Saint Helena plover
The Saint Helena plover, locally known as the wirebird due to its thin legs, is a small wader endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. The bird is similar in appearance to the Kittlitz's plover of sub-Saharan Africa, but is rather larger, it has been depicted on the country's coins. Populations in general have been declining. Threats include predation by cats, the introduction of the common myna, off-road vehicle use, the Saint Helena Airport and a projected windfarm. In 2016, the population had recovered to about 560 mature individuals, from a previous minimum of less than 200 in 2006. Kittlitz's plover is the Saint Helena bird's closest relative; the Saint Helena plover is larger but not as well-marked as the Kittlitz's plover, native to sub-Saharan Africa. Its size is around 15 cm; the bird was first mentioned in 1638, is the national bird of Saint Helena, featured on the island's coat of arms and flag. Some older local 5 pence coins have the wirebird on the reverse; this plover is resident all year on the open areas of Saint Helena, it is thought that the widespread deforestation on the island, while harmful for the island's ecosystem, has in fact benefitted this particular species, since it lives in open clearings in the forest.
Saint Helena plover numbers have been fluctuating, but in general the trend has been downward since at least the 1970s. Feral cats and accidentally introduced rats are believed to have played a significant role in the decline, as, to a lesser extent has the introduced common myna. A census in 1988–89 recorded 450 birds, although that number declined over the following decade, due to causes not understood. By the late 1990s and early 2000s, censuses suggested that the bird's numbers had stabilised at about 350 adults. However, surveys done in 2005–6 recorded another sharp decline, with only some 200–220 adult birds remaining. Due to its dropping numbers and uncertain prospects, the Saint Helena plover was uplisted to Critically Endangered in the 2007 version of the IUCN Red List. A reassessment in 2016 suggested that the population had recovered somewhat from this minimum and may be increasing; the reasons for the previous decline and ongoing inhibition of population growth decline remain elusive.
Habitat loss—due to changes in agricultural practices, increases in invasive plant populations, development—has certainly had an impact. The increasing use of off-road vehicles threatens eggs. Feral cat populations are increasing, as trapping levels have declined and fewer people neuter their pet cats. Construction activity has dispersed some of the smaller subpopulations; the newly-built Saint Helena Airport at Prosperous Bay Plain has altered one of the major patches of remaining habitat as other grassland is now slated for reforestation to aid recovery of the island's ecosystem, a major wind turbine project has been proposed for the species' most important breeding area. There are projects underway led by the RSPB to monitor the birds and try to stop their decline. St Helena National Trust - St Helena Wirebird or Plover Website with information on the bird
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two metals or alloys arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center. Common circulating examples include the ₹10, €1, €2, 2 and 5 PLN, 50 CZK, 100 and 200 HUF, 1 and 2 BGN, British £1 and £2, Canadian $2, South African R5, Turkish 1 lira, IDR 1K, Hong Kong $10, Argentine $1, Brazilian R$1, Chilean $100 and $500, Colombian $500 and $1000, all Mexican coins of $1 or higher denomination. Bi-metallic coins have been issued for a long time, with known examples dating from the 17th century, while the Roman Empire issued special-occasion, large medallions with a center of bronze or copper and an outer ring of orichalcum, starting with the reign of Hadrian; the silver-center cent pattern produced by the United States in 1792 is another example. In the 1830s and 1840s, British medalist Joseph Moore produced large numbers of bi-metallic "penny model" and less common "halfpenny model" tokens, as a proposal to replace the large penny and halfpenny coins.
Though not legal tender, Moore's tokens were circulated and accepted at face value by many merchants. Despite their popularity, the Royal Mint rejected the proposal, did not reduce the size of the penny and halfpenny until decimalization. In recent times, the first circulating bi-metallic coin was the Italian 500 lire, first issued in 1982. Morocco, with its 5-dirhams coin in 1987. India introduced 10-rupee bi-metallic coins in 2009 that are dated 2006. Since 1996, Canada has produced bi-metallic $2 coins. Great Britain has issued a bi-metallic 2-pound coin since 1997; the first tri-metallic circulating coins were 20-francs coins introduced in France and Monaco in 1992. These were similar to the corresponding bi-metallic 10-francs coins, but had two rings instead of one; as well as circulating coins, where they are restricted to high-denomination coins, bi-metallic coins are used in commemorative issues made of precious metals. For example, the only bi-metallic coin of the United States is the $10 Library of Congress commemorative, made of a gold ring around a platinum center.
