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Valga County

Valga County, or Valgamaa is a first-level administrative unit and one of 15 counties of Estonia. It comprises the former area of Valga District; the present-day county was created on 1 January 1990. The capital and largest town of Valga County is Valga, followed by Tõrva and Otepää, it is situated in the southern part of the country and borders Põlva and Võru County to the east, Latvia to the south and west, Viljandi and Tartu County to the north. 29,944 people live in Valga County. Valga County is located in the southern part of Estonia. By the economic-geographical and regional-political distribution it belongs to the area of South-East Estonia. By historical ties and landscape the county belongs to the region of South Estonia. With a population of 30,176 people, the total area of the county is 2,043.53 km², it reaches 65 km in the north-south direction and 59 km in the east-west direction. Valga County ranks the 12th in Estonia by the 14th by the area; the distances from the county centre, are the following: Tallinn 267 km, Tartu 86 km, Viljandi 88 km, Võru 73 km, Põlva 96 km, Pärnu 141 km, Narva 264 km and Riga 157 km.

Valga County borders with Viljandi County in the north-west, with Tartu County in the north and Põlva and Võru County in the east. Valga County has a borderline with the Republic of Latvia in the west, it can be read from the Livonian Chronicle of Henry that the history of the county goes back to the 13th century when the Germans conquered the settlement. By the Chronicle the River Ümera was the borderline between Latvia. Historians suggest that the River Säde was the borderline, flowing through the northern part of Tireli Bog and falling into Lake Burtnieks. Meadows and forests surrounding the big Tireli Bog and the upper stream of the River Säde were even wider and impassable at that time and therefore functioning as a border; the ancient national border ran in a different place. Assumably the area of Härgmäe belonged to Estonian settlements and the national border went from the springs of the River Säde, passed the forests until the northernmost oxbow of the River Koiva and onwards alongside the river.

Most the area of Kaagjärve and Valga Town belonged to ancient Latgalians. After the crusades and the Ancient Freedom Fight in 13th century, Valga County became a natural centre of the historical Old Livonia where the most important roads from north and east went through, gaining strategical importance. City rights were given to Valga by a Polish King Stefan Batory in 1584. On the 3rdof July, 1783, the Empress Catherine II established a new administration order in the Baltic provinces. A new kreis, Valga Kreis, was constituted from the territories of Riga and Võnnu Kreises. Valga Town which belonged to Riga Kreis, went over to Valga Kreis. Valga Kreis consisted of eleven parishes, nine of them located on the present Latvian territory, just two – Luke and Härgmäe – had an edge on the present Estonian area near Valga, which became an attraction centre of the new kreis. In 1789, there were 891 citizens in Valga; as Valga became the centre of the kreis, St John´s Church was founded and the building of kreis institutions was built in 1783-1786.

On 12 February 1919, the Government of the Republic of Estonia issued a regulation of constitution of Valga County, consisting of the territories gained during the Estonian War of Independence. Several parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi Counties were close to Valga from the other side. On 19 April the first county governor was elected – Johann Kurvits, a farmer of Karula, he held this position until July 1921. Until 1920s the surroundings of Härgmäe and Valga belonged to the mixed area of Estonia-Latvia as there was no exact national border. Half of the citizens were Latvians, the other half were Estonians. In 1920 the national border was fixed and that helped to differentiate between the nations. Valga Kreis was divided so that Estonia got the areas of Paju and Sooru Manors and the majority of Valga, the rest belonged to Latvia. Valga County in its present shape, was formed on 6 September 1920 when the course of the War of Independence and the situation at that time required Valga's separation from the other counties.

On 11 February 1921 the Estonian Government fixed the area of Valga County. Võru County gave Kaagjärve, Karula and Taheva parishes, Tartu County gave Tõlliste, Sangaste and Kuigatsi parishes, Viljandi County gave Jõgeveste, Patküla, Koorküla, Leebiku, Helme, Lõve and Hummuli parishes. On, several administrative territorial changes were carried through. In 1921 Patküla parish was separated from Tõrva borough. Puraküla, which belonged to Paju parish was united to the town of Valga in 1922. In 1924 Paju parish was united to Sooru parish and on 2 July 1926, it started to bear the name Tõrva. Since the second half of 1920s until 1939 there were 19 parishes in Valga County. In 1939 many smaller parishes were united by the administrative reform. Ten parishes were left: Helme, Kaagjärve, Kuigatsi, Põdrala, Taheva, Tõlliste and Vaoküla; the last pre-occupation County Governor Värdi Vellner had to give up his power on 8 July 1940. The administrative division of 1939 lasted until 1950 when 39 county districts were formed.

