Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, deadlift. As in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, it involves the athlete attempting a maximal weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as "odd lifts", which followed the same three-attempt format but used a wider variety of events, akin to strongman competition. Odd lifts became standardized to the current three. In competition, lifts may be performed equipped or un-equipped. Equipment in this context refers to a supportive bench squat/deadlift suit or briefs. In some federations, knee wraps are permitted in the equipped but not un-equipped division. Weight belts, knee sleeves, wrist wraps and special footwear may be used, but are not considered when distinguishing equipped from un-equipped lifting. Competitions take place across the world. Powerlifting has been a Paralympic sport since 1984 and, under the IPF, is a World Games sport.
Local and international competitions have been sanctioned by other federations operating independently of the IPF. The roots of powerlifting are found in traditions of strength training stretching back as far as ancient Greek and ancient Persian times; the idea of powerlifting originated in Ancient China and Greece, as men lifted stones to prove their strength and manhood. Weightlifting has been an official sport in the Olympic Games since 1896; the modern sport originated in the United States in the 1950s. The weightlifting governing bodies in both countries had recognized various "odd lifts" for competition and record purposes. During the 1950s, Olympic weightlifting declined in the United States, while strength sports gained many new followers. People did not like the Olympic lifts Clean and Press and Clean and Jerk.ref>Unitt, Dennis. "The History of the International Powerlifting Federation". Powerlifting. Sport. </ref> In 1958, the AAU's National Weightlifting Committee decided to begin recognizing records for odd lifts.
A national championship was tentatively scheduled for 1959, but never happened. The first genuine national "meet" was held in September 1964 under the auspices of the York Barbell Company. York Barbell owner Bob Hoffman had been a longtime adversary of the sport, but his company was now making powerlifting equipment to make up for the sales it had lost on Olympic equipment. In 1964, some powerlifting categories were added to the Tokyo Paralympic Games for men with spinal cord injuries. More categories of lifting were added. In the 2000 Paralympic Games in Sydney, women were invited to participate in powerlifting. Both men and women were allowed to compete in all 10 weight classes of powerlifting. During the late 1950s, Hoffman's influence on Olympic lifting and his predominately Olympic-based magazine Strength and Health were beginning to come under increasing pressure from Joe Weider's organization. In order to combat the growing influence of Weider, Hoffman started another magazine, Muscular Development, which would be focused more on bodybuilding and the fast-growing interest in odd lift competitions.
The magazine's first editor was John Grimek. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, various odd lift events developed into the specific lifts of the bench press and deadlift, they were lifted in that order. Hoffman became more and more influential in the development of this new lifting sport and organized the Weightlifting Tournament of America in 1964 the first USA National championships. In 1965, the first named. During the same period, lifting in Britain had factions. In the late 1950s, because members of the ruling body were only interested in the development of Olympic lifting, a breakaway organization called the Society of Amateur Weightlifters had been formed to cater for the interests of lifters who were not interested in Olympic lifting. Although at that time there were 42 recognized lifts, the "Strength Set" soon became the standard competition lifts, both organizations held Championships on these lifts until 1965. In 1966, the Society of Amateur Weightlifters rejoined BAWLA and, in order to fall into line with the American lifts, the biceps curl was dropped and replaced with the deadlift.
The first British Championship was held in 1966. During the late 1960s and at the beginning of the 1970s, various friendly international contests were held. At the same time, in early November of each year and to commemorate Hoffman's birthday, a prestigious lifting contest was held. In 1971, it was decided to make this event the "World Weightlifting Championships"; the event was held on the morning of November 6, 1971, in Pennsylvania. There was no such thing as teams and thus the event consisted of a large group of American lifters, four British lifters, one lifter from the West Indies. All of the referees were American. Weights were in pounds. Lifting order was "rising bar", the first lift was the bench press. There was no such thing as a bench shirt or squat suit, various interpretations were held regarding the use and length of knee wraps and weightlifting belts; the IPF rules system had world records been established. Because of the lack of formalized rules, some disputes occurred. There was 100 kg class, or 125 kg class.