They are used as a way of securing against coin counterfeiting. The manufacturing process is similar to that of ordinary coins, except that two blanks are struck at the same time, deforming the separate blanks sufficiently to hold them together. Worldwide Bi-Metallic Collectors Club - website World bimetallic coin news - WBCN - website: new issues, country index and reference prices
South African rand
The rand is the official currency of South Africa. The rand is subdivided into 100 cents; the ISO 4217 code is ZAR, from Zuid-Afrikaanse rand. The rand is legal tender in the Common Monetary Area between South Africa, Swaziland and Namibia, although the last three countries do have their own currencies pegged at par with the rand; when referring to the currency, the abbreviation is upper case "R", but the name is spelt "rand" in lower case in both English and Afrikaans. Before 1976, the rand was legal tender in Botswana; the rand takes its name from the Witwatersrand, the ridge upon which Johannesburg is built and where most of South Africa's gold deposits were found. The rand was introduced in the Union of South Africa on 14 February 1961, three months before the country declared itself a republic. A Decimal Coinage Commission had been set up in 1956 to consider a move away from the denominations of pounds and pence, it replaced the South African pound as legal tender, at the rate of 2 rand to 1 pound, or 10 shillings to the rand.
The government introduced a mascot, Decimal Dan, "the rand-cent man". This was accompanied by a radio jingle. One rand was worth US$1.40 from the time of its inception in 1961 until late-1971. Its value thereafter fluctuated as various exchange rate dispensations were implemented by the South African authorities. By the early-1980s, high inflation and mounting political pressure combined with sanctions placed against the country due to international opposition to the apartheid system had started to erode its value; the currency broke above parity with the dollar for the first time in March 1982, continued to trade between R 1 and R 1.30 to the dollar until June 1984, when depreciation of the currency gained momentum. By February 1985, it was trading at over R 2 per dollar, in July that year, all foreign exchange trading was suspended for three days to try to stop the depreciation. By the time that State President P. W. Botha made his Rubicon speech on 15 August 1985, it had weakened to R 2.40 per dollar.
The currency recovered somewhat between 1986–88, trading near the R 2 level most of the time and breaking beneath it sporadically. The recovery was short-lived, by the end of 1989, the rand was trading at more than R 2.50 per dollar. As it became clear in the early-1990s that the country was destined for Black majority rule and one reform after the other was announced, uncertainty about the future of the country hastened the depreciation until the level of R 3 to the dollar was breached in November 1992. A host of local and international events influenced the currency after that, most notably the 1994 general election which had it weaken to over R 3.60 to the dollar, the election of Tito Mboweni as the Governor of the South African Reserve Bank, the inauguration of President Thabo Mbeki in 1999 which had it slide to over R 6 to the dollar. The controversial land reform programme, initiated in Zimbabwe, followed by the September 11, 2001 attacks, propelled it to its weakest historical level of R 13.84 to the dollar in December 2001.
This sudden depreciation in 2001 led to a formal investigation, which in turn led to a dramatic recovery. By the end of 2002, the currency was trading under R 9 to the dollar again, by the end of 2004 was trading under R 5.70 to the dollar. The currency softened somewhat in 2005, was trading around R 6.35 to the dollar at the end of the year. At the start of 2006, the currency resumed its rally, as of 19 January 2006, was trading under R 6 to the dollar again. However, during the second and third quarters of 2006, the rand weakened significantly. In sterling terms, it fell from around 9.5p to just over 7p, losing some 25% of its international trade-weighted value in just six months. In late-2007, the rand rallied modestly to just over 8p, only to experience a precipitous slide during the first quarter of 2008; this downward slide could be attributed to a range of factors: South Africa's worsening current account deficit, which widened to a 36‑year high of 7.3% of gross domestic product in 2007.