They were divided into 636 village

ISO/TC 211 Geographic information/Geomatics

ISO/TC 211 is a standard technical committee formed within ISO, tasked with covering the areas of digital geographic information and geomatics. It is responsible for preparation of a series of International Standards and Technical Specifications numbered in the number range starting at ISO-19101; the current Chairman is Christina Wasström. The past Chairman of this committee was Olaf Østensen. ISO/TC 211 is concerned with the standardization in the field of digital geographic information; this work aims to establish a structured set of standards for information concerning objects or phenomena that are directly or indirectly associated with a location relative to the Earth. Project specification areas within the ISO/TC 211 technical committee include: Simple Features access Reference models Spatial and temporal schemas Location-based services Metadata Web feature and map services Classification systemsThe ISO/TC 211 work is related to the efforts of the Open Geospatial Consortium. ISO/TC 211 have numerous liaisons with other organizations that results in identical or nearly identical standards being adopted by both organizations.

The work within ISO/TC211 is done in working groups, each with a specific focus. The active working groups are: Working Group 1 - Framework and reference model Working Group 4 - Geospatial services Working Group 6 - Imagery Working Group 7 - Information communities Working Group 9 - Information management Working Group10 - Ubiquitous public accessThere are a number of disbanded Working Groups: Working Group 2 - Geospatial data models and operators Working Group 3 - Geospatial data administration Working Group 5 - Profiles and functional standards Working Group 8 - Location based servicesRevision of standards that were part of these working groups are now done directly under the TC since the disbandment of the groups; the list of standards by the ISO/TC 211 committee:ISO 6709:2008 Standard representation of geographic point location by coordinates ISO 19101:2002 Geographic information -- Reference model ISO/DIS 19101-1"Geographic information -- Reference model - Part 1: Fundamentals"ISO/TS 19101-2:2008"Geographic information -- Reference model -- Part 2: Imagery" ISO/TS 19103:2005 Geographic information -- Conceptual schema language ISO/TS 19104:2008 Geographic information -- Terminology ISO 19105:2000 Geographic information -- Conformance and testing ISO 19106:2004 Geographic information -- Profiles ISO 19107:2003 Geographic information -- Spatial schema ISO 19108:2002 Geographic information -- Temporal schema ISO/CD 19109 Geographic information -- Rules for application schema ISO 19109:2005 Geographic information -- Rules for application schema ISO 19110:2005 Geographic information -- Methodology for feature cataloguing ISO 19111:2007 Geographic information -- Spatial referencing by coordinates ISO 19111-2:2009 Geographic information -- Spatial referencing by coordinates -- Part 2: Extension for parametric values ISO 19112:2003 Geographic information -- Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers ISO 19113:2002 Geographic information -- Quality principles ISO 19114:2003 Geographic information -- Quality evaluation procedures ISO 19115:2003 Geographic information -- Metadata ISO/DIS 19115-1 Geographic information -- Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals ISO 19115-2:2009 Geographic information -- Metadata -- Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data ISO 19116:2004 Geographic information -- Positioning services ISO 19117:2005 Geographic information -- Portrayal ISO 19118:2011 Geographic information -- Encoding ISO 19119:2011 Geographic information -- Services ISO/TR 19120:2001 Geographic information -- Functional standards ISO/TR 19121:2000 Geographic information -- Imagery and gridded data ISO/TR 19122:2004 Geographic information/Geomatics -- Qualification and certification of personnel ISO 19123:2005 Geographic information -- Schema for coverage geometry and functions ISO 19125-1:2004 Geographic information -- Simple feature access -- Part 1: Common architecture ISO 19125-2:2004 Geographic information -- Simple feature access -- Part 2: SQL option ISO 19126:2009 Geographic information -- Feature concept dictionaries and registers ISO/TS 19127:2005 Geographic information -- Geodetic codes and parameters ISO 19128:2005 Geographic information -- Web map server interface ISO/TS 19129:2009 Geographic information -- Imagery and coverage data framework ISO/TS 19130:2010 Geographic information - Imagery sensor models for geopositioning ISO/DTS 19130-2 Geographic information -- Imagery sensor models for geopositioning -- Part 2: SAR, InSAR, Lidar and Sonar ISO 19131:2007 Geographic information -- Data product specifications ISO 19132:2007 Geographic information -- Location-based services -- Reference model ISO 19133:2005 Geographic information -- Location-based services -- Tracking and navigation ISO 19134:2007 Geographic information -- Location-based services -- Multimodal routing and navigation ISO 19135:2005 Geographic information -- Procedures for item registration ISO/TS 19135-2:2012 Geographic information - Procedures for item registration -- Part 2: XML schema implementation ISO 19136:2007 Geographic information -- Geography Markup Language ISO 19137:2007 Geographic information -- Core profile of the spatial schema ISO/TS 19138:2006 Geographic information -- Data quality measures ISO/TS 19139:2007 Geographic information -- Metadata -- XML schema implementation ISO/DTS 19139-2 Geographic Information -- Metadata -- XML Schema Implementation -- Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data ISO 19141:2008 Geographic information -- Schema for moving features ISO 19142:2010 Geographic information -- Web Feature Service ISO 19143:2010 Geographic information -- Filter encoding ISO 19144-1:2009 Geographic information -- Classification systems --

