The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is commonly used to refer to the Philadelphia metropolitan area, the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located at the southern part of the Northeast megalopolis extending from Boston to Washington, D. C. metropolitan areas. The MSA has a population of over 6 million, while the CSA has a population of over 7.1 million. Philadelphia, being the major commercial and industrial center. As of March 2011, the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area constitutes the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States, Philadelphias media market ranks fourth, behind New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago, in Nielsen Media Market size rankings. It borders the New York metropolitan area located directly to the north of this area, such educational institutions as Delaware Valley Regional High School in Alexandria Township and Delaware Valley College in Doylestown Township are named after the region.
Likewise, Frenchtowns now defunct newspaper The Delaware Valley News was another example of the usage, although much of the Trenton MSA is considered part of the Delaware Valley and often considered part of Philadelphias media market area, it is classified as part of New Yorks CSA. Within the Hispanic population, the vast majority are Puerto Ricans, there is a significant West Indian community. There is even a small Native American community known as Lenapehoking for Lenni-Lenape Indians of West Philadelphia. Philadelphias suburbs contain a concentration of malls, the two largest of which have at least 5,000,000 square feet of office space. Malls, office complexes, strip shopping plazas and tract housing are common sights, and more and more continue to replace rolling countryside, farms and wetlands. However, due to opposition by residents and political officials. Older townships and large boroughs such as Cheltenham, Jenkintown, Upper Darby, the fastest-growing counties are Chester, Montgomery and Gloucester.
Upper Darby, in Delaware County is the largest township in the United States, sometimes Reading is included in the Delaware Valley Metro Area. The Delaware Valley has four seasons with ample precipitation and is divided by the 0 °C January isotherm. The region has two ski areas, Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area in eastern Berks County and Spring Mountain in central Montgomery County. Using the -3 °C January isotherm as a boundary, all of the Delaware Valley is humid subtropical except for portions of Berks County, the warm-summer humid continental climate only exists in higher areas of Berks where all monthly temperatures average below 22 °C. The valley was the territory of the Susquehannock and Lenape, who are recalled in place throughout the region
U.S. Route 13 in Delaware
U. S. Route 13 is a U. S. highway running from Fayetteville, North Carolina north to Morrisville, Pennsylvania. In the U. S. state of Delaware, the runs for 103.33 mi. It traverses the length of the state from the Maryland state line in Delmar, Sussex County to the Pennsylvania state line in Claymont. US13 connects many important cities and towns in Delaware, including Seaford, the entire length of US13 in Delaware is a multilane divided highway with the exceptions of the segment through Wilmington and parts of Philadelphia Pike in Claymont. Between the Maryland border and Dover, US13 serves as one of the main routes across the Delmarva Peninsula. From Dover north to the Wilmington area, the route is followed by the limited-access Delaware Route 1 toll road, US13 bypasses downtown Wilmington to the east before it heads northeast of the city parallel to Interstate 495 and the Delaware River to Claymont. The portion of US13 between Delmar and Dover was constructed as a highway during the 1920s. Between Dover and Wilmington, the route was built as part of the cross-state DuPont Highway, North of Wilmington, what would become US13 was originally built as the Philadelphia Pike in the 1820s and improved to a state highway by 1920.
US13 was designated through Delaware when the U. S. Highway System was created in 1926, the route was widened into a divided highway between Dover and Wilmington in the 1930s and between Delmar and Dover in the 1950s. US13 was routed to bypass Dover in the 1950s, in 1970, US13 was moved to its current alignment between Wilmington and Claymont on a bypass built in the 1930s. The portion of US13 between Dover and Wilmington saw heavy traffic heading to the Delaware Beaches in the summer, which led to the construction of a freeway Relief Route and this freeway was built as DE1, which was completed in 2003. The construction of DE1 necessitated the realignment of US13 in two places, US13 enters Delaware from Maryland in the town of Delmar in Sussex County. At the state line, the route intersects DE/MD54, which follows the line for several miles. US13 continues north from the DE/MD54 intersection on four-lane divided Sussex Highway, the route heads to the east of US13 Dragway and Delaware International Speedway before leaving Delmar and running through wooded areas with some farm fields and development.