The rand depreciation was exacerbated by the Eskom electricity crisis, which arose from the utility being unable to meet the country's growing energy demands. A stalled mining industry in late-2012 led to new lows in early-2013. In late January 2014, the rand slid to R11.25 to the dollar, with analysts attributing the shift to "word from the US Federal Reserve that it would trim back stimulus spending, which led to a massive sell-off in emerging economies." In 2014, South Africa experienced its worst year against the US dollar since 2009, in March 2015, the rand traded at its worst since 2002. At the time, Trading Economics released data that the rand "averaged R4.97 to the dollar between 1972–2015, reaching an all time high of R12.45 in December 2001 and a record low of R0.67 in June of 1973." By the end of 2014, the rand had weakened to R 15.05 per dollar due to South Africa's consistent trade account deficit with the rest of the world. From 9–13 December 2015, over a four-day period, the r
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
De La Rue
De La Rue plc is a British banknote manufacturing, security printing of passports and tax stamps, brand authentication and paper-making company with headquarters in Basingstoke, England. It has a factory on the Team Valley Trading Estate in Gateshead, other facilities in Loughton and Bathford. There are overseas offices in Sri Lanka and Malta, it is listed on the London Stock Exchange. The company was founded by Thomas de la Rue, who moved from Guernsey to London in 1821 and set up in business as a'Leghorn' straw hat maker as a stationer and printer. In 1831 he secured his business a Royal Warrant to produce playing cards. In 1855 it started printing postage stamps and in 1860 banknotes. In 1896, the family partnership was converted into a private company. In 1921, the de la Rue family sold their interests; the company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1947. Called Thomas De La Rue & Company, Limited, it changed its name in 1958 to The De La Rue Company Limited. A takeover bid for De La Rue was made by the Rank Organisation in 1968, but this was rejected by the Monopolies commission as being against the public interest.
In 1991 the company's name was changed again – this time to De La Rue plc. In 1965 De La Rue established a joint venture with the Italian printer and inventor Gualtiero Giori called De La Rue Giori. Based in Switzerland, the company specialized in building banknote printing equipment; the company printed banknotes for the Central Bank of Iran during the 1960s. In 1995, the company acquired Portals Limited, listed on the London stock market since 1904. For 300 years Portals had been regarded as the leading banknote paper manufacturer in the world, having manufactured banknote paper for the Bank of England since 1724. In 1997, De La Rue acquired Harrison and Sons, the stamp and banknote printers based in High Wycombe; the factory closed permanently in 2003. In early 2002, De La Rue purchased Smurfit Diamond Packaging Corporation of Sequoia Voting Systems, a California based company, a large provider of electronic voting systems in the United States, for $23 million. After losing money for three years in a business way out of the company's traditional lines, on March 2005 Sequoia was sold to Smartmatic, a multi-national technology company which had developed advanced election systems, voting machines included.
In 2003, the company acquired the Debden based banknote printing operations of the Bank of England. In 2003 and 2004 the company supplied banknotes to Iraq; the company was recognised by Hermann Simon as a role model for other small- to medium-sized businesses in his book Hidden Champions. The Highest Perfection, a history of De La Rue was published in 2011. Written by Peter Pugh for De La Rue, it covered the years 1712–2003. In August 2014, the company announced the appointment of Martin Sutherland as chief executive officer. In 2016, the Cash Handling division was sold to Privet Capital. In September 2016, the Bank of England issued its polymer five pound note, the first note from the bank to be printed on polymer. In December 2016, the company announced. In March 2018, the company sold the paper business. De La Rue retained a 10 % share in Portals. In April 2018, the company decided to appeal against the decision of the British government to manufacture passports in France, it subsequently decided against appealing.
De La Rue sells high-security printing technology for over 150 national currencies. De La Rue produces a wide range of other secure documents, including: Bank cheques Driving licences Passports Postage stamps Tax stamps Traveller's cheques Vouchers In 1843 De La Rue established its first overseas trade, as de la Rue's brother Paul travelled to Russia to advise on the making of playing cards. Thomas de la Rue's designs for playing cards are the basis for the modern standard design; the playing card business was sold to John Waddington in 1969. The company has printed postage stamps for the United Kingdom and some of its colonies, for Italy and for the Confederate States of America; some famous stamps such as the Cape of Good Hope triangulars were printed by De La Rue & Co. after Perkins Bacon fell out of favour with the postal authorities of the time. The first 50 years of postage stamp production were chronicled in John Easton's The De La Rue History of British and Foreign Postage Stamps 1855–1901.