2010 IAF Sikorsky CH-53 crash

The 2010 Israeli Air Force Sikorsky CH-53 crash refers to an aviation accident which occurred on 26 July 2010, when an Israeli Air Force Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion Yas'ur helicopter crashed during a training flight in the Carpathian mountains, near the city of Brasov in Romania. The accident took place during a joint Romanian-Israeli aviation military exercise code-named "Blue Sky 2010". All on board the aircraft died: four Israeli pilots, two Israeli mechanics, one Romanian liaison officer; the Romanian authorities sent police and security forces into the mountain the morning after the accident. In addition, Israel sent a large team to assist in the rescue operation. After an extensive search in the crash site, on 27 July 2010, the bodies were found. An investigation into the incident concluded that the crash was most due to human error. In September 2003, an agreement was signed between the Romanian and Israeli Air Forces on cooperation and training, with the first training session being held in August 2004.

This cooperation was important to the IAF, as Romania's geography includes high-altitude terrain and climate conditions that are different than those in Israel, allows the IAF to practice special techniques and train in a different terrain. Another military exercise and cooperation agreement between Israel and Romania was signed in 2006, was extended in 2009. On 18 July 2010, a joint exercise of the Israeli Air Force and Romanian Air Force began, in which Yasur helicopters from the 118 Squadron took part; this squadron, based at the Tel Nof air base, has participated in all of Israel's recent major operations and wars for transporting special forces into enemy territory. The exercise was known as Blue Sky 2010, supposed to last for 11 days, in which the Romanian and Israeli troops practiced flying at low altitudes in difficult terrain for search-and-rescue missions and medical evacuations; the Yasour transport helicopter, is considered by Israel to be the most reliable aircraft of its kind in the IDF, has been used for over 40 years.

The aircraft was bought from the United States and integrated into the Israeli Air Force service in 1969. The aircraft is used by the IAF's 669 Search and Rescue team, is the IAF's main aircraft for transporting soldiers, as it can carry 35 soldiers with all of their equipment. In 2007, under a program called "Yasour 2025," intended to extend the Yasour's life until 2025, the IAF installed over 20 new electronic systems, for the first time on helicopters, one for missile defense, On 26 July 2010 at 1:15 P. M. two Yasur helicopters took off from the Romanian Air Force Base in Boboc and headed north toward the Carpathian mountains. The fog which prevailed at the flight altitude made it difficult to navigate; the two helicopters were flying in formation at a low altitude as part of the exercise. While over the Carpathian Mountains in Romania, one of the helicopters radioed that it had lost visual and radio contact with its counterpart; the Israeli Air Force confirmed. The helicopter had crashed at 4:00 p.m. at an altitude of 2,246 m.

Initial reports over the loss of contact with the CH-53 helicopter were received in the Israeli Air Force headquarters at around 17:00 P. M. and as a result, a gag order was issued in Israel over releasing information concerning the incident. The purpose of this gag order was so the IDF could contact and inform the families of the deceased, rather than having them hear about it through the media. Although the Israeli media did not report about accident, the Internet was flooded with information about the accident; the Israeli media noted that despite the seniority of the IAF Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion Yas'ur helicopters, the helicopters were upgraded, both in terms of systems and in terms of technical care, as part of the "Yas'ur 2025" program aimed at having the Sikorsky CH-53 helicopters remain in service up until 2025. A search-and-rescue unit was sent by Israel to Romania to assist in the rescue, included 80 personnel from the IDF Medical Corps, the IAF, the Oketz K-9 Unit, the 669 Airborne Rescue and Evacuation Unit, the Chief Military Rabbinate and rescue teams, the IDF Spokesperson's Unit, an investigatory team to the crash site.

Rescuers could not land near the crash site due to the rugged terrain, had to either walk to the crash site on a difficult path or be lowered to the site by rope. In addition, the bad weather made it tougher for search-and-rescue teams to identify and reach the crash site; the Romanian authorities declared the area around the crash site a closed military zone and sent police and security forces into the mountain the morning after the accident. On 27 July 2010, the Romanian Defense Ministry announced that 7 bodies were found, that there were no survivors in the accident. Around midnight on 27 July 2010, the Romanian Army discovered the helicopter's black box; the Romanian troops sent a photo of the black box to the IDF, which confirmed that it was the actual black box of the helicopter. Israeli Air Force officials confirmed. On 30 July, the IDF Chief Rabbi Brigadier-General Raphael Peretz confirmed that all the bodies were identified and that an IAF plane would take off to Israel with the six bodies during the morning hours of July 30.

Israel: On 27 July, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that "the tragedy is immense and that this is a difficult day for every Israeli" and that "today in pain, with a tight throat, we ask how could heroes fall from so high?" Prime Minister Netanyahu explained, "its soldiers and commanders guarantee our existence. They s

Oscar Michiels

François-Fidèle-Oscar Michiels was a Belgian military officer who served in World War I and World War II. Oscar Michiels was born in central Brussels on 24 July 1881, he enrolled in a military school aged 11. Three years he attended cadet school in Namur, graduating in 1897 as a corporal. After being promoted to sergeant, he returned to the school in 1901. Finishing two years he was made a lieutenant. In 1913 Michiels was stationed at the fortified position of Liège. On 1 August 1914 he was attached to the staff of the Third Division, where he would remain for the duration of World War I. Following the Battle of the Yser Michiels was promoted to the rank of captain. In September 1915 he was moved to the front lines, but was injured several weeks in an accident and returned to the Third Division's headquarters. In November he became captain-commandant. On 20 July 1917 he was awarded the Croix de guerre. Following a successful operation at Merkem in April 1918, Michiels was made a Commander of the Legion of Honour by Ferdinand Foch.

In March 1919 Michiels became a professor at the Instruction Center of Staff, where he would work for nearly 12 years. As a major, he would instruct Prince Leopold III on war studies. In 1927 Michiels was due to be transferred out of the school and given command of a battalion, but his commanding officer objected, he left his position at the college as a lieutenant colonel in June 1931 and became chief of staff of the First Army Corps. In March of the following year he was made colonel. Two years he was made commander of the First Grenadiers Regiment. In June 1937 Michiels was promoted to major general and made head of the personnel department of the Defence Ministry. Following the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Michiels took command of the reserve Seventh Infantry Division to oversee its mobilization; this division was soon assigned the task of improving the defences along the Dyle. After several weeks, it was moved to protect the Albert Canal. Michiels was appointed King Leopold III's chief of staff on 2 February 1940.

He subsequently served in this capacity during the Battle of Belgium. During the Belgian Army's last stand at the Battle of the Lys on 27 May, Michiels suggested that the king send a representative to the Germans to negotiate a ceasefire. King Leopold III followed this advice, agreed to surrender to the Germans the following morning. British Admiral Roger Keyes commended Michiels for his display of high morale during the campaign. On 30 May, Michiels gave a speech to all the senior Belgian officers, thanking them for their service, he asked the army staff to remain with him to assist in managing the confused state of affairs following the capitulation. The Germans inquired him on Belgium's observance of neutrality before the invasion and on the Mechelen incident, but he refused to offer them any answers. Michiels was taken prisoner by the Germans, he was deported with the army staff to prisoner of war camps in central Europe. The Germans offered to return him to Belgium in 1943 and hand him control of the National Office of Veterans Affairs, but he refused on the account that he would be leaving his subordinates behind.

He was liberated from a camp near Prenzlau by the Red Army on 7 May 1945. Repatriated, Michiels retired from the army in late 1945 and began writing a book on the Battle of Belgium. Michiels was buried with full military honors, his book, 18 jours de guerre en Belgique, was published posthumously the following year

2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup squads

This article shows the rosters of all participating teams at the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup in Japan. The following is the Argentine roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Marcelo Méndez The following is the Australian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Mark Lebedew The following is the Brazilian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Renan Dal Zotto The following is the Canadian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Daniel Lewis The following is the Egyptian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head Coach: Gido Vermeulen The following is the Iranian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Igor Kolaković The following is the Italian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Gianlorenzo Blengini The following is the Japanese roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Yuichi Nakagaichi The following is the Polish roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup.

Head coach: Vital Heynen The following is the Russian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Tuomas Sammelvuo The following is the Tunisian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head Coach: Antonio Giaccobe The following is the American roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: John Speraw 2019 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Cup squads Official website