Treaty of Amiens
The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 by Joseph Bonaparte and Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace." The consequent peace lasted only one year and was the only period of general peace in Europe between 1793 and 1814. Under the treaty, Britain recognised the French Republic. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville, the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition, which had waged war against Revolutionary France since 1798; the War of the Second Coalition started well for the coalition, with successes in Egypt and Germany. After France's victories at the Battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden, Austria and Naples sued for peace, with Austria signing the Treaty of Lunéville. Horatio Nelson's victory at the Battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801 halted the creation of the League of Armed Neutrality and led to a negotiated ceasefire; the French First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, first made truce proposals to British foreign secretary Lord Grenville as early as 1799.
Because of the hardline stance of Grenville and Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, their distrust of Bonaparte and obvious defects in the proposals, they were rejected out of hand. However, Pitt resigned in February 1801 over domestic issues and was replaced by the more accommodating Henry Addington. At that point, according to Schroeder, Britain was motivated by the danger of a war with Russia. Addington's foreign secretary, Robert Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury opened communications with Louis Guillaume Otto, the French commissary for prisoners of war in London through whom Bonaparte had made his earlier proposals. Hawkesbury stated. Otto under detailed instructions from Bonaparte, engaged in negotiations with Hawkesbury in mid-1801. Unhappy with the dialogue with Otto, Hawkesbury sent diplomat Anthony Merry to Paris, who opened a second line of communications with the French foreign minister, Talleyrand. By mid-September, written negotiations had progressed to the point that Hawkesbury and Otto met to draft a preliminary agreement.
On 30 September, they signed the preliminary agreement in London, published the next day. The terms of the preliminary agreement required Britain to restore most of the French colonial possessions that it had captured since 1794, to evacuate Malta and to withdraw from other occupied Mediterranean ports. Malta was to be restored to the Order of St. John, whose sovereignty was to be guaranteed by one or more powers, to be determined at the final peace. France was to restore Egypt to Ottoman control, to withdraw from most of the Italian peninsula and to agree to preserve Portuguese sovereignty. Ceylon a Dutch territory, was to remain with the British, Newfoundland fishery rights were to be restored to their prewar status. Britain was to recognise the Seven Islands Republic, established by France on islands in the Ionian Sea that are now part of Greece. Both sides were to be allowed access to the outposts on the Cape of Good Hope. In a blow to Spain, the preliminary agreement included a secret clause in which Trinidad was to remain with Britain.
News of the preliminary peace was greeted in Britain with fireworks. Peace, it was thought in Britain, would lead to the withdrawal of the income tax imposed by Pitt, a reduction of grain prices and a revival of markets. In November 1801, Cornwallis was sent to France with plenipotentiary powers to negotiate a final agreement; the expectation among the British populace that peace was at hand put enormous pressure on Cornwallis, something that Bonaparte realised and capitalised on. The French negotiators, Napoleon's brother Joseph as well as Talleyrand shifted their positions, leaving Cornwallis to write, "I feel it as the most unpleasant circumstance attending this unpleasant business that, after I have obtained his acquiescence on any point, I can have no confidence that it is settled and that he will not recede from it in our next conversation." The Batavian Republic, whose economy depended on trade, ruined by the war, appointed Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, its ambassador to France, to represent it in the peace negotiations.
He arrived in Amiens on 9 December. The Dutch role in the negotiations was marked by a lack of respect on the part of the French, who thought of them as a "vanquished and conquered" client whose present government "owed them everything."Schimmelpenninck and Cornwallis negotiated agreements on the status of Ceylon, to remain British. However, Joseph did not agree to their terms needing to consult with the First Consul on the matter. In January 1802, Napoleon travelled to Lyon to accept the presidency of the Italian Republic, a nominally-independent French client republic that covered northern Italy and had been established in 1797; that act violated the Treaty of Lunéville, in which Bonaparte agreed to guarantee the independence of the Italian Republic and the other client republics. He continued to support French General Pierre Augereau's reactionary coup d'état of 18 September 1801 in the Batavian Republic and its new constitution, ratified by a sham election and brought the republic into closer alignment with its dominant partner.