De La Rue claims to have developed the first practical fountain pen in 1881 and was a leading manufacturer of fountain pens in Britain. Products were marketed under the "Onoto" brand. Production of fountain pens by De La Rue ceased in Britain in 1958 but continued for a few more years in Australia. During the 1930s De La Rue created a number of board games; these included a cricket game, produced in a number of different editions, Round The Horn, a game which re-created the annual race of grain-laden, square-rigged sailing cargo ships from Australia to London. The games used playing cards as part of the component set. List of mints Banknotes of the pound sterling Commonwealth banknote-issuing institutions Gemalto - a competitor Giesecke & Devrient – a competitor based in Munich Hong Kong Note Printing – founded in 1984 by Thomas De La Rue Official website History of De La Rue’s playing cards A research website with more detail of De La Rue company history Article and images of 1930s De La Rue Board Game, Stumpz
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4,000 kilometres east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres west of the mouth of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa. It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena measures about 16 by 8 kilometres and has a population of 4,534, it was named after Saint Helena of Constantinople. It is one of the most remote islands in the world, was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, it was an important stopover for ships sailing to Europe from South Africa for centuries. Napoleon was imprisoned there in exile by the British, as was Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo and more than 5,000 Boers taken prisoner during the Second Boer War, including Piet Cronjé. Saint Helena is Britain's second-oldest overseas territory after Bermuda. Most historical accounts state that the island was sighted on 21 May 1502 by Galician navigator João da Nova sailing in the service of Portugal, that he named it Santa Helena after Helena of Constantinople.
A paper published in 2015 observes that 21 May is a Protestant rather than a Catholic or Orthodox feast day, the date was first quoted in 1596 by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, mistaken because the island was discovered several decades before the Reformation and the start of Protestantism. An alternative discovery date of 3 May is suggested as being more credible. Another theory holds that the island found by da Nova was Tristan da Cunha, 2,430 kilometres to the south, that Saint Helena was discovered by some of the ships attached to the squadron of the Estêvão da Gama expedition on 30 July 1503; the Portuguese found the island uninhabited, with an abundance of fresh water. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses, they formed no permanent settlement, but the island was an important rendezvous point and source of food for ships travelling by Cape Route from Asia to Europe, sick mariners were left on the island to recover before taking passage on the next ship to call at the island.
Englishman Sir Francis Drake located the island on the final leg of his circumnavigation of the world. Further visits by other English explorers followed and, once Saint Helena’s location was more known, English ships of war began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese India carracks on their way home. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island; the Portuguese and Spanish soon gave up calling at the island because they used ports along the West African coast, but because of attacks on their shipping, the desecration of their chapel and religious icons, destruction of their livestock, destruction of plantations by Dutch and English sailors. The Dutch Republic formally claimed Saint Helena in 1633, although there is no evidence that they occupied, colonised, or fortified it. By 1651, the Dutch had abandoned the island in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, Oliver Cromwell granted the English East India Company a charter to govern Saint Helena and, the following year, the company decided to fortify the island and colonise it with planters.
The first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, making Saint Helena one of Britain's earliest colonies outside North America and the Caribbean. A fort and houses were built. After the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a royal charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island; the fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York King James II of England. Between January and May 1673, the Dutch East India Company forcibly took the island, before English reinforcements restored English East India Company control; the company experienced difficulty attracting new immigrants, sentiments of unrest and rebellion arose among the inhabitants. Ecological problems of deforestation, soil erosion and drought led Governor Isaac Pyke in 1715 to suggest that the population be moved to Mauritius, but this was not acted upon and the company continued to subsidise the community because of the island's strategic location.
A census in 1723 recorded 1,110 people, including 610 slaves. Eighteenth-century governors tried to tackle the island's problems by planting trees, improving fortifications, eliminating corruption, building a hospital, tackling the neglect of crops and livestock, controlling the consumption of alcohol and introducing legal reforms; the island enjoyed a lengthy period of prosperity from about 1770. Captain James Cook visited the island in 1775 on the final leg of his second circumnavigation of the world. St. James' Church was built in Jamestown in 1774, Plantation House in 1791–1792. Edmond Halley visited Saint Helena on leaving the University of Oxford in 1676 and set up an astronomical observatory with a 7.3-metre-long aerial telescope, with the intention of studying stars from the Southern Hemisphere. The site of this telescope is near Saint Mathew's Church in Hutt's Gate in the Longwood district; the 680-metre high hill there is called Halley's Mount. Throughout this period, Saint Helena was an important port of call of the East India Company.