Saint Ursula

Saint Ursula is a legendary Romano-British Christian saint, died on October 21, 383. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar is October 21. There is little definite information about her and the anonymous group of holy virgins who accompanied her and on some uncertain date were killed at Cologne, they remain in the Roman Martyrology, although their commemoration does not appear in the simplified Calendarium Romanum Generale of the 1970 Missale Romanum. The earliest evidence of a cult of martyred virgins at Cologne is an inscription from c. 400 in the Church of St. Ursula, located on Ursulaplatz in Cologne which states that the ancient basilica had been restored on the site where some holy virgins were killed; the earliest source to name one of these virgins Ursula is from the 10th century. Her legendary status comes from a medieval story that she was a princess who, at the request of her father King Dionotus of Dumnonia in south-west Britain, set sail along with 11,000 virginal handmaidens to join her future husband, the pagan governor Conan Meriadoc of Armorica.

After a miraculous storm brought them over the sea in a single day to a Gaulish port, Ursula declared that before her marriage she would undertake a pan-European pilgrimage. She headed for Rome with her followers and persuaded the Pope and Sulpicius, bishop of Ravenna, to join them. After setting out for Cologne, being besieged by Huns, all the virgins were beheaded in a massacre; the Huns' leader fatally shot Ursula with a bow and arrow in about 383 AD. There is only one church dedicated to Saint Ursula in the United Kingdom, it is located in Wales at Ceredigion. The Catholic Encyclopedia states that "this legend, with its countless variants and fabulous developments, would fill more than a hundred pages. Various characteristics of it were regarded with suspicion by certain medieval writers, since Baronius have been universally rejected." Neither Jerome nor Gregory of Tours refers to Ursula in his writings. Gregory of Tours mentions the legend of the Theban Legion, to whom a church that once stood in Cologne was dedicated.

The most important hagiographers of the early Middle Ages do not enter Ursula under October 21, her feast day. A legend resembling Ursula's appeared in the first half of the tenth century. Pinnosa's relics were transferred about 947 from Cologne to Essen, from this point forward Ursula's role was emphasized. In 970, for example, the first Passio Ursulae was written, naming Ursula rather than Pinnosa as the group's leader; this change might be due in part to the discovery at this time of an epitaph speaking of Ursula, the "innocent virgin". According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, a 12th-century British cleric and writer, Ursula was the daughter of Dionotus, ruler of Cornwall. However, this may have been based on his misreading of the words Deo notus in the second Passio Ursulae, written about 1105; the plot may have been influenced by a story told by the 6th-century writer Procopius about a British queen sailing with 100,000 soldiers to the mouth of the Rhine in order to compel her unwilling groom Radigis, king of the Varni, to marry her.

While there was a tradition of virgin martyrs in Cologne by the fifth century, their number may have been limited to between two and eleven, according to different sources. Yet the cleric Wandelbert of the Abbey of Prüm stated in his martyrology in 848 that the number of martyrs counted "thousands of saints" who were slaughtered on the boards of the River Rhine; the 11,000 were first mentioned in the late 9th century. One scholar has suggested that in the eighth or ninth century, when the relics of virgin martyrs were found, they included those of a girl named Ursula, eleven years old—in Latin, undecimilia; this was subsequently misread or misinterpreted as undicimila, thus producing the legend of the 11,000 virgins. In fact, the stone bearing the virgin Ursula's name states that she lived eight years and two months. Another theory is that there was only one virgin martyr, named Undecimilla, "which by some blundering monk was changed into eleven thousand", it has been suggested that cum militibus,'with soldiers', was misread as cum millibus,'with thousands'.

Most contemporary sources, cling to the number 11,000. The Passio from the 970s tries to bridge conflicting traditions by stating that the eleven maidens each commanded a ship containing one thousand virgins. Implicitly, the legend refers to the twelve heavenly legions, mentioned in Matthew 26:53; the Basilica of St. Ursula in Cologne holds the alleged relics of her 11,000 companions, it contains what has been described as a "veritable tsunami of ribs, shoulder blades, femurs... arranged in zigzags and swirls and in the shapes of Latin words." The Goldene Kammer, a 17th-century chapel attached to the Basilica of St. Ursula, contains sculptures of their heads and torsos, "some of the heads encased in silver, others covered with stuff of gold and caps of cloth of gold and velvet; the peculiarities of the relics themselves have thrown doubt upon th

N.B. (album)

N. B. is the second studio album released by British singer Natasha Bedingfield. It was released in the United Kingdom on 30 April 2007 through Phonogenic Records. In the United Kingdom it produced two top ten hits, "I Wanna Have Your Babies" and "Soulmate". In January 2008, the album was released in the United States and Canada under the name Pocketful of Sunshine with new packaging and an alternative track listing featuring only six of the original songs; the US version's title song became a top-five hit whilst the lead single, "Love Like This" with Sean Kingston, became a top-twenty hit. US critics said. "How Do You Do?", the opening track about flirting, features guitars and a horn section. "I Wanna Have Your Babies", the second track, was chosen as the lead single as it was a representation Bedingfield's shifting priorities from being a single young woman to "dating, searching for a partner" and "looking for Mr Right". The song discusses a woman's battle to stop herself from rushing into relationships in an effort to find the right man to be the father of her children.