The road crosses DE30 at an intersection and continues through a mix of farmland and woodland before it reaches Laurel. Here, US13 heads past a few businesses and comes to an intersection with DE24, following this, the route crosses Broad Creek to the east of Records Pond and curves northwest. The road passes farm fields before it intersects the terminus of US9. Past this intersection, US13 leaves Laurel and runs through farms, the route heads north again and comes to an intersection with DE20 to the east of Blades, at which point DE20 turns north for a concurrency with US13
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables run directly from the tower to the deck. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and this is the range where cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier if the span were lengthened, while suspension bridge cabling would not be more economical if the span were shortened. Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century and used widely since the 19th, early examples often combined features from both the cable-stayed and suspension designs, including the famous Brooklyn Bridge. The design fell from favor through the 20th century as larger gaps were bridged using pure suspension designs, Cable-stayed bridges date back to 1595, where designs were found in Machinae Novae, a book by Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio. Their designers found that the combination of technologies created a stiffer bridge, john A. Roebling took particular advantage of this to limit deformations due to railway loads in the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge.
Eduardo Torroja designed an aqueduct at Tempul in 1926. Albert Caquots 1952 concrete-decked cable-stayed bridge over the Donzère-Mondragon canal at Pierrelatte is one of the first of the modern type, the steel-decked Strömsund Bridge designed by Franz Dischinger is, more often cited as the first modern cable-stayed bridge. Other key pioneers included Fabrizio de Miranda, Riccardo Morandi, early bridges from this period used very few stay cables, as in the Theodor Heuss Bridge. However, this involves substantial erection costs, and more modern structures tend to use many more cables to ensure greater economy, Cable-stayed bridges may appear to be similar to suspension bridges, but in fact, they are quite different in principle and in their construction. In suspension bridges, large main cables hang between the towers and are anchored at each end to the ground and this can be difficult to implement when ground conditions are poor. The main cables, which are free to move on bearings in the towers, before the deck is installed, the cables are under tension from their own weight.
Along the main cables smaller cables or rods connect to the bridge deck, as this is done, the tension in the cables increases, as it does with the live load of traffic crossing the bridge. The tension on the cables is transferred to the ground at the anchorages. Difference between types of bridges In the cable-stayed bridge, the towers are the primary load-bearing structures which transmit the loads to the ground. A cantilever approach is used to support the bridge deck near the towers. The mono design uses a cable from its towers and is one of the lesser-used examples of the class. In the harp or parallel design, the cables are nearly parallel so that the height of their attachment to the tower is proportional to the distance from the tower to their mounting on the deck
Delaware is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic and/or Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, to the northeast by New Jersey, the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginias first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the portion of the Delmarva Peninsula and is the second smallest, the sixth least populous. Delaware is divided into three counties, the lowest number of counties of any state, from north to south, the three counties are New Castle and Sussex. While the southern two counties have historically been agricultural, New Castle County has been more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north. It was initially colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution.
On December 7,1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, the Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley, derive their name from the same source. The surname de La Warr comes from Sussex and is of Anglo-Norman origin and it came probably from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre. This toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum, the toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore. It could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr, Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island. Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania, to the east by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean, small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey.
The state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was originally defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle and this boundary is often referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. This is the only nominally circular state boundary in the United States, to the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs slightly east of due south from its intersection with the arc, the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delawares claim was confirmed. Delaware is on a plain, with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation. Its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, the northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with hills and rolling surfaces
North Saint Georges Historic District
North Saint Georges Historic District is a national historic district located at St. Georges, New Castle County, Delaware. It encompasses 69 contributing buildings and 3 contributing objects in the village of North St. Georges, the buildings date between about 1719 and 1942 and are primarily residential with a few institutional and commercial buildings. Located in the district are the separately listed St. Georges Presbyterian Church and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995
It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets. The term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality, a municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis, a municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York. The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state, municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente, in Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality.
Here, the LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia, incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities, nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipality is a local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it directly with the state government. Generally, smaller cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are a form of local self-government entrusted with duties and responsibilities. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area.
A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title, in Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of government in this jurisdiction. In the United States, municipality is usually understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, in the Peoples Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality is a city with equal status to a province, Tianjin and Chongqing. In Taiwan, a municipality is a city with equal status to a province, New Taipei, Tainan, Taipei. In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ, when referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used
Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. In some countries, such as in Brazil, France or the United Kingdom, unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area often contains several towns and even entire cities, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in locations, cover vast areas or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in parts of Australia. Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory has no municipalities and is in some sense an unincorporated area, the territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by local government.
The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, a civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory,1. 45% of the area and 4. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive services provided by a state agency. Firstly, the remote area that is unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands. Secondly, the unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to. In Canada, depending on the province, a settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a municipal government. This can range from hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data.
In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction
Delaware Route 1
Delaware Route 1 is a 103. 02-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Delaware. Between Fenwick Island and Dover Air Force Base in Dover, Kent County, the route heads north past the Delaware Beaches along the Atlantic Ocean before it runs northwest through rural areas, turning north at Milford to continue to Dover. Upon reaching Dover, DE1 becomes the Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway, between Dover and Tybouts Corner, DE1 parallels U. S. Route 13, crossing over and featuring interchanges with it multiple times. Past Tybouts Corner, the heads north to Christiana, reaching an interchange with Interstate 95 a short distance before its terminus. DE1 was first designated in the 1970s between Fenwick Island and US113 in Milford, replacing a portion of DE14 and following the newly constructed Milford Bypass. DE14 between Fenwick Island and Milford had been built as a highway in the 1920s and 1930s and was widened into a divided highway between the 1950s and 1970s. In the 1980s, a limited-access Relief Route for US13 was proposed between Dover and the Wilmington area in order to relieve that route of beach traffic.
This relief route would be incorporated into DE1 in 1988, the concurrent US113 designation north of Milford was removed in 2004. Upgrades continue to be made to DE1 such as the construction, DE1 begins at the Maryland border in the Delaware Beaches town of Fenwick Island in Sussex County, where the road continues south into Ocean City, Maryland as MD528. From this point, DE1 heads north on four-lane divided Coastal Highway, a block after the state line, the route intersects the eastern terminus of DE54. The road continues north through areas with some residences a short distance to the west of the Atlantic Ocean. DE1 leaves Fenwick Island and heads into Fenwick Island State Park, running along a strip of land with the Little Assawoman Bay to the west. The route passes an area of residential development before it goes through more of the state park. The road runs through York Beach and enters South Bethany, where it passes residential areas. DE1 heads into areas in Middlesex Beach and briefly curves northwest before turning north again and continuing into Bethany Beach.
The route runs past residences and comes to an intersection with DE26, the road curves northeast and leaves Bethany Beach as it passes to the east of a Delaware National Guard training site. Continuing north, DE1 becomes Coastal Highway again and runs between wooded areas to the west and beachfront homes to the east. Farther north, the route crosses into Delaware Seashore State Park, DE1 comes to a right-in/right-out access point to the park before it crosses over the Indian River Inlet on the cable-stayed Indian River Inlet Bridge
1940 United States Census
The census date of record was April 1,1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved and this census introduced sampling techniques, one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939, the 1940 census collected the following information, In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original sheets were microfilmed. As required by Title 13 of the U. S. Code, non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Also, aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, on April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.
The records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release, several organizations are compiling indices, why the huge interest in the 1940 Census. 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder. com
St. Georges Bridge (Delaware)
The St. Georges Bridge is a steel truss bridge with a tied arch span that carries U. S. Route 13 across the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal in St. Georges, Delaware. Built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and opened in 1942 as a high-level crossing and it replaced a previous vertical lift bridge which was damaged when a German merchant ship collided with it. On January 10,1939, the S. S. Waukegan struck and destroyed the original St. Georges Bridge, the replacement steel truss St. Georges Bridge over the canal opened on January 31,1942. This bridge was the first four-lane crossing of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, senator Bill Roth, who saw the need for a new crossing, was a main proponent in securing federal funding for the new C&D Canal Bridge. After the opening of the paralleling C&D Canal Bridge, the Army Corps of Engineers closed the St. Georges Bridge in anticipation of demolishing the structure, a new concrete deck was constructed, and deteriorated beams and joints were replaced. The lead-based paint on the bridge was removed and replaced with a primer and salt-resistant enamel.
As a result of the need to maintain access to both U. S.13 and the Del. Rt.1 Turnpike, both the St. Georges Bridge and the C&D Canal Bridge have no tolls. Prior to the mid‑1990s, the St. Georges Bridge served as the crossing for U. S. Route 301, but this has since been shifted to the Summit Bridge along with Delaware Routes 71 and 896. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers announced that beginning Tuesday, May 27,2008, traffic will be restricted to vehicles weighing less than 15 tons. Lane restrictions will remain in place as a safety measure until repairs can be made to the bridges substructure and bearings. Repairs under the lanes will be done first. Once those are complete, the restriction will be lifted, the outside lanes will be reopened. After all repairs are completed, the bridge will be fully reopened, during a recent inspection, the Corps identified concrete surface cracks and rebar corrosion in numerous bridge piers, along with numerous highly corroded and failing bearings under the bridge deck.
None of this represents a danger to the public, the overall bridge structure remains sound. However, these conditions have reduced the margin of safety. In May 2010, conversion of the lanes to bike lanes was completed. Bridges portal Delaware portal List of crossings of the Cheasapeake & Delaware Canal Aerial photographic image at Wikimapia
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service