British newspaper readers followed the events, presented in strong moralising colours. Hawkesbury wrote of Bonaparte's action at Lyons that it was a "gross b
Dutch Virgin Islands
The Dutch Virgin Islands is the collective name for the enclaves that the Dutch West India Company had in the Virgin Islands. The area was ruled by a director; the main reason for starting a colony here was that it lay strategically between the Dutch colonies in the south and New Netherland. The Dutch West India Company was affected by the competition from Denmark and Spain. In 1680 the remaining islands became a British colony, it was a Dutch privateer named Joost van Dyk who organised the first permanent settlements in the territory in Soper's Hole, on the west end of Tortola. It is not known when he first came to the territory, but by 1615 van Dyk's settlement was recorded in Spanish contemporary records, noting its recent expansion, he farmed cotton and tobacco. Some sources suggest that the first settlements in the Virgin Islands were by the Spanish, who mined copper at the copper mine on Virgin Gorda, but there is no archaeological evidence to support the existence of any settlement by the Spanish in the islands at any time, or any mining of copper on Virgin Gorda prior to the 19th century.
By 1625, van Dyk was recognised by the Dutch West India Company as the private "Patron" of Tortola, had moved his operations to Road Town. During the same year, van Dyk lent some limited support to the Dutch Admiral Boudewijn Hendricksz, who sacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. In September 1625, in retaliation, the Spanish led a full assault on the island of Tortola, laying waste to its defences and destroying its embryonic settlements. Joost van Dyk himself escaped to the island that would bear his name, sheltered there from the Spanish, he moved to the island of St. Thomas until the Spanish gave up and returned to Puerto Rico. Notwithstanding the Spanish hostility, the Dutch West India Company still considered the Virgin Islands to have an important strategic value, as they were located halfway between the Dutch colonies in South America and the most important Dutch settlement in North America, New Amsterdam. Large stone warehouses were built at Freebottom, near Port Purcell, with the intention that these warehouses would facilitate exchanges of cargo between North and South America.
At this time, the Dutch settlers erected some small earthworks and a three-cannon fort above the warehouse, on the hill where Fort George would be built by the English. He constructed a wooden stockade to act as a lookout post above Road Town on the site that would become Fort Charlotte, they stationed troops at the Spanish "dojon" near Pockwood Pond to be known as Fort Purcell, but now ordinarily referred to as "the Dungeon". In 1631, the Dutch West India Company expressed an interest in the copper, discovered on Virgin Gorda, a settlement was set up on that island, which came to be known as "Little Dyk's". In 1640, Spain attacked Tortola in an assault led by Captain Lopez. Two further attacks were made by the Spanish on Tortola in 1646 and 1647 led by Captain Fancisco Vincente Duran; the Spanish landed men ashore. They sent another warship to blockade Road Harbour. After a team of scouts returned a safe report, the Spanish landed more men and attacked Fort Purcell overland by foot; the Dutch were massacred, the Spanish soldiers moved marched to Road Town, where they killed everyone and destroyed the settlement.
They did not attack the smaller settlements further up the coast in Baugher's Bay, or on Virgin Gorda. The settlements were not an economic success, the evidence suggests that the Dutch spent most of their time more profitably engaged in privateering than trading; the lack of prosperity of the territory mirrored the lack of commercial success of the Dutch West India Company as a whole. The company changed its policy, it sought to cede islands such as Tortola and Virgin Gorda to private persons for settlement, to establish slave pens; the island of Tortola was sold to Willem Hunthum at some point in the 1650s, at which time the Dutch West India Company's interest in the territory ended. In 1665, the Dutch settlers on Tortola were attacked by a British privateer, John Wentworth, recorded as having captured 67 slaves which were removed to Bermuda; this is the first official record of slaves being held in the Territory. Subsequently, in 1666, there were reports that a number of the Dutch settlers were driven out by an influx of British "brigands and pirates", although a number of the Dutch remained.
Britain took the islands from the Dutch as part of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Saint Croix: This was the first fortified by the WIC in 1625, the same year that Britain wanted to establish themselves there as well. French Protestants joined the Dutch. During this period, the Dutch occupied the east side of the island, the British the west. In 1650, the fortress was abandoned after a conflict with the English; the Dutch colonists were settled at St. Eustatius; the British lost the island in that year to Spain. Tortola: In 1648, the WIC opened a successful post on the island. In 1665, a small group of Dutch settlers and African slaves were transported to the island to grow cane. England conquered the island in the year 1672. Anegada: Here was a post until more information is not known. After that, this island became an English possession. Virgin Gorda: A post was opened here in 1628. In 1680, it was acquired by the British; until the mid-20th century, there was a Dutch Creole language spoken on the islands—Negerhollands—especially by people whos
Denmark–Norway known as the Dano–Norwegian Realm, the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms, was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway, the Duchy of Schleswig, the Duchy of Holstein. The state claimed sovereignty over two historical peoples: Wends and Goths. Denmark–Norway had several colonies, namely the Danish Gold Coast, the Nicobar Islands, Serampore and the Danish West Indies; the state's inhabitants were Danes and Germans, included Faroese and Inuit in the Norwegian overseas possessions, a Sami minority in northern Norway, as well as indigenous peoples and enslaved Africans in the colonies. The main cities of Denmark–Norway were Copenhagen, Altona and Trondheim, the primary official languages were Danish and German, but Norwegian, Faroese and Greenlandic were spoken locally. In 1380, Olaf II of Denmark inherited the Kingdom of Norway, titled as Olaf IV, after the death of his father Haakon VI of Norway, married to Olaf's mother Margrete I.
Margrete I was ruler of Norway from her son's death in 1387 until her own death in 1412. Denmark and Sweden established and formed the Kalmar Union in 1397. Following Sweden's departure in 1523, the union was dissolved. From 1536/1537, Denmark and Norway formed a personal union that would develop into the 1660 integrated state called Denmark–Norway by modern historians, at the time sometimes referred to as the "Twin Kingdoms," "the Monarchy" or "His Majesty". Prior to 1660, Denmark–Norway was de jure a constitutional and elective monarchy in which the King's power was somewhat limited. After 1660, Denmark–Norway consisted of three formally separate parts, Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, separate coinage and army; the Dano-Norwegian union lasted until 1814, when the Treaty of Kiel decreed that Norway be ceded to Sweden. The treaty however, was not recognised by Norway, which resisted the attempt in the 1814 Swedish–Norwegian War. Norway thereafter entered into a much looser personal union with Sweden as one of two equal kingdoms through 1905, when the union was dissolved and both kingdoms became independent.
The term "Kingdom of Denmark" is sometimes used to include both countries in the period, since the political and economic power emanated from the Danish capital, Copenhagen. These terms cover the "royal territories" of the Oldenburgs as it was in 1460, excluding the "ducal territories" of Schleswig and Holstein; the administration used two official languages and German, for several centuries both a Danish and German Chancery existed. The term "Denmark -- Norway" reflects the legal roots of the union, it is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title. The kings always used the style "King of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths". Denmark and Norway, sometimes referred to as the "Twin Realms" of Denmark–Norway, had separate legal codes and currencies, separate governing institutions. Following the introduction of absolutism in 1660, the centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen. Centralisation was supported in many parts of Norway, where the two-year attempt by Sweden to control Trøndelag had met strong local resistance and resulted in a complete failure for the Swedes and a devastation of the province.
This allowed Norway to further secure itself militarily for the future through closer ties with the capital Copenhagen. The term "Sweden–Finland" is sometimes, although with less justification, applied to the contemporary Swedish realm between 1521 and 1809. Finland was never a separate kingdom, was integrated with Sweden, while Denmark was the dominant component in a personal union. Throughout the time of Denmark–Norway, it continuously had possession over various overseas territories. At the earliest times this meant areas in Northern Europe and North America, for instance Estonia and the Norwegian possessions of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. From the 17th century, the kingdoms acquired colonies in the Caribbean and India. At its height the empire was about 2,655,564.76 km2 Denmark–Norway maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India. Colonies included the town of Serampore; the last towns it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in 1845.
Rights in the Nicobar Islands were sold in 1869. Centred on the Virgin Islands, Denmark–Norway established the Danish West Indies; this colony was one of the longest-lived of Denmark, until it was sold to the United States in 1917. It became the U. S. Virgin Islands. In the Gold Coast region of West Africa, Denmark–Norway over time had control over various colonies and forts; the last remaining forts were sold to the United Kingdom in 1850. The three kingdoms united in the Kalmar Union in 1397. Sweden broke out of this union and re-entered it several times, until 1521, when Sweden left the Union, leaving Denmark–Norway; the outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War in 1563 is attributed to Denmark's displeasure over the dismantling of the Kalmar Union in the 1520s. When the Danish-Norwegian king Christian III included the tr
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. Well-regarded by the common people, he was the first king anointed at Frederiksborg Castle chapel as absolute monarch since the decree that institutionalized the supremacy of the king in Denmark-Norway, he fortified the absolutist system against the aristocracy by accelerating his father's practice of allowing Holstein nobles but Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service; as king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture, dreamed of a Danish Versailles. He was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark made for this purpose, his motto was: Pietate et Justitia. Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650; this was not a free choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a long trip abroad, to Holland, England and home through Germany. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIV's court, heard about the theory of the divine right of kings.
He returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College. Hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. Christian was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, in Christiania, Norway in July 1666. Only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court, he became king upon his father's death on 9 February 1670, was formally crowned in 1671. He was the first hereditary king of Denmark-Norway, in honor of this, Denmark-Norway acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword, it is argued that Christian V's personal courage and affability made him popular among the common people, but his image was marred by his unsuccessful attempt to regain Scania for Denmark in the Scanian War. The war exhausted Denmark's economic resources without securing any gains. Part of Christian's appeal to the common people may be explained by the fact that he allowed Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service, but his attempts to curtail the influence of the nobility meant continuing his father's drive toward absolutism.
To accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the commoners elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670 and high councillor of Denmark in 1674. Griffenfeld, a skilled statesman, better understood the precarious situation Denmark-Norway placed itself by attacking Sweden at a time when the country was allied with France, the major European power of the era; as Griffenfeld predicted, Sweden's stronger ally France was the party that dictated the peace with Denmark's ally Holland, in spite of Danish victory at sea in the battles against Sweden in 1675–1679 during the Scanian War, Danish hopes for border changes on the Scandinavian Peninsula between the two countries were dashed. The results of the war efforts financially unremunerative for Denmark-Norway; the damage to the Danish-Norwegian economy was extensive. At this point, Christian V no longer had his most experienced foreign relations counsel around to repair the political damage — in 1676 he had been persuaded to sacrifice Griffenfeld as a traitor, to the clamour of his adversaries, Griffenfeld was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, whose mother was a stout supporter of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. In spite of the family ties, war between the brothers-in-law was close again in 1689, when Charles XI nearly provoked confrontation with Denmark-Norway by his support of the exiled Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in his claims to Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig-Holstein. Like Charles XI of Sweden, who had never been outside Sweden, Christian V spoke only German and Danish and was therefore considered poorly educated due to his inability to communicate with visiting foreign diplomats. Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources; the Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion. In his memoirs, he listed "hunting, love-making and maritime affairs" as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in the first law code for all of Denmark, he introduced the similar Norske Lov of 1687 to replace Christian IVs Norwegian Code from 1604 in Norway.
He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to work out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation. During the reign of Christian V, Denmark’s trade in cattle that had declined due to catastrophic fires and wars has been restored, livestock and crop exports have surpassedFrederick III, with thousands of cattle entering and leaving Jutland through the Oxen Way. After entering and fattening in the Danish King’s German enclave County of Oldenburg，the castle reached the big market in Wedel. From there, cattle are resold to all parts of North Germany via Hamburg and Lübeck; as the population continues to soar at the end of the seventeenth century, demand for beef and fish is increasing, both throughout North Germany and on the Baltic coast alone. In terms of the number of livestock shipped to the South, in 1680 each market had reached 40,000 cattle. Traditional export commodities, including fish and grains, have increased their exports since the beginning of the seventeenth century.
The agricultural products exported by Denmark cattle, have made a lot of money fr
Hassel Island, U.S. Virgin Islands
Hassel Island is a small island of the U. S. Virgin Islands, a United States territory located in the Caribbean Sea. Hassel Island lies in the Charlotte Amalie harbor just south of Saint Thomas and east of Water Island, with which it is part of the sub-district of Water Island; the 136-acre island was once a peninsula of Saint Thomas, known as Orkanhullet. Hassel Island was separated by the Danish government in 1860, named for the Hassel family who owned much of the estate. In March 2012, the MTV's reality TV series The Real World was filmed for its twenty-seventh season on Hassel Island, it is the only season. The season completed its filming two months in May 2012. In 2015, that land was purchased to be used as a lot for a home. There are under five homes built on this island, it does not seem to be a fast growing populous place, but rather a more private island. Careening Cove, a bay on Hassel Island, appears on maps as early as 1687; the Danish used Hassel Island's strategic location to defend the busy Charlotte Amalie harbor in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The British occupied Hassel Island during the Napoleonic Wars. The ruins of several British buildings remain on Hassel Island, including Fort Willoughby, built on the site of the older Prince Frederik's Battery, Fort Shipley, Cowell's Battery. All three were constructed around 1802. In the 1840s, the St. Thomas Marine Railway Company constructed the St. Thomas Marine Railway Slip. Renamed the Creque Marine Railway, it is one of the earliest steam-powered marine railways in the western hemisphere and the oldest surviving example of such a railway; the Hamburg-based Boulton Company built the railway's steam engine. In the 1860s, the Danish government dug a channel which separated Hassel Island from Saint Thomas and improved the circulation of the Charlotte Amalie harbor; the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company operated its West Indies hub on Hassel Island from about 1850 until the 1870s. In 1871, the Hamburg America Line set up a coaling station on Hassel Island. There was a leprosarium on the island.
The channel was widened by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1919, shortly after the United States purchased the Danish West Indies. The United States Navy established a naval station on the island, in operation during World War I and World War II. In the middle of the 20th century, most of Hassel Island was owned by the prominent local Paiewonsky family; the Royal Mail Inn, a small hotel located on Hassel Island, may have been the hotel immortalized in Herman Wouk's novel Don't Stop the Carnival. The Creque Marine Railway and a signal station at Cowell's Battery were in operation until the 1960s and 1970s respectively; the southern portion of the island was inscribed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. In 1978, the historic district was expanded to cover the remainder if the island as well. In 1978, the Virgin Islands National Park purchased most of the island from the Paiewonsky family; the rest of the island is divided between a few private residences.
Since around 2004, the Saint Thomas and Hassel Island Preservation Trust, the Virgin Islands National Park, the Saint Thomas Historical Trust and other organizations have been working to restore and preserve the island's historic sites. There are limited guided hiking tours of the island. Hassel Island is the location for The Real World: St. Thomas, the twenty-seventh season of the reality show The Real World. Virgin Islands National Park: Hassel Island Hasselisland.org — Hassel Island history and preservation organization Media related to Hassel Island Historic District at Wikimedia Commons Seestjohn.com: Hassel Island Stjohnhistoricalsociety.org: St. John Historical Society: Hassel Island chronology Northamericanforts.com St. Thomas Source.com: "Hassel Island's makeover uncovers historical riches"
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers