Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster
Major General Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster, was a British landowner, philanthropist, Territorial Army general and hereditary peer. He was the son of 5th Duke of Westminster and Viola Grosvenor, he was Chairman of the property company Grosvenor Group. Born in Northern Ireland, Grosvenor moved from an island in the middle of Lough Erne to be educated at Sunningdale and Harrow boarding schools in the south of England. After a troubled education he left school with two O-levels, he joined the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and served in the Territorial Army, where he was promoted to major-general in 2004. Via Grosvenor Estates, the business he inherited along with the dukedom in 1979, the Duke was the richest property developer in the United Kingdom and one of the country's largest landowners, with property in Edinburgh, Oxford, Cambridge and Cheshire, including the family's country seat of Eaton Hall, as well as 300 acres of Mayfair and Belgravia in Central London; the business has interests in other parts of Europe.
According to the Sunday Times Rich List 2016, the Duke was worth £9.35 billion, placing him sixth in the list and making him the third-richest British citizen. The Duke died on 9 August 2016 after suffering a heart attack; the title passed to his son, Hugh Grosvenor. The Grosvenor family's first development was in Central London, in the early 18th century. After developing the two parts of Central London, the family business expanded. During the second half of the 20th century, the business expanded into the Americas and developed Annacis Island and Vancouver in Canada in the 1950s; the family business started developing in Australia in the 1960s. They moved to continental Europe just before the millennium. In April 2000, the firm moved into new London offices; the business was headed by the 6th Duke, Chairman of the Trustees. The Duke was Director of Claridge's Hotel from 1981 until 1993, of Marcher Sound from 1992 until 1997; as a child the Duke lived on an island in the middle of Lower Lough Erne in Ulster.
His early education was in Northern Ireland before he was sent at age 7 to boarding school at Sunningdale, followed by Harrow. Because of his Northern Irish accent, the Duke struggled to fit in at first, after his accent was "bullied" out of him, he found it difficult to make friends. Unhappy at boarding school, his education suffered, he left school with two O-levels in English. As the Earl Grosvenor he joined the Territorial Army in 1970, as a trooper, family estate responsibilities having caused him to abandon a Regular Army career in the 9th/12th Lancers. After entering RMA Sandhurst in 1973, he passed out as an officer cadet and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve of the Royal Armoured Corps on 13 May 1973, he was promoted to lieutenant on 13 May 1975 and to captain on 1 July 1980. He was promoted to the acting rank of major on 1 January 1985 and to the substantive rank on 22 December. Promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 1 April 1992, he subsequently commanded the North Irish Horse, the Cheshire Yeomanry Squadron, founded by his ancestors, the Queen's Own Yeomanry.
He was promoted to colonel on 31 December 1994 and was appointed honorary colonel of the 7th Regt Army Air Corps and the Northumbrian Universities Officer Training Corps. Promoted to brigadier on 17 January 2000, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the Royal Mercian and Lancastrian Yeomanry on 14 May 2001, he was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Royal Westminster Regiment, the North Irish Horse, as Colonel Commandant Yeomanry. The Duke was Grand Prior of the Priory of England of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem, 1995–2001. In 2004, he was appointed to the new post of Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff, with promotion in the rank of major-general. In March 2007, having served in the Ministry of Defence as Assistant CDS for four years, he handed over responsibility for 50,000 reservists and 138,000 cadets to Major General Simon Lalor, in the wake of the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal in which Grosvenor was implicated; the Duke became Deputy Commander Land Forces in May 2011.