The song received mixed reviews from music critics, who found it to be less impressive than past releases, but its release was moderately successful, reaching the top forty in most countries. The second single, "Soulmate", is a ballad on which Bedingfield wonders if there is a partner for everyone. "Who Knows", the fourth track, begins with a "reggae-pop vibe" which progresses to an electro-style sound featuring a string section. It received positive reviews, with one reviewer stating that it was reminiscent of "Amy Winehouse's gruff vocal style and her sassiness". "Who Knows" was featured in the motion picture 27 Dresses. The fifth track and third single is "Say It Again", it is co-written with Mike Elizondo and Maroon 5's lead singer Adam Levine, who provides backing vocals on the song. "Pirate Bones" discusses the pitfalls of fame. On the song Bedingfield commented "if you're giving up your enjoyment of life for somebody else's idea of success, it's like being a pirate who's got his hoard of treasure and is sitting on an island where there are no shops to spend it.

It doesn't mean anything."The eighth track, "Angel", was inspired by R&B music and was composed around a series of piano loops. "When You Know You Know" features an orchestra and its lyrics discuss a failing relationship. The tenth track, " What Ifs", features a rap by Eve and received negative reviews, with The Guardian describing it as "an ill-advised move for all concerned". "Not Givin' Up", features a heavy urban beat with electronic sound effects in the background. The song was well received by critics because of its "near-certain crossover appeal for both sides of the Atlantic". "Still Here", the twelfth track, was recorded for the film Rocky Balboa in 2006, but was not included on the soundtrack. The song was covered by Jennifer Hudson and included on her 2010 second album, I Remember Me. N. B. received mixed to positive reviews from most music critics, but some criticised it for its lightweight content. In a review for The Guardian, Craig McLean wrote that the album has "nothing as catchy as Unwritten, the tunes are on the airy-fairy side of breezy, the lyrics on the naff side of plain".

The Times called the album "patchy and disappointing" and gave it two out of five stars, whilst Marie Claire magazine said that "many of the tracks are forgettable", but that Bedingfield's "strong voice and eccentricities elevate her above many blonde and bland popstars." The album was called "good clean fun and inoffensive" by Yahoo!, but was noted for its lack of risk taking and Bedingfield's decision to continue her "grown-up cartoon pop" rather than try something new and that there was little chance of it being considered a classic album. However, reviewer Sheena McGinley was less impressed, wrote that it was "too embarrassing to listen to in public", rating the album two out of five stars. Pocketful of Sunshine received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 65, which indicates "generally favorable reviews", based on 14 reviews. Kerri Mason, Billboard reviewer, gave the album positive response.

Mason wrote, "The album has an undeniable flip-flop. Christian Hoard of Rolling Stone wrote that "Bedingfield doesn't have much to say", but commented that "the packaging in which she wraps her openhearted thoughts makes Sunshine a decent little pop record". Bill Lamb of noted that "unfortunately, her second solo album, massively reworked from her corresponding second album in the UK, is another professional, corporately polished pop record. Songs and vocals are reasonably solid..." but, he added, "it's hard to hear inspiration." Los Angeles Times was disappointed that "I Wanna Have Your Babies" was not included on Pocketful of Sunshine and wrote that "as awkward as the song is, it fleshes out Bedingfield's vision better than Jerkins' Mary J. Blige "Angel" or Rotem's Fergalicious "Piece of Your Heart"; the album ending up receiving 2.5 stars out of 4. Allmusic gave the album a mixed review and described it as "awkwardly assembled", added that it "feels inorganic in a way that Unwritten did not, less personal and more vetted by various A&R executives".

Glenn Gambo in a review for Newsday gave the album C+ rating, wrote that the album "barely registers" and was "full of pale copies of other successful pop that don't work for Bedingfield". N. B. debuted on the UK Albums Chart at number nine on 6 May 2007, selli

Nudix hydrolase 15

Nudix hydrolase 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUDT15 gene. This gene encodes an enzyme. Members of this superfamily catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates, including substrates like 8-oxo-dGTP, which are a result of oxidative damage, can induce base mispairing during DNA replication, causing transversions; the encoded enzyme is a negative regulator of thiopurine toxicity. Mutations in this gene result in poor metabolism of thiopurines, are associated with thiopurine-induced early leukopenia. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene have been identified.. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain