click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Saint Patrick's Day

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick, is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick, the foremost patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church; the day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, céilís, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks. Christians who belong to liturgical denominations attend church services and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol were lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption. Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.

It is widely celebrated in the United Kingdom, United States, Argentina and New Zealand amongst Irish diaspora. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated in more countries than any other national festival. Modern celebrations have been influenced by those of the Irish diaspora those that developed in North America. However, there has been criticism of Saint Patrick's Day celebrations for having become too commercialised and for fostering negative stereotypes of the Irish people. Patrick was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian bishop in Ireland. Much of what is known about Saint Patrick comes from the Declaration, written by Patrick himself, it is believed that he was born in Roman Britain in the fourth century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father was a deacon and his grandfather was a priest in the Christian church. According to the Declaration, at the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Gaelic Ireland, it says that he spent six years there working as a shepherd and that during this time he "found God".

The Declaration says that God told Patrick to flee to the coast, where a ship would be waiting to take him home. After making his way home, Patrick went on to become a priest. According to tradition, Patrick returned to Ireland to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity; the Declaration says that he spent many years evangelising in the northern half of Ireland and converted "thousands". Patrick's efforts against the druids were turned into an allegory in which he drove "snakes" out of Ireland, despite the fact that snakes were not known to inhabit the region. Tradition holds that he was buried at Downpatrick. Over the following centuries, many legends grew up around Patrick and he became Ireland's foremost saint. Today's St Patrick's Day celebrations have been influenced by those that developed among the Irish diaspora in North America; until the late 20th century, St Patrick's Day was a bigger celebration among the diaspora than it was in Ireland. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, Irish traditional music sessions, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.

There are formal gatherings such as banquets and dances, although these were more common in the past. St Patrick's Day parades began in North America in the 18th century but did not spread to Ireland until the 20th century; the participants include marching bands, the military, fire brigades, cultural organisations, charitable organisations, voluntary associations, youth groups, so on. However, over time, many of the parades have become more akin to a carnival. More effort is made to use the Irish language in Ireland, where the week of St Patrick's Day is "Irish language week". Since 2010, famous landmarks have been lit up in green on St Patrick's Day as part of Tourism Ireland's "Global Greening Initiative" or "Going Green for St Patrick´s Day"; the Sydney Opera House and the Sky Tower in Auckland were the first landmarks to participate and since over 300 landmarks in fifty countries across the globe have gone green for St Patricks day. Christians may attend church services, the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day.

Because of this, drinking alcohol – Irish whiskey, beer, or cider – has become an integral part of the celebrations. The St Patrick's Day custom of "drowning the shamrock" or "wetting the shamrock" was popular in Ireland. At the end of the celebrations, a shamrock is put into the bottom of a cup, filled with whiskey, beer, or cider, it is drunk as a toast to St Patrick, Ireland, or those present. The shamrock would either be swallowed with the drink or taken out and tossed over the shoulder for good luck. Irish Government Ministers travel abroad on official visits to various countries around the globe to celebrate St Patrick's Day and promote Ireland; the most prominent of these is the visit of the Irish Taoiseach with the U. S. President which happens on or around St Patrick's Day. Traditionally the Taoiseach presents the U. S. President a Waterford Crystal bowl filled with shamrocks; this tradition began when in 1952, Irish Ambassador to the U. S. John Hearne sent a box of shamrocks to President Harry S. Truman.

From on it became an annual tradition of the Irish ambassador to the U. S. to present the St Patrick's Day shamrock to an official in the U. S. President's ad

Ami Priyono

Lembu Amiluhur Priyawardhana Priyono referred to as Ami Prijono was an Indonesian film director and actor. He was married to the feminist writer Julia Suryakusuma. Born in Batavia on 23 October 1939, Ami was the only child of Priyono, a politician-cum-educator who became Minister of Education and Culture, his wife Iwanah. After graduating from senior high school Ami left for Moscow, where he studied cinema at the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography. After returning to Indonesia Ami began teaching at the National Theatre Academy in Jakarta. In 1968 he joined the domestic film industry, taking the role of artistic director in Djampang Mentjari Naga Hitam, he made his acting debut two years in Tuan Tanah Kedawung as a supporting actor. In 1974 he married feminist writer Julia Suryakusuma. At the 1974 Indonesian Film Festival Ami's artistic direction in Ambisi garnered him a Citra Award; that year he made his directorial debut with Dewi. His other film directed that year, was adapted from the novel of the same name by Marga T.