He retired from the Armed Forces in 2012. The Duke was President of the BLESMA from 1992, the Yeomanry Benevolent Fund from 2005, national Vice-President of the Royal British Legion from 1993, the Reserve Forces' Ulysses Trust from 1995, the Not Forgotten Society from 2004, Chairman of the Nuffield Trust for the Forces of the Crown from 1992, all until his death, he was Vice-President of the Royal Engineers Music Foundation 1990–94. In 2011, having funded a feasibility study, the Duke purchased the estate at Stanford Hall, Nottinghamshire to make possible the creation of a Defence and National Rehabilitation Centre to provide the highest quality support for military casualties. Work started on the £300m project in April 2016, it is intended that the new facilities which are under construction for completion in 2018 will replace those at Headley Court; the Duke remained involved in the project until his death. He was Vice-President of the Royal United Services Institute from 1993 until 2012, President of The Tank Museum, from 2002, a committee member of the National Arm
Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
The Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, translated as "National Higher French Institute of Aeronautics and Space", founded in 1909. It was the world's first dedicated aerospace engineering school and is considered to be one of the best in Europe in that field; the school delivers a range of engineering degree programs. ISAE-SUPAERO is part of University of Toulouse, ISSAT, PEGASUS, GEA, Toulouse Tech, CESAER and Aerospace Valley. ISAE-SUPAERO results from the merger between SUPAERO and ENSICA in the summer of 2007; the aim of this move was to increase the international visibility of SUPAERO and the ENSICA, by sharing their faculty and experimental means. Since its founding in 1909 ISAE-SUPAERO has produced more than 21,500 graduates. ISAE-SUPAERO has the following missions: • To educate engineers in the aeronautics and space fields and in related areas • To engage in scientific research and technological Innovation • To deliver specialized graduate education and continuing education programs • To deliver doctoral programs and national degrees equivalent or superior to the Masters degree.
ISAE was created by decree 2007-1384 of 24 September, 2007. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence, overseen by the DGA, the Institute is a public institution with a scientific and professional vocation, it is governed by articles R.3411-1 to R.3411-28 of the Defence Code and is accredited by the Engineering Education Commission. ISAE SUPAERO delivers national Doctorate and Masters degrees and Advanced Masters degrees accredited by la Conférence des Grandes Ecoles, an organization whose members are the most prestigious business and engineering schools in France; the Institute is governed by an Executive Board of 27 members, headed by the President. The Board meets three times a year; the Institute has an educational board, a research board, a continuing education board Members of the advisory boards come from within the Institute and academia and industry. ISAE-SUPAERO has implemented an ISO 9001 quality management system for all of its activities; the historic logo of the former SUPAERO school: the owl, associated with the Greek Goddess, Athena, is a symbol of knowledge.
Today, the owl is still part of the ISAE SUPAERO logo. In 1909, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Roche, a civil engineering officer and a graduate of l’Ecole Polytechnique, had the foresight and vision to anticipate the needs and future scope of the aeronautics industry in the world. Colonel Roche was the founder of l'École supérieure d'aéronautique et de constructions mécaniques, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Mechanical Construction in Paris. In 1930, the latter became « l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aeronautics », under the leadership of the renowned French engineer, Albert Caquot, in 1972 it became l’Ecole nationale supérieure de l’aeronautique et de l’espace, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Space, better known as “SUPAERO”. In 1930, the School moved to more modern buildings in « la Cité de l’Air », located boulevard Victor in Paris. In 1968, SUPAERO moved to the vast aerospace hub of Toulouse-Lespinet, in the heart of a stimulating higher education and research environment, right near l’Ecole nationale de l’aviation civile, the School of Civil Aviation, transferred to Toulouse the same year.
In 1970, the former Paris premises of the School were home to l'École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées, until the latter moved to new premises on the campus of l'École Polytechnique in Palaiseau. They were transformed into the Conference Center of the Ministry of Defence. Several research laboratories were created in affiliation with the School and regrouped around the Toulouse ONERA center. Today, affiliated with the School, it conducts theoretical and applied research in defence in a wide range of fields including aerodynamics, automatic control, advanced robotics, aerospace electronics, computer systems, aerospace vehicles, aerospace mechanics, propulsive systems. In 1975, SUPAERO was one of the first engineering schools in France to be accredited to deliver the doctoral degree. In 1994, SUPAERO became a public body with legal personality reporting to the Ministry of Defence. In practice, the Institute is overseen by the DGA, Directorate General of Armaments and under the direction of an “ingénieur général de l'armement”.
ENSICA was created in Paris at the time of the Liberation, under the name, « École nationale des travaux aéronautiques », in accordance with article 8 of the law on finance of 1946. The first graduating class included 25 students who would join the military corps of engineers specialized in aeronautics. By decree of June 4th, 1957, the name of the School was changed to “l’École nationale d’ingénieurs des constructions aéronautiques; the degree program was extended to three years with a new focus on industry and a larger share of civilian students. In 1961, ENICA was relocated to Toulouse. Under the leadership of the Director, Émile Blouin, the School acquired its own identity and a new dimension; the geographic link was cut with SUPAERO, which until had housed the school on its premises, Boulevard Victor, in Paris. The building of a new student cen
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Asnières-sur-Seine is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, along the river Seine. It is located 7.9 km from the center of Paris. Asnières-sur-Seine was called Asnières. Asnières was recorded for the first time in a papal bull of 1158 as Asnerias, from Medieval Latin asinaria, meaning "donkey farm"; the poor soil of Asnières, where heather grew in Medieval times, was deemed only suitable for the breeding of donkeys. By the early 20th century it had become a favourite boating centre for Parisians, its industries included boat building. On 15 February 1968 the commune was renamed Asnières-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Asnières. Asnières-sur-Seine is divided into two cantons: Asnières-sur-Seine-Nord: 43,453 inhabitants. Asnières-sur-Seine-Sud: 32,384 inhabitants. Different famous companies are located in Asnières: L'Oréal - cosmetics Lucas Lesieur Louis Vuitton - luxury productsThe Cimetière des Chiens is believed to be the first zoological necropolis in the world.
Public schools in the commune: 20 preschools 16 elementary schools 4 junior high schools: André Malraux, Auguste Renoir, François Truffaut, Voltaire Senior high schools: Lycée Auguste Renoir, Lycée professionnel de Prony, Institut départemental médico-éducatif Gustave BaguerPrivate schools: Institution Sainte-Geneviève Institution Saint-Joseph École catholique Sainte-Agnès University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle serves as the area university. In addition to the Courtilles ice rink, the town has ten gyms, six stadiums, a shooting range, two tennis clubs, a skate park, a Parisian boules court and a swimming pool; the Asnières Volley 92 plays at the Courtilles gymnasium. The city has a handball club in agreement with neighboring cities. For the 2017-2018 season, the first team evolves in Pool 2 in National 2; the city counts, with the Molosses, an American football club, created in 1992, evolving in Casque d'Or, 2-time vice-champion of France of D1. A full-contact club, known as ABC is managed by a coaching team composed with ex-France and European champions.
Around 100 members take part in trainings three times a Week. The judo and jujitsu club Arts Martiaux d'Asnières uses several of the town's gyms. Car traffic in Asnières is difficult. Most of the traffic is on the banks of the Seine around the city; the crossing of the Asnières bridge is painful during peak hours. The Grand rue Charles-de-Gaulle the Avenue d'Argenteuil are difficult to pass because serving Bois-Colombes and northern towns. Moreover, the city has few parking spaces, garages and private parking spaces are scarce and expensive. Between 2010 and 2013, there was a development plan to change the streets of the city being one-way and become practicable in both directions for bicycles. Asnières-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 13: Gabriel Péri, Les Agnettes and Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles, terminus of the line; the tramway line 1 serves Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles station, connecting to Noisy-le-Sec. It is served by Asnières-sur-Seine and Bois-Colombes stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network.
Lines J and L can be used. A number of bus lines cross the town to connect it with its neighbours: lines 165, 175, 177, 276, 140. Bathers at Asnières by Georges-Pierre Seurat depicts a scene of 19th century leisure and developing industry in this suburb of Paris. In 1885 Seurat made Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte used a technique of placing colored dots on a work which led a movement called "Pointillism". Vincent van Gogh made a series of paintings of Asnières. Influenced by Impressionism and Pointillism, van Gogh modified his traditional style and used vivid color, shorter brushstrokes and perspective to engage the viewer, his views of the banks of the Seine are an important progression for his landscape paintings. In Asnières, within walking distance of Theo's flat in Montmartre, van Gogh painted parks, cafés, restaurants and the river; the old château was the death place of Anne Marie Victoire de Bourbon, daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon and thus grand daughter of le Grand Condé, cousin to Louis XIV.