At the first World Championships, one of the American super-heavyweights, Jim Williams, benched 660 lbs
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students graduate at age 18; some countries have a thirteenth grade. Twelfth grade is the last year of high school. In Australia, the twelfth grade is referred to as Year 12. In New South Wales, students are 16 or 17 years old when they enter Year 12 and 17–18 years during graduation. A majority of students in Year 12 work towards getting an ATAR or OP, which will allow them access to courses at university. In South Australia, this is achieved by completing the SACE. In New South Wales, when completing the, students are required to satisfactorily complete at least 10 units of study in ATAR courses which must include: eight units from Category A courses two units of English three Board Developed courses of two units or greater four subjectsSome Year 12s may receive a Year 12 Jersey. Schools choose the design and writing which are printed or stitched onto the jersey.
Sometimes the last two digits of the year they are graduating are printed on the back along with a personalised nickname. The front may show the school emblem and the student's name, stitched in. Many schools conduct end of year "formals", they are held from any time between graduation in September to November. Australian private schools conduct Year 12 balls in January or February of Year 12 instead of an end of year formal. In Belgium, the 12th grade is called 6de middelbaar or laatste jaar in Dutch, rétho or 6e année in French. In the General Education, this year guides and prepares students for their first year in University by recalling everything learned during the past six years of secondary school. In the Skills Education, this year prepares the students for the professional life with an Intership in the chosen domain. In Brazil, the 12th grade is called terceiro ano do ensino médio informally called terceiro colegial, meaning third grade of high school, it is attended by 17–18 years old students.
During this grade, most students apply to what is called Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio, the Brazilian equivalent of the SATs in the US, vestibular, the individual entrance examination particular to each university. As in many countries, Grade 12 students attend Graduation, which involves a formal official ceremony, a party where students and friends are invited and another party just for the students. In Bulgaria the twelfth grade is the last year of high-school. Twelfth-grade students tend to be 18–19 years old. Students are preparing to take the Matriculation exam in the end of their 2nd semester. In Canada, the twelfth grade is referred to as Grade 12. Students enter their Grade 12 year when they are 16 or 17 years old. If they are 16 years old, they will be turning 17 by December 31 of that year. In many Canadian high schools, student during their year, hold a series of fundraisers, grade-class trips, other social events. Grade 12 Canadian students attend Graduation which involves an official ceremony and a dinner dance.
Ontario had Grade 13, renamed Ontario Academic Credit, before being phased out, leaving Grade 12 as the final year. Grades 12 and 13 were similar to sixth form in England. Quebec is the lone province that does not have Grade 12. Thus, when a student is in Grade 12 in Ontario, for instance, the student in Quebec is in his first year of college. Newfoundland and Labrador did not introduce Grade 12 until 1983. In Denmark, the twelfth grade is the 3rd G, the final year of secondary school. G is equivalent to gymnasium; this is not compulsory. Students are 18-19 or older when they finish secondary school; the age of graduation is caused by the fact that Danish children first start school at 6. The reason that many students will be at the age of 20 when they graduate is because some people choose to have one-year gap between the 9th grade and gymnasium's 1st G, where students go to special art- or sport-oriented boarding schools or become exchange students all over the world; this is optional though. The twelfth grade is the third and last year of High School or secondary school The students graduate from High School the year they turn 19.
The twelfth grade is shorter than the previous ones because the twelfth graders lessons end in February and they go on to take their final exams shortly afterwards. Compulsory education ends after the ninth grade, so the upper grades are optional; the equivalent grade in this country is Terminale, it is the third and last year of lycée, equivalent to High-School, upon completion of which students sit for a test, the Baccalauréat. French-language schools that teach the French government curriculum use the same system of grades as their counterparts in France; this is not compulsory, as education is only
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
Mississippi State University
The Mississippi State University for Agriculture and Applied Science known as Mississippi State University, is a public land-grant research university adjacent to Starkville, Mississippi. With 21,353 students at its main campus, it is the largest campus by enrollment in the state, it is classified in the category of "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity" by the Carnegie Foundation and has a total research and development budget of $239.4 million, the largest in Mississippi. It is listed as one of the state's flagship universities; the university was chartered as Mississippi Agricultural & Mechanical College on February 28, 1878 and admitted its first students in 1880. Organized into 12 colleges and schools, the university offers over 180 baccalaureate and professional degree programs, is home to Mississippi's only accredited programs in architecture and veterinary medicine. Mississippi State participates in the National Sea Grant College Program and National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.
The university's main campus in Starkville is supplemented by auxiliary campuses in Meridian and Vicksburg, Mississippi. The 19th and current president of Mississippi State is Mark E. Keenum, a former United States Under Secretary of Agriculture. Mississippi State's intercollegiate sports teams, known as the Mississippi State Bulldogs, compete in NCAA Division I athletics as members of the Southeastern Conference's western division. Mississippi State was a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more-than 120-year history, the Bulldogs have won 21 individual national championships and 30 regular season conference championships; the school is noted for a pervasive baseball fan culture, with Dudy Noble Field holding 17 of the top 25 all-time NCAA attendance records and the school's Left Field Lounge being described as an epicenter of college baseball. The university began as The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi, one of the national land-grant colleges established after Congress passed the Morrill Act in 1862.
It was created by the Mississippi Legislature on February 28, 1878, to fulfill the mission of offering training in "agriculture and the mechanical arts... without excluding other scientific and classical studies, including military tactics." The university received its first students in the fall of 1880 in the presidency of General Stephen D. Lee. In 1887 Congress passed the Hatch Act, which provided for the establishment of the Agricultural Experiment Station in 1888; the Cooperative Extension Service was established in 1914 by the Smith-Lever Act. The university redefined by the Legislature. In 1932, the Legislature renamed the university as Mississippi State College. In 1958 the Legislature renamed the university Mississippi State University in recognition of its academic development and addition of graduate programs; the Graduate School had been organized, doctoral degree programs had begun, the School of Forest Resources had been established, the College of Arts and Sciences had replaced the General Science School.
The university was uneventfully desegregated in July 1965, when Richard E. Holmes, a graduate of Henderson High School in Starkville, became the first African-American student to enroll; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed by Congress the year before, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was being debated, the United States Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional; the School of Architecture admitted its first students in 1973, the College of Veterinary Medicine admitted its first class in 1977. The MSU Vet school is the largest veterinary school under one roof in the nation; the School of Accountancy was established in 1979. The University Honors Program was founded in 1968 to provide more rigorous course curricula for academically talented students and support guest lecture series and distinguished external scholarships; the program has a separate college. This was made possible by funding by Bobby Shackouls, an MSU alumnus and retired CEO, who donated US$10 million to found the Judy and Bobby Shackouls Honors College in April 2006.
MSU started a joint Ph. D. program in engineering with San Jose State University in California, allowing an increase in research for both universities, as well as enhancing the stature of both engineering colleges. In March 2009, Mississippi State announced the conclusion of the university's seven-year capital campaign, with more than $462 million received in private gifts and pledges. Mississippi State University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master's, doctoral degrees. Today, the university has the following colleges and schools: As of Fall 2011, Mississippi State's enrollment was 20,424; the university has 160 buildings, the grounds comprise about 4,200 acres, including farms and woodlands of the Experiment Station. The university owns an additional 80,000 acres across the state. Mississippi State University operates an off-campus, degree-granting center in Meridian that offers undergraduate and graduate programs.