The film – the second most lucrative Indonesian movie of the year – is credited with generating interest in film adaptations over the following decade. He went on to become one of four directors to dominate the local film industry in the 1970s. After Lonceng Maut in 1976 Ami abandoned artistic direction, directing. In 1977 Ami released Jakarta Jakarta. Focusing on the miserable daily lives of the capital's inhabitants, the film won five Citra Awards at the 1978 Indonesian Film Festival in Ujungpandang, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Screenplay. In 2009 Ben Murtaugh of SOAS, University of London, described the film as "a fascinating portrayal of during the 1970s". Ami's Roro Mendut, released in 1982, gave him his greatest international recognition; the film, based on an Indonesian legend and written by Y. B. Mangunwijaya, garnered him another Best Director nomination at the 1983 Indonesian Film Festival. Ami lost to Sjumandjaja of Budak Nafsu, he directed his final film, Jodoh Boleh Diatur, in 1988.

With the number of domestic film productions decreasing in the early 1990s, Ami left the cinema and began directing and acting for television, beginning with Salah Asuhan and Pedang Keadilan. During this period he served on the juries of several film festivals, including the Indonesian Serial Festival, the Asia Pacific Film Festival, the Fukuoka International Film Festival, he died on 6 June 2001, after several years of ill health. Ami acted in 34 films and was a crew member in 22, he directed twelve movies. Ami Priyono on IMDb

The Hunger (Strieber novel)

The Hunger is a novel by Whitley Strieber. The plot involves a beautiful and wealthy vampire named Miriam Blaylock who takes human lovers and transforms them into vampire-human hybrids; the novel is unusual in that it deals with the practical considerations of vampirism, such as the difficulty in obtaining victims and concealing frequent murders. The Hunger suggests a science-fiction explanation for vampirism, that vampires are a species that bears a resemblance to humans, they are not immortal but do not age after reaching physical maturity and are strong and difficult to kill. Miriam discovers that some vampire traits, such as prolonged youth, can be transmitted to humans by performing a blood transfusion. Strieber wrote two sequels to the novel: The Last Vampire in 2001 and Lilith's Dream: A Tale of the Vampire Life in 2003. Miriam Blaylock is a vampire whose life began in ancient Egypt: her mother Lamia was a vampire, which overlaps with some attributes of the figure from Greek mythology sharing the same name.

She has taken human companions to ease her loneliness. While her blood will grant them expanded lifespans, they begin to age, a process that cannot be halted, they wither to dusty shells but for them they remain conscious. Unable to bear the thought of murdering her lovers, Miriam imprisons them in steel-encased chests to keep with her for eternity; the novel begins when John, her most recent companion begins to age. Miriam is surprised at the brief amount of time, she has been secretly following the work of Dr. Sarah Roberts, a brilliant young physician whose research may hold the key to immortality for her lover. John becomes too uncontrollable for Miriam to deal with and she soon sets her sights on another companion, Sarah. A film version, directed by Tony Scott, starring Catherine Deneuve as Miriam Blaylock, David Bowie as her husband John, Susan Sarandon as Dr. Sarah Roberts. French: Les Prédateurs German: Der Kuss der Todes Spanish: El ansia Brazilian Portuguese: Fome de Viver

1999 in Australian literature

This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of Australian literature during 1999. Murray Bail won the Miles Franklin Award for Eucalyptus Thea Astley, Drylands Lily Brett, Too Many Men Kate Grenville, The Idea of Perfection Julia Leigh, The Hunter Bruce Pascoe, Shark Dorothy Porter, What a Piece of Work Matthew Reilly, Ice Station Heather Rose, White Heart Kim Scott, Benang Helen Barnes, Killing Aurora Graeme Base, The Worst Band in the Universe Kim Caraher, Goanna Anna Nick Earls, 48 Shades of Brown Christine Harris, Foreign Devil Sonya Hartnett, Stripes of the Sidestep Wolf Victor Kelleher, The Ivory Trail Markus Zusak, The Underdog Jennifer Maiden, Mines Van Badham, The Wilderness of Mirrors Sara Douglass, Crusader Greg Egan, Teranesia Marshall Browne, The Wooden Leg of Inspector Anders Garry Disher, The Dragon Man Chris Nyst, Cop This! Peter Temple, Shooting Star Ian McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop Drusilla Modjeska, Stravinsky's Lunch Les Murray, The Quality of Sprawl Anne Summers, Ducks on the Pond: An Autobiography 1945–1976 David Walker, Anxious Nation: Australia and the Rise of Asia 1850–1939 Michael Fitzgerald Page "for service to the book publishing industry and to literature as a writer, through the encouragement and support of upcoming Australian authors" Frank John Ford "for service to the development of the performing arts in South Australia as a director, playwright and educator" Kay Saunders "for service to Australian history as a scholar and commentator on social issues" John Antill Millett "for service to literature as editor of Poetry Australia" A list, ordered by date of death of deaths in 1999 of Australian literary figures, authors of written works or literature-related individuals follows, including year of birth.

15 February — Gordon Neil Stewart, writer 20 April — Ric Throssell and author whose writings included novels, plays and television scripts and memoirs 8 July — Mavis Thorpe Clark and writer for children 12 July — Mungo Ballardie MacCallum, journalist and poet 9 October — Morris West and playwright 16 November — Mal Morgan, poet 1999 in Australia 1999 in literature 1999 in poetry List of years in literature List of years in Australian literature

Ottokar Czernin

Ottokar Theobald Otto Maria Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat and politician during the time of World War I, notably serving as Foreign Minister from 1916 to 1918. Czernin was born in Dymokury into an ancient Bohemian noble family. In 1897, he married Marie née Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau in Heřmanův Městec, his younger brother Otto was a diplomat and served inter alia as envoy to Sofia during World War I. After studying law at the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague, he joined the Austro-Hungarian foreign service in 1895 and was dispatched to the embassy in Paris. In 1899, he was sent to The Hague, but only three years he had to resign as a result of a lung infection and retired to his Bohemian estates. In 1903, Count von Czernin became a member of the Bohemian Lower House as a representative of the Deutsche Verfassungspartei, he became a champion of conservatism and a defender of'monarchical principles' and favoured upholding the monarchy and opposing universal suffrage and parliamentarism.

This brought him to the attention of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir apparent to the throne of the Dual Monarchy. As a leading member of Franz Ferdinand's so-called Belvedere Circle, Count von Czernin was appointed a member of the Austrian Upper House in 1912. At the heir apparent's request, Count von Czernin re-entered the diplomatic corps in October 1913 when he was selected as minister to Bucharest; the appointment caused some controversy as he was considered a notorious Magyarophobe, but he managed to persuade the Hungarian Minister President Count Tisza to agree. However, an interview in a Hungarian newspaper in January 1914 nearly cost him his job with Hungarian calls for his resignation; as minister to Bucharest, Count von Czernin's mission was to investigate the value of the alliance with Romania and the possibilities to strengthen it. However, he reported back to Vienna that one could not trust the Romanian government if a war would break out. Following the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, he strove to keep Romania neutral, thanks in part to the support of the aged King Carol I.

Most Romanians did not share Carol's pro-German sentiments, including Prime Minister Brătianu and his government. Count von Czernin recommended that Vienna should offer the withdrawal of Siebenbürgen and parts of Bukovina in order to persuade Romania to prolong their neutrality, but the plan was opposed by the Hungarian government. Romania entered the war on the side of the Allies in August 1916 and Count von Czernin returned to Vienna. Following the accession of Karl I as the new emperor, Count von Czernin was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs on 23 December 1916, replacing Baron Burián von Rajecz. Both men shared the view that a rapid conclusion of peace was necessary to avoid the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire. Count von Czernin's main aim was therefore to seek a compromise peace while respecting the agreements made with Germany. However, he discovered that the Dual Monarchy's increasing dependency on Germany rendered a independent foreign policy impossible. While he reluctantly agreed with the necessity of resuming unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917, he spent much effort that year to unsuccessfully persuade German political and military leaders of the need for a peace by compromise.

At a conference between Germany and Austria-Hungary on 17–18 March 1917 on the goals of the war, he suggested inter alia the cession of territory of the Central Powers to arrange a fast peace with the Entente. In his view, the declaration of war by the United States was a disaster and a victory for the Central Powers became improbable. More he suggested that Germany should abandon Alsace-Lorraine and Belgium in return for large territorial gains in Poland. In Count von Czernin's scenario Austria-Hungary would be compensated with Romanian territory.. On 12 April, he drafted a memorandum with a gloomy prognostication of Austria-Hungary's war situation, transmitted through Emperor Karl I to Matthias Erzberger, a member of the German Reichstag, outlining the reasons why the Dual Monarchy could not survive another winter of fighting; this resulted in the well-meaning but ineffective peace resolution of 19 July 1917. In a speech in Budapest on 2 October 1917, he spoke in favour of international justice, disarmament and freedom of the seas as a basis for peace and as a legal basis for a new Europe.

Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, the workers across the Austro-Hungarian Empire became active around the issue of food shortages and a desire for a "peace without annexations. This led to the 1918 Austro-Hungarian January Strike in which Czernin had to intervene. On 24 January 1918, he announced, he negotiated a separate peace treaty with the newly created Ukrainian People's Republic, signed on 9 February 1918 and in which he agreed to cede Chelm. The so-called bread peace did not solve the Dual Monarchy's food supply problem, but it did earn Count von Czernin the loathing of Austrian Poles, who had claimed Chelm, he reached the highlight of his career by subsequently signing peace treaties with Russia on 3 March and Romania on 14 April and was considered the leading diplomat of the Central Powers. The Sixtus Affair, led to Count von Czernin's downfall. Emperor Karl I, using his brother-in-law Prince Sixte of Bourbon-Parma as his intermediary, had secretly assured French President Poincaré by a letter dated 24 March 1917 that he would support France

Fred Wood (rugby union)

Frederick Wood was an Australian rugby union player, a state and national representative half-back. He was vice-captain of the Wallabies on their first overseas tour in 1908-09 and captained the side in Test matches in 1910 and 1914, his representative career lasted from 1905 to 1914. Wood played for the Glebe club in Sydney and first attracted attention when he represented in a 1905 Metropolitan side against the touring New Zealand side, he was selected in the second match for New South Wales against those same All Blacks. A full Australian team was selected the next day - the first national side to tour overseas and Wood was selected at half-back in the 1905 side captained by Stan Wickham which toured New Zealand. Wood played in four tour matches of the seven contested by the side, but did not figure in the sole Test. In 1907, Wood was selected for New South Wales to meet the visiting All Blacks and played two matches alongside Chris McKivat in the halves with the first a narrow loss and the second a 14-0 victory to the Waratahs.

Both McKivat and Wood were selected in the Australian test side captained by Peter Burge to meet those same All Blacks but the Wallabies were well-beaten 6-26. Woods held his spot for the 3rd. In 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side toured Australia and Wood was honoured with the state captaincy for New South Wales in the first of the two encounters he played against them. Wood was selected as vice-captain on the first Wallaby 1908-09 Australia rugby union tour of the British Isles and France, the squad captained by Herbert Moran. Wood and Joshua Stevenson were the selected halfbacks but with Stevenson injured in the fifth tour game the selectors were forced to look at other halves combinations amongst Chris McKivatt, Arthur McCabe and Ward Prentice who were in the squad. Wood was unavailable with injury for a run of five games and McKivatt seized the opportunity with both hands and played in both Tests at half-back and captained the side in the Olympic gold medal bout against Cornwall. Moran in Viewless Winds referred to the friction that arose since Wood as vice-captain was a selector "The vice-captain was great little player who never found his form in England.

It used to be unpleasant for us when, in the face of this, he insisted for a long time on his own selection. We did not want unfriendliness, but for nine matches in succession he kept McKivat out of his proper position" However it was no disgrace to be playing second fiddle to McKivat and in any case following his recovery from injury Wood played another thirteen games, seven of them as captain and finished with a total tour tally of twenty appearances; when the Wallabies returned to Australia McKivatt and thirteen others of the squad moved to the ranks of the new professional code of rugby league and Wood resumed his place as the top half-back for New South Wales. Wood played against the touring All Blacks of 1910 twice for New South Wales and in all three Test matches; that second test marked Australia's first victory over New Zealand in the seven encounters till then. Wood played against the New Zealand Māori rugby union team when they toured against New South Wales in 1910 and in 1913; that same year the Wallabies undertook a nine match tour of New Zealand with Wood playing in eight of those games.

Wood played in all three Tests and Howell quotes the Chester McMillan reference that in both the second and third Tests "Wood was the outstanding back on the field". In 1914 aged 30 Wood was still representing for Australia when the All Blacks toured against and he was honoured with the captaincy of the national team in the first and third Tests. World War I marked the end of international rugby for a while as it marked the end of Wood's long representative career having played 39 times for Australia including 12 Tests. Fred Wood died aged 40 in 1924. Collection Gordon Bray presents The Spirit of Rugby, Harper Collins Publishers Sydney Howell, Max Born to Lead - Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland NZ Moran, Herbert Viewless Winds - the recollections and digressions of an Australian surgeon P Davies, London Chris Thau article A Century of Wallaby Touring