Asnières was the birthplace of the cyclist Gaston Rivierre Henri Barbusse and writer of Under Fire. A street in the town was named after him; the violinist and teacher Marcel Chailley the violinist Maurice Hewitt the composer Ginette Keller the actor Frédéric Gorny the football player William Gallas the football player Axel Ngando The Franco-Irish composer and pianist George Alexandre O'Kelly died here in 1914. Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Asnières-sur-Seine official website
Épinay-sur-Seine is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.3 km from the center of Paris. The church of Notre-Dame-des-Missions-du-cygne d'Enghien, designed by Paul Tournon, may be found in the commune. On 7 August 1850, a part of the territory of Épinay-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Deuil-la-Barre, a part of the territory of Saint-Gratien, a part of the territory of Soisy-sous-Montmorency to create the commune of Enghien-les-Bains. Francis, Duke of Cádiz, king consort of Spain, took up residence at the château of Épinay-sur-Seine in 1881 until his death in 1902; the castle is the Épinay-sur-Seine city hall. From 1902 it was home to the Epinay Studios. Épinay-sur-Seine is twinned with: Oberursel, Germany since 1964 South Tyneside, England since 1965 Alcobendas, Spain since 1986 Épinay-sur-Seine is served by Épinay-sur-Seine station on Paris RER line C. It is served by Épinay-Villetaneuse station on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line.
Charles de Gaulle Airport is located about 13 km away from Épinay-sur-Seine. Olivier Beaudry karateka Thomas Gamiette footballer Pascal Nouma footballer Hornet La Frappe Rapper Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department INSEE Official website
Jules Michelet was a French historian. He was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions. In his 1855 work, Histoire de France, Jules Michelet was the first historian to use and define the word Renaissance, as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a drastic break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world. Historian François Furet wrote that his History of the French Revolution remains "the cornerstone of all revolutionary historiography and is a literary monument", his aphoristic style emphasized his anti-clerical republicanism. His father was a master printer, not prosperous, Jules assisted him in the actual work of the press. A place was offered him in the imperial printing office, but his father was able to send him to the famous Collège or Lycée Charlemagne, where he distinguished himself, he passed the university examination in 1821, was soon appointed to a professorship of history in the Collège Rollin. Soon after this, in 1824, he married.
This was one of the most favourable periods for scholars and men of letters in France, Michelet had powerful patrons in Abel-François Villemain and Victor Cousin, among others. Although he was an ardent politician, he was above all a man of letters and an inquirer into the history of the past, his earliest works were school textbooks. Between 1825 and 1827 he produced chronological tables etc. of modern history. His précis of the subject, published in 1827, is a sound and careful book, far better than anything that had appeared before it, written in a sober yet interesting style. In the same year he was appointed maître de conférences at the École normale supérieure. Four years in 1831, the Introduction à l'histoire universelle showed a different style, exhibiting the idiosyncrasy and literary power of the writer to greater advantage but displaying, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "the peculiar visionary qualities which made Michelet the most stimulating, but the most untrustworthy of all historians".
The events of 1830 had placed him in a better position for study by obtaining him a place in the Record Office, a deputy-professorship under Guizot in the literary faculty of the university. Soon afterwards he began his chief and monumental work, the Histoire de France that would take 30 years to complete, but he accompanied this with numerous other books, chiefly of erudition, such as the Œuvres choisies de Vico, the Mémoires de Luther écrits par lui-même, the Origines du droit français, somewhat the le Procès des Templiers. 1838 was a year of great importance in Michelet's life. He was in the fullness of his powers, his studies had fed his natural aversion to the principles of authority and ecclesiasticism, at a moment when the revived activity of the Jesuits caused some pretended alarm, he was appointed to the chair of history at the Collège de France. Assisted by his friend Edgar Quinet, he began a violent polemic against the unpopular order and the principles which it represented, a polemic which made their lectures, Michelet's, one of the most popular resorts of the day.
He published, in 1839, his Histoire romaine. The results of his lectures appeared in the volumes Du prêtre, de la femme et de la famille and Le peuple; these books do not display the apocalyptic style which borrowed from Lamennais, characterizes Michelet's works, but they contain in miniature the whole of his curious ethicopolitico-theological creed—a mixture of sentimentalism and anti-sacerdotalism, supported by the most eccentric arguments, but urged with a great deal of eloquence. The principles of the outbreak of 1848 were in the air, Michelet was one of many who condensed and propagated them: his original lectures were of so incendiary a kind that the course had to be interdicted. However, when the revolution broke out, unlike many other men of letters, did not attempt to enter active political life, devoted himself more strenuously to his literary work. Besides continuing the great history, he undertook and carried out, during the years between the downfall of Louis Philippe and the final establishment of Napoleon III, an enthusiastic Histoire de la Révolution française.
After Napoleon III's coup d'état, Michelet lost his position in the Record Office when he refused to take the oaths to the empire. The new régime kindled afresh his republican zeal, further stimulated by his second marriage to Athénaïs, a lady of some literary capacity and republican sympathies. While his great work of history was still his main pursuit, a crowd of extraordinary little books accompanied and diversified it. Sometimes they were expanded versions of its episodes, sometimes what may be called commentaries or companion volumes; the first of these was Les Femmes de la Révolution, in which Michelet's natural and inimitable faculty of dithyrambic too gives way to tedious and not conclusive argument and preaching. In the next, L'Oiseau, a new and most successful vein was struck: The subject of natural history, a new subject with Michelet to which his wife introduced him, was treated, not from the point of view of mere science, nor from that of sentiment, but from that of the author's fervent pantheism.
L'Insecte followed. It was succeeded by one of the author's most popular books; these remarkable works, half pamphlets half moral treatises, succ
Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system. They consist of two years of study which act as a preparatory course with the main goal of training students for enrolment in one of the grandes écoles; the workload is one of the highest in Europe. Unlike most students in France who enroll in public universities directly after receiving a high school diploma, students from CPGE have to take national competitive exams to be allowed to enrol in one of the Grandes Écoles; these Grandes Écoles are higher education establishments delivering master's degrees and/or doctorates. They include science and engineering schools, business schools, the four veterinary colleges and the four écoles normales supérieures but do not include medical or law schools, nor architecture schools, their competitive entrance exams make having attended one of the grandes écoles being regarded as a status symbol as they have traditionally produced most of France's scientists and intellectuals.
Hence, there are three kinds of different prépas: scientific and literary CPGE. Each of them prepare to pass the competitive exams of those grandes écoles; the CPGE are located within high schools for historical reasons but pertain to tertiary education, which means that each student must have passed their baccalauréat to be admitted to CPGE. Moreover, the admission to the CPGE is based on performance during the last two years of high school, called première and terminale. Thus, each CPGE receives hundreds of applications from around the world every April and May, selects its new students under its own criteria. A few CPGE programmes the private CPGEs have an interview process or look at a student's involvement in the community. In June 2007, 534,300 students passed the "Baccalauréat", 40,000 of them were admitted to CPGE. On a given class at one of the prep schools listed above, around 1500 application files will be examined for only 40 places. Students are selected according to their grades in High school and the first part of "Baccalauréat".
Preparatory classes are not authorized to deliver any degrees, but they give ECTS credits that can be used to fulfill university degree requirements since the 2009-2010 academic year, students who decide to can carry on their studies at a public university. However, many prépas establish conventions with universities to validate a full 2nd or 3rd year degree upon graduation for CPGE students who perform well in literary prépas. Most of the students in these classes receive part of their education at a public university, so that the teachers' council can deliver them the corresponding grade in one or two disciplines at the end of the year. CPGE exist in three different fields of study: science & engineering and humanities. All CPGE programs have a nominal duration of two years, but the second year is sometimes repeated once; the oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones. The different tracks are the following: MPSI, Mathématiques, Sciences de l'Ingénieur in the first year, followed by either MP or PSI PCSI, chimie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PC or PSI PTSI, technologie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PT or PSI TPC1, physique et chimie in the first year, followed by TPC2 TSI1, Technologie, sciences industrielles in the first year, followed by TSI2 BCPST1, Chimie, sciences de la terre in the first year, followed by BCPST2 TB1, biologie in the first year, followed by TB2The classes that train students for admission to the elite schools, such as Écoles Normales Supérieures or ParisTech schools, have an asterisk added to their name.
For example, MP*, are called MP étoile. Both the first and second year programmes include as much as ten to twelve hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two hours of literature and philosophy, two to four hours of foreign language teaching and two to eight hours of minor options: either SI, engineering industrial science, chemistry or theoretical computer science, biology-geology, biotechnologies. Added to this are several hours of homework, which can amount to as much as the official hours of class; the BCPST classes prepare for exams of engineering sc