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Saint Valentine's Day Massacre

The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre was the 1929 murder of seven members and associates of Chicago's North Side Gang that occurred on Saint Valentine's Day. The men were gathered at a Lincoln Park garage on the morning of that feast day, they were lined up against a wall and shot by four unknown assailants who were dressed like police officers. The incident resulted from the struggle to control organized crime in the city during Prohibition between the Irish North Siders, headed by George "Bugs" Moran, their Italian South Side Gang rivals led by Al Capone; the perpetrators have never been conclusively identified, but former members of the Egan's Rats gang working for Capone are suspected of a significant role, as are members of the Chicago Police Department who wanted revenge for the killing of a police officer's son. At 10:30 a.m. on Saint Valentine's Day, February 14, 1929, seven men were murdered at the garage at 2122 North Clark Street, in the Lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago's North Side.

They were shot by four men using weapons. Two of the shooters were dressed as uniformed policemen, while the others wore suits, ties and hats. Witnesses saw the fake police leading the other men at gunpoint out of the garage after the shooting; the victims included five members of George "Bugs" Moran's North Side Gang. Moran's second in command and brother-in-law Albert Kachellek was killed along with Adam Heyer, the gang's bookkeeper and business manager, Albert Weinshank, who managed several cleaning and dyeing operations for Moran, gang enforcers Frank Gusenberg and Peter Gusenberg. Two collaborators were shot: Reinhardt H. Schwimmer, a former optician turned gambler and gang associate, John May, an occasional mechanic for the Moran gang. Real Chicago police officers arrived at the scene to find that victim Frank Gusenberg was still alive, he was taken to the hospital, where doctors stabilized him for a short time and police tried to question him. He had sustained 14 bullet wounds, