Saint Peter, Guernsey
St Peter's, known as Saint Pierre du Bois is a parish in Guernsey. It is the centre for the Guernsey Western Parishes which includes Torteval, St Saviour's and the Forest; the old Guernesiais nickname for people from Saint Pierre was etcherbaots. The postal code for street addresses in this parish begins with GY7. St Peter's won the Britain in Bloom small coastal prize in 2015. and a gold medal in the 2016 Champion of Champions competition. The parish is located in the West of the Island and has borders with the parishes of Torteval, St. Saviour's, Forest and St. Andrew's; the parish is countryside with a small village in the centre. The parish church is one of the most unusual in the islands as it is built at the bottom of a small valley and the interior of the church is not flat but diagonal in appearance. Saint Peter comprises part of the West administrative division with Torteval, St. Saviour's and Forest In the Guernsey general election, 2016 there was a 3,188 or 74% turnout to elect five Deputies.
Those elected being Andrea Dudley-Owen, Emilie Yerby, David De Lisle and Shane Langlois. Sampson Avard, the leader of a band of Mormon vigilantes called the Danites, which existed in Missouri during the period of the 1838 Mormon War. Parish Website
Vale is one of the ten parishes of Guernsey. In 933 the islands under the control of William I Duchy of Brittany were annexed by the Duchy of Normandy; the island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. Much of the Vale parish belonging to the fief Saint Michael, which benefited the Benedictine monks who lived in an abbey, built next to the Vale Church from when it was granted in 1032 by Robert of Normandy, caught in a storm and his ship had ended up safe in Guernsey; the rights to the fief were removed by Henry VIII when he undertook the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Castle of Saint Michael, now called Vale Castle, has an origin going back at least 1,000 years and was used as a refuge from pirate attacks, it was started in the late 10th century. In 1372 Owain Lawgoch, a claimant to the Welsh throne, attacked Guernsey at the head of a free company, on behalf of France; this event is popularly called La Descente des Aragousais.
Owain Lawgoch withdrew after killing 400 of the Island militia. The poem of the same name refers to the castle as the Château de l'Archange, the location of the last-ditch stand against the insurgents. In 1615 the island was required to maintain the Vale Castle, while the Crown maintained Castle Cornet, it has been a focal point for defence. Until 1806 the parish occupied territory on the mainland of Guernsey, the Vingtaine de l'Epine, as well as the whole of Le Clos du Valle, a tidal island forming the northern extremity of Guernsey separated from the mainland by Le Braye du Valle, a tidal channel. Le Braye was reclaimed in 1806 by the British Government as a defence measure. Vale now consists of two non-contiguous territories; the Vale postal code starts with GY3 with some starting GY8. The parish was twinned with the Normandy port of Barneville-Carteret in 1987. Vale comprises the whole of the Vale administrative division In the Guernsey general election, 2016 there was a 3,774 or 74% turnout to elect six Deputies.
Those elected being Matt Fallaize, Dave Jones, Mary Lowe, Laurie Queripel, Jeremy Smithies and Sarah Hansmann Rouxel. Dave Jones died in July 2016 and a by-election was held in October 2016 to elect a replacement
An electoral district, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage; the names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected. The term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate; the terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters.
In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency". The term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature; when referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas". District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives.
Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranged from 3 to 5 in 1998, when the current electoral system was introduced for Legislative Council geographical constituency elections, will range from 5 to 9 in the forthcoming election in September 2012; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia.
Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each. Israel and the Netherlands avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats.
By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population. Given the complexity of this process, softwa
Saint Peter Port Harbour
Saint Peter Port Harbour is located in Saint Peter Port, Guernsey. It was a natural anchorage used by the Romans, changed into an artificial harbour, now the island's main port for passengers. Loose cargo and gas are shipped to and from St Sampson's harbour. Castle Cornet has formed the harbour main defence for centuries; the castle was a tidal island, but since 1859 a breakwater has connected it to the enlarged harbour. The earliest evidence of shipping was the discover of a wreck in 1982 in the entrance of the harbour, named "Asterix", it is thought to be a 3rd-century Roman cargo vessel and was at anchor or grounded when the fire broke out. The first breakwater, from before the 13th century was a mole, made of loose stones, where the Albert Pier now stands. In 1605, a Royal Charter authorised a pettie Custume tax on imports to Guernsey to pay for harbour development; the English Civil War saw the harbour in the firing line in 1643 between the Royalist held Castle Cornet and the Parliamentarian held town.
Cannonballs fired from the castle caused some damage to the town. In 1831 gas lamps replaced oil lamps in 1857 electric lights were demonstrated; the harbour piers were extended by 1864 to allow ships to berth at any state of the tide. Problems were experienced with many piers, quicksand and bulges were solved with piles and by reducing the weight through making problem piers hollow. Dredging in 1899 and removal of some rock from the harbour bed, improved services. Since 1881 the harbour has housed the Saint Peter Port Lifeboat Station in a building on the Castle Pier; the First World War saw the establishment of a French seaplane base, on the pier close to Castle Cornet, in St Peter Port. The pilots flew on constant watch for German submarines. On 28 June 1940, German commanders sent a squadron of bombers over the islands and bombed the harbours of Guernsey and Jersey. In St Peter Port, the main town of Guernsey, some lorries lined up to load tomatoes for export to England were mistaken by the reconnaissance for troop carriers.
Forty-four islanders were killed in the raids. The BBC broadcast the message that the islands had been declared "open towns", after Prime Minister Winston Churchill refused to announce the demilitarisation through diplomatic channels, in the day reported the German bombing of the island; the Second World War saw the town bombed by Allied bombers which killed harbour workers and caused damage to the harbour, such as on 14 June 1944, having been identified by Cryptanalysis of the Enigma intercepts, confirmed with a solo photographic reconnaissance Spitfire from No. 541 Squadron RAF, German submarine U-275 was attacked by no less than 8 Hawker Typhoon strike attack aircraft of No. 263 Squadron RAF while tied up in harbour. No damage was caused to the submarine. V. Karel in the harbour. Many windows in town were shattered including most of those in the Town Church; the Nazi German forces improved the defences of the harbour including building a number of steel and concrete bunkers and casemates, most of which are located on the Castle pier.
One bunker was removed from the New Jetty after the war due to fears that weight may collapse the jetty. Considerable work has been undertaken strengthening the New Jetty. A workshop erected by the Germans on the Albert Pier was demolished in the 1970s. During the mid 1980s the harbour was dredged to provide easier access for shipping, with the excavated aggregate pumped through pipes to reclaim the land used for the North Beach parking, between the harbour and the Queen Elizabeth II Marina. A passenger terminal and customs facilities are located on St Julian's Pier. Facilities at the harbour include two ro-ro ramps for cars and lorries that travel on car/passenger ferries such as the 102m long trimaran Condor Liberation or freight/car/passenger traditional ferries such as the Commodore Clipper. Two large cranes and a number of smaller ones facilitate the loading/unloading of containers; the southern arm of the original harbour going east from near the Town Church was a mole, referred to in 1275 by Edward I of England when it was mentioned as needing reconstruction, given permission to raise a local tax to cover the cost, little was done until a dry stone pier, was constructed by 1580.
The pier was well built, standing 35 ft high and 360 ft long, paved with a parapet and still being in good condition in 1815. Until 1806 a roundhouse tower at the end of the pier had been used as a holding cell for prisoners who needed to be shipped by sea to Castle Cornet, a lighthouse was built on the remains of the roundhouse in 1831 before being demolished in 1860. Improved in 1861-63 with north return arm now at right angles, it was renamed in honour of Prince Albert who had died in 1861. A statue of Prince Albert, a copy of an original by Joseph Durham, was erected in 1863; the northern arm of the original harbour heads east from the Quay, with a retaining pier for the Careening Hard going north. Built from 1703 as a breakwater improved and by 1750 was completed as a dry construction with an arm heading south east; the harbour quay was completed by the late 1770s, prior to that everything was landed on the beach, cattle still being made to swim ashore. In 1838 the entrance to the old harbour was widened to make it 40 ft at the top and 68 ft at the bottom.
In 1893 the pier was rebuilt to 220 ft length. St Julian's Pier is the pier running east from St Julian's Avenue roundabout; the foundation stone for the pier being laid in 1853. The first weighbridge was built on the pier in 1861 rebuilt in stone in 1892 and upgraded to 20-ton in 1923. Moving east along the pier you reach the C
Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
It is now a state in the Unit
Hauteville House is a house where Victor Hugo lived during his exile from France, located at 38 Rue Hauteville in St. Peter Port in Guernsey. In March 1927, the centenary year of Romanticism, Hugo's descendents Jeanne, Jean and François donated the house to the City of Paris, it houses an honorary consul to the French embassy at London and a Victor Hugo museum. Built around 1800 by an English privateer, the house came into the possession of William Ozanne, it gained the reputation of being haunted by the spirit of a woman who had committed suicide, remained unoccupied for several years. Victor Hugo arrived in Guernsey in October 1855, he bought the house on 16 May 1856 with the revenues from the initial success of the publication of Les Contemplations. By owning it Hugo ensured that he could not be expelled from the island as Guernsey law prohibits the deporting of people with property on the island. Hugo and his wife Adèle Foucher transformed and decorated the house during his exile from 1856 to 1870, during a return visit in the summer of 1878.