In cooperation with the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, the College of Engineering offers the Master of Science degree to students in Vicksburg. Mississippi State's campus is centered on the main quadrangle, called the Drill Field due to its heavy use by the Corps of Cadets prior to the end of World War II; the Drill Field is defined at its north and south ends by the mirror-image buildings, Lee Hall (th
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Polynesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the ave
Stanisław Kostka S. J. was a Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. He is venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Stanislaus Kostka, he was born at Rostkowo, Przasnysz County, Poland, on 28 October 1550, died at Rome during the night of 14–15 August 1568. He entered the Society of Jesus in Rome on his 17th birthday, is said to have foretold his death a few days before it occurred, his father was a senator of the Kingdom of Lord of Zakroczym. He was the second of seven children, his older brother Paweł survived to be present at the beatification ceremony of Stanislaus in 1605. At home, the two brothers were taught with firmness severity. On 25 July 1564, they arrived at Vienna with their tutor to attend the Jesuit college, opened four years before. Stanislaus was soon conspicuous among his classmates during his three years of schooling, not only for his amiability and cheerfulness of expression, but for his growing religious fervour and piety, his brother Paul said during the process of beatification that "He devoted himself so to spiritual things that he became unconscious in the church of the Jesuit Fathers at Vienna."
One of the practices of devotion which he joined while at Vienna was the Congregation of St. Barbara and Our Lady, "of which he, with numbers of the pupils of the Society of Jesus" belonged. Stanislaus alleged to a fellow-member of the Society at Rome that Saint Barbara brought two angels to him during the course of a serious illness, in order to give him the Eucharist, his tutor, John Bilinski, witnessed the miracle, though he himself did not see what Stanislaus claimed to see, he "was certain that Stanislaus was not at all out of his mind through the violence of his sickness." Exasperated by his younger brother's piety, Paul began to mistreat Stanislaus. Stanislaus suffered the unjust treatment with remarkable stoicism and patience, but "one night after Stanislaus had again suffered the harsh comments and blows of his brother, he turned on Paul with the words:'Your rough treatment will end in my going away never to return, you will have to explain my leaving to our father and mother.' Paul's sole reply was to swear violently at him."
"The thought of joining the Society of Jesus had entered the mind of the saintly young man. It was six months, before he ventured to speak of this to the superiors of the Society. At Vienna they hesitated to receive him, fearing the tempest that would be raised by his father against the Society, which had just quieted a storm unleashed by other admissions to the Company. Stanislaus grasped the situation and formed the plan of applying to the general of the Society at Rome; the distance was five hundred leagues, which had to be made on foot, without equipment or guide or any other resources but the precarious charity that might be received on the road. The prospective dangers and humiliations of such a journey, did not alarm his courage. On the morning of the day on which he was to carry out his project he called his servant to him early and told him to notify his brother Paul and his tutor in the course of the morning that he would not be back that day to dinner, he started, exchanging the dress of gentleman for that of a mendicant, the only way to escape the curiosity of those he met.
By nightfall Paul and the tutor comprehended. They were seized with a fierce anger, as the day was ended the fugitive had gained a day over them, they were not able to overtake him. It is noticeable. Stanislaus stayed for a month at Dillingen, where the provincial of that time, Saint Peter Canisius, put the young aspirant's vocation to the test by employing him in the boarding-school, he arrived 25 October 1567 in Rome. As he was exhausted by the journey, the general of the order, Saint Francis Borgia, would not permit him to enter the novitiate of Saint Andrew until several days later. During the ten remaining months of his life, according to the testimony of the master of novices, Father Giulio Fazio, "he was a model and mirror of religious perfection. Notwithstanding his delicate constitution he did not spare himself the slightest penance", he had such a burning fever in his chest that he was obliged to apply cold compresses." On the evening of the feast of Saint Lawrence, Stanislaus felt a mortal weakness, made worse by a high fever, saw that his last hour had come.
He wrote a letter to the Blessed Virgin begging her to call him to the skies there to celebrate with her the glorious anniversary of her Assumption. His confidence in the Blessed Virgin, which had brought him many favours, was this time again rewarded. Many in the city proclaimed him a saint and people hastened from all parts to venerate his remains and to obtain, if possible, some relics; the Holy See ratified his beatification in 1605. St