for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is known as Chhena in India. Using rennet to make curd, attaches the lactose to the solid coagulated proteins.
Thus it is not recommended for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is the commercial cheese available in supermarkets, such as Cheddar, Swiz, Parmesan. Vegetarian rennet from Withania coagulans, is used to make paneer in India. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, curd cheese, farmer cheese, pot cheese, queso blanco, paneer; the word can refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is used. In England, curds produced using rennet are referred to as junket. Cheese curds, drained of the whey and served without further processing or aging, are popular in some French-speaking regions of Canada, such as Quebec, parts of Ontario, Atlantic Canada. Throughout Canada cheese curds are served with french fries and gravy in a popular snack called poutine. Curds are typical of some Germanic-descent regions such as historic Waterloo County in Ontario. In some parts of the Midwestern U. S. in Wisconsin, curds are eaten fresh without further additions, or they are breaded and fried.
In Turkey, curds are called keş and are served on fried bread and are eaten with macaroni in the provinces of Bolu and Zonguldak. In Mexico, chongos zamoranos is a dessert prepared with milk curdled with cinnamon. Albanian gjiza is made by adding vinegar or lemon; the derivative is salted to taste. Gjiza can be served or refrigerated for a couple of days. Aarts, Mongolian fermented curd, eaten as a dried snack or reconstituted as a hot beverage Chongos zamoranos, a dessert prepared with milk curdled with sugar and cinnamon Cuajada sweetened and eaten for breakfast or dessert, popular in Spain and Central America Curd snack, a snack popular in the Baltic States Kurt or Qurut, central Asian cheese curd Ostkaka, Swedish style cheese cake, some call it a Swedish National dish Paskha, a Russian Easter dessert made of quark Ricotta, an Italian whey cheese Skyr, Icelandic curd Tofu, the coagulated product from soy milk, from eastern and south-eastern Asian countries Túró Rudi, a Hungarian chocolate bar with curd Urdă, a Balkans fresh white cheese made from whey.
List of dairy products Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations A fresh look at fine cheese, audio tour of Canada’s best cheese curds. Mrs Beeton
Bleu de Gex
Bleu de Gex is a creamy, semi-soft blue cheese made from unpasteurized milk in the Jura region of France. It is named after the Pays de Gex. During production, Penicillium roqueforti mold is introduced and the unwashed curds are loosely packed, it is aged for at least three weeks. To meet Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée guidelines, it must contain only the milk of Montbéliard cows, it is flavorful and stronger than the majority of French blue cheeses. Each wheel is stamped with the word "Gex"
Holstein Friesian cattle
Holstein Friesians are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany and Jutland. They are known as the world's highest-production dairy animals; the Dutch and German breeders bred and oversaw the development of the breed with the goal of obtaining animals that could best use grass, the area's most abundant resource. Over the centuries, the result was a black-and-white dairy cow. With the growth of the New World, markets began to develop for milk in North America and South America, dairy breeders turned to the Netherlands for their livestock. After about 8,800 Friesians had been imported, disease problems in Europe led to the cessation of exports to markets abroad. In Europe, the breed is used for milk in the north, meat in the south. Since 1945, European national development has led to cattle breeding and dairy products becoming regionalized. More than 80% of dairy production is north of a line joining Bordeaux and Venice, which has more than 60% of the total cattle.
This change led to the need for specialized animals for dairy production. Until this time and beef had been produced from dual-purpose animals; the breeds, national derivatives of the Dutch Friesian, had become different animals from those developed by breeders in the United States, who used Holsteins only for dairy production. Breeders imported specialized dairy Holsteins from the United States to cross with the European black and whites. For this reason, in modern usage, "Holstein" is used to describe North or South American stock and its use in Europe in the North. "Friesian" denotes animals of a traditional European ancestry, bred for both beef use. Crosses between the two are described by the term "Holstein-Friesian". Holsteins have distinctive markings black and white or red and white in colour exhibiting piebald pattern. On rare occasions some have both red colouring with white. Red factor causes this unique colouring.'Blue' is a known colour. This colour is produced by white hairs mixed with the black hairs giving the cow a blueish tint.
This colouring is known as'blue roan' in some farm circles. They are famed for their large dairy production. Of this milk, 858 pounds are butterfat and 719 pounds are protein. A healthy calf weighs more at birth. A mature Holstein cow weighs 680–770 kg, stands 145–165 cm tall at the shoulder. Holstein heifers should be bred by 11 to 14 months of age, when they weigh 317–340 kg or 55% of adult weight. Breeders plan for Holstein heifers to calve for the first time between 21 and 24 months of age and 80% of adult bodyweight; the gestation period is about nine and a half months. Near 100 BC, a displaced group of people from Hesse migrated with their cattle to the shores of the North Sea near the Frisii tribe, occupying the island of Batavia, between the Rhine and Waal. Historical records suggest these cattle were black, the Friesian cattle at this time were "pure white and light coloured". Crossbreeding may have led to the foundation of the present Holstein-Friesian breed, as the cattle of these two tribes from are described identically in historical records.
The portion of the country bordering on the North Sea, called Frisia, was situated within the provinces of North Holland and Groningen, in Germany to the River Ems. The people were known for their breeding of cattle; the Frisii, preferring pastoral pursuits to warfare, paid a tax of ox hides and ox horns to the Roman government, whereas the Batavii furnished soldiers and officers to the Roman army. The Frisii bred the same strain of cattle unadulterated for 2000 years, except from accidental circumstances. In 1282, floods produced the Zuiderzee, a formed body of water that had the effect of separating the cattle breeders of the modern day Frisians into two groups; the western group occupied West Friesland, now part of North Holland. The rich polder land in the Netherlands is unsurpassed for the production of grass and dairy products. Between the 13th and 16th centuries, the production of butter and cheese was enormous. Historic records describe heavy beef cattle; the breeders had the goal of producing as much beef as possible from the same animal.
The selection and feeding have been carried out with huge success. Inbreeding was not tolerated, families never arose, although differences in soil in different localities produced different sizes and variations. Up to the 18th century, the British Isles imported Dutch cattle, using them as the basis of several breeds in England and Scotland; the eminent Prof. Low recorded, "the Dutch breed was established in the district of Holderness, on the north side of the Humber; the finest dairy cattle in England...", of Holderness in 1840 still retained the distinct traces of their Dutch origin. Further north in the Tees area, farmers imported continental cattle from the Netherlands and German territories on the Elbe. Low wrote, "Of the precise extent of these early importations we are imperfectly informed, but that they exercised a great influence on the native stock appears from this circumstance, that the breed formed by the mixture became familiarly known as the Dutch or Holstein breed". Holstein-
Brie de Meaux
Brie de Meaux is a French brie cheese of the Brie region and a designated AOC product since 1980. Its name comes from the town of Meaux in the Brie region; as of 2003, 6,774 tonnes were produced annually. Brie de Meaux is made from cow's milk, with an average weight of 2.8 kg for a diameter of 36 to 37 cm. It has a delicate white rind; the interior of the cheese is straw-yellow and soft. A modern legend identifies as Brie de Meaux a certain cheese, "rich and creamy", with an edible white rind that in the eighth century Frankish Emperor Charlemagne first tasted in the company of a bishop and approved, requiring two cartloads to be sent to Aachen annually; this cheese was named the "king of cheeses" in 1815 by Talleyrand at the Congress of Vienna. The production territory of Brie de Meaux is limited to the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Meuse, Marne, Haute-Marne and the Yonne. There is, however, no production close to Meaux, there is little celebration of the cheese in the town. Brie de Meaux is made with raw cow's milk.
It takes about 25 litres of milk to make a large cheese. The fermented milk is placed in a tank for 16 hours put in bowl for curding which lasts one hour, it is cut into small cubes with a slice-curd. It is molded by hand by thin layers with a brie shovel; the temperature in the room where casting is made must be increased to 33 °C for four hours to evacuate the whey at 24 °C for six hours and at 19 °C. It is drained on mats made of reeds; the next day, the cheese is salted and they will remain in the curing room for two days. The cheeses are placed in a room at 12 °C in which they will begin to be refined and the characteristic white rind will begin to appear. After one week, the cheese will be placed in another refrigerator at 7 °C, it must wait 3 weeks minimum 6 to 8 weeks to reach full maturity. Throughout the ripening period, cheeses are turned by hand; the time of manufacture of Brie de Meaux is two months
Types of cheese
Types of cheese are grouped or classified according to criteria such as length of fermentating, methods of making, fat content, animal milk, country or region of origin, etc. The method most and traditionally used is based on moisture content, further narrowed down by fat content and curing or ripening methods; the criteria may either be used singly or in combination, with no single method being universally used. The combination of types produces around 50 different varieties recognized by the International Dairy Federation, over 400 identified by Walter and Hargrove, over 500 by Burkhalter, over 1,000 by Sandine and Elliker; some attempts have been made to rationalise the classification of cheese. This last scheme results in 18 types, which are further grouped by moisture content; the main factor in categorizing these cheeses is age. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days. For these simplest cheeses, milk is drained, with little other processing. Examples include cottage cheese, cream cheese, curd cheese, farmer cheese, caș, fromage blanc, queso fresco and fresh goat's milk chèvre.
Such cheeses are soft and spreadable, with a mild flavour. Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from whey, a by-product from the process of producing other cheeses which would otherwise be discarded. Corsican brocciu, Italian ricotta, Romanian urda, Greek mizithra, Cypriot anari cheese, Himalayan chhurpi and Norwegian Brunost are examples. Brocciu is eaten fresh, is as such a major ingredient in Corsican cuisine, but it can be found in an aged form; some fresh cheeses such as fromage blanc and fromage frais are sold and consumed as desserts. Traditional pasta filata cheeses such as Mozzarella fall into the fresh cheese category. Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of Mozzarella, which in southern Italy is eaten within a few hours of being made. Stored in brine, it can be shipped, it is known worldwide for its use on pizza. Categorizing cheeses by moisture content or firmness is a inexact practice; the lines between soft, semi-soft, semi-hard and hard are arbitrary, many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variants.
The factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content, which depends on the pressure with which it is packed into moulds, upon aging time. Cream cheeses are not matured. Brie and Neufchâtel are soft-type cheeses. Neufchâtel is a soft cheese. Semi-soft cheeses, the sub-group Monastery, cheeses have a high moisture content and tend to be mild-tasting. Well-known varieties include Havarti and Port Salut. Cheeses that range in texture from semi-soft to firm include Swiss-style cheeses such as Emmental and Gruyère; the same bacteria that give such cheeses their eyes contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavours. Other semi-soft to firm cheeses include Gouda, Jarlsberg and Kashkaval/Cașcaval. Cheeses of this type are ideal for melting and are served on toast for quick snacks or simple meals. Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses, they are packed into moulds under more pressure and aged for a longer time than the soft cheeses. Cheeses that are classified as semi-hard to hard include the familiar Cheddar, originating in the village of Cheddar in England but now used as a generic term for this style of cheese, of which varieties are imitated worldwide and are marketed by strength or the length of time they have been aged.
Cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses, whose curd is cut heated and stirred before being pressed into forms. Colby and Monterey Jack are milder cheeses. A similar curd-washing takes place when making the Dutch cheeses Gouda. Hard cheeses—grating cheeses such as Grana Padano, Parmesan or Pecorino—are quite packed into large forms and aged for months or years; some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cow's milk, many parts of the world produce cheese from goats and sheep. Examples include Pecorino from ewe's milk. One farm in Sweden produces cheese from moose's milk. Sometimes cheeses marketed under the same name are made from milk of different animal—feta cheeses, for example, are made from sheep's milk in Greece. Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows' milk enriched with cream so that their fat in dry matter content is 60–75%.
There are three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is an important feature: soft-ripened cheeses, washed-rind cheeses and blue cheeses. Soft-ripened cheeses begin firm and rather chalky in texture, but are aged from the exterior inwards by exposing them to mold; the mold may be a velvety bloom of P. camemberti that forms a flexible white crust and contributes to the smooth, runny, or gooey textures and more intense flavors of these aged cheeses. Brie and Camembert, the most famous of these cheeses, are made by allowing white mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks. Goat's milk cheeses are treated in a similar manner, sometimes with white molds and sometimes
Brocciu is a Corsican cheese produced from a combination of milk and whey, giving it some of the characteristics of whey cheese. It is notable as a substitute for lactose-rich Italian Ricotta. Produced on the island of Corsica, brocciu is considered the island's most representative food. Like ricotta, it is a young white cheese and is paired with Corsican white wines; the word brocciu is related to the French word "brousse" and means fresh cheese made with goat or ewe's milk. Brocciu is made from milk. First, the whey is heated to a low temperature of just a few degrees below 100 °F and ewe's milk is added and further heated to just a bit below 200 °F. After heating, the cheese is drained in rush baskets; the cheese is ready for consumption although it may be ripened for a few weeks. In the Corsican cuisine it is used in the preparation of innumerable dishes, from first courses to desserts. Schapira, Christiane. La bonne cuisine corse. Paris: Solar. ISBN 2263001778. Juliet Harbutt, World Cheese Book, p. 43
Nectarius of Auvergne
Saint Nectarius of Auvergne is venerated as a 4th-century martyr and Christian missionary. According to Gregory of Tours, Nectarius was one of the seven missionaries sent by Pope Fabian from Rome to Gaul to spread Christianity there; the other six were Gatianus of Tours, Trophimus of Arles, Paul of Narbonne, Martial of Limoges, Denis of Paris, Saturninus of Toulouse. Nectarius was accompanied by the priests Auditor. An alternate tradition states that Saint Peter rather than Pope Fabian sent Nectarius and his brothers to evangelize Gaul. A third tradition states that Saint Austremonius ordered Nectarius to Christianize the plain of Limagne in the Massif Central. Nectarius turned a temple dedicated to Apollo on the hill known as Cornadore into a Christian church, which became the Basilica of Notre Dame du Mont Cornadore at Saint-Nectaire, at Puy-de-Dôme. Nectarius was subsequently killed by Bradulus. Evidence of veneration for Nectarius dates from the 10th century. A sepulcher at the Benedictine priory of St-Nectaire became a center of pilgrimage.
A borough arose around the priory, which became a center for mineral water and the manufacture of the cheese known as Saint-Nectaire. Nectarius is the co-patron of Saint-Nectaire along with Saint Auditor, although Saint Auditor is the principal patron saint of that town, for reasons unknown