He named the house "Hautville", rather than Liberté, his original intention. The house consists of four levels, with the top floor featuring a glazed lookout with a view of Saint Peter Port and Sark, the islands near them; the garden is filled with flowers that grow abundantly due to the mild climate. The City of Paris conserves the two houses that Victor Hugo lived in the longest: the Rohan-Guéménée mansion in Paris and the Hauteville House in Guernsey. Hauteville House was given to the City of Paris in 1927 by the descendants of Victor Hugo; the structure of the building undertook a major renovation in 2008-9 and in 2017 an appeal was launched to pay for the renovation of internal decorations. Maisons de Victor Hugo Paris-Guernesey Office de tourisme de Guernesey
Fort George, Guernsey
Fort George is situated in Saint Peter Port and was built to become the main island military headquarters and to protect barracks to house the island garrison for the British Army, in place of Castle Cornet. Planned during the Anglo-French War, construction started in 1780, was completed in 1812, it was built to accommodate the increase in the number of troops stationed in the island to deter the anticipated French invasion, such as the attempted Jersey one in 1779 and the one that resulted in French troops landing in Jersey in January 1781, which resulted in the Battle of Jersey in the centre of Saint Helier. The area occupied by the fort was excellent corn fields but with one and a half regiments moved into the island as defence following the start of the American War of Independence, were used by the military before the construction of the current fort. In 1775/6 an epidemic amongst highland soldiers stationed at the fort area decimated the unit and the disease spread to civilians in neighbouring parishes.
The old fort was in poor state and General Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey, Governor of Guernsey from 1797 to 1807 was having difficulty persuading the island to improve its defences. In 1798 in frustration, he ordered the part built fort to be demolished so as not to give potential invaders a safe haven, it was not destroyed and construction work continued; the design was that of a Star fort with a bastioned trace. A detached redoubt, Fort Irwin, was linked to the fort. To seaward the Clarence Battery was constructed. On 27 March 1783 there was a mutiny in Guernsey by 500 regular soldiers Irish soldiers in the created 104th Regiment, who were in winter quarters in Fort George, caused by some discharged men from the disbanded 83rd Regiment who had just been sent to join the 104th on the island; the soldiers demanded that the fort gates be left open so they could come and go as they pleased, however whilst this was agreed the soldiers inside the fort a few days fired at their officers forcing them to withdraw from the fort.
Both the 18th Regiment and the Guernsey Militia turned out with 6 pieces of artillery. Volleys of shots were fired by the rebels, but when the militia outflanking the rebels, they surrendered; the Government of Guernsey gave a public thanks to the 18th Regiment and militiamen, awarding them 100 guineas. Two men were wounded, the 104th Regiment disbanded. From 1794 to 1819 a company from an invalid battalion of the Royal Artillery was based at Fort George. Duelling was not permitted in Guernsey, however duels took place, the most famous recorded being between two officers based at the fort in 1795, fought at L'Hyvreuse Avenue, St Peter Port, where Major Byng of the 92nd Regiment died after challenging the Regimental Surgeon over a matter of honour for not standing for the National Anthem. Before the barracks were built in the fort, islanders were required to provide accommodation for soldiers that could not be accommodated in Castle Cornet; each Parish had its quota and if men were quartered in public houses or private dwellings the parish authorities were liable for the cost.
Lieutenant-General John Doyle was appointed Lieutenant Governor in 1803 and commander of all forces in Guernsey. After declaring a state of emergency in 1804, he undertook many works to improve the defence of the Island, including the draining of the Braye du Valle, improving some roads to military standard and building forts and batteries around the coast; the building of Fort George progressed more with Lt. Col. John Mackelcan promoted to Commander of the Royal Engineers at the fort in 1803; the fort was completed in 1812 and Major-General Sir John Doyle became the Commanding Officer. Families of the soldiers stationed in the fort lodged in St Peter Port. In 1832 J. M. W. Turner sketched the fort; the last person to be executed for murder in Guernsey in 1853, a John Tapner, worked as a clerk in the Engineers Department in Fort George. The fort attracted dubious activities with'maisons de débauche' being established close to the fort, they became such a problem that a law was passed in 1895 to restrict their activities, but it was not sufficient and a further law was passed in 1912 giving powers to examine women for diseases, detain them in the hospital if necessary and to deport foreign women deemed'dangereuses pour la santé publique'.
The Royal Guernsey Light Infantry trained at Fort George before the 1st Battalion sailed on 1 June 1917 on their way to the Western Front, the 2nd Battalion remaining at the fort as a training battalion. During the Second World War the fort was occupied by German forces who gave it the name Stützpunkt Georgefest, constructing a number of emplacements and a Luftwaffe radar early warning station with 2 x Freya and 2 x Giant FuMG 65 Würzburg-Riese radar installations. Attempts by Allied aircraft to destroy the radar station before the Normandy landings in June 1944 were ineffective, with allied aircraft shot down on 2 and 5 June. Unexploded bombs surface; the States of Guernsey bought the land from the Crown in 1958. In 1967 the land was sold to a developer, Fort George Developments, with the aim of building 120 luxury houses amongst the stronger of the military buildings, the main barrack buildings being demolished. Objections to the planned building work were rejected despite 21% of the population signing a petition against the works.
The main entrance is through an imposing gateway. Behind the gate would have been a moat and drawbridge which would have provided a second line of defence. A plaque over the gate is addressed to Maj-Gen. Sir John Doyle Bt, GCB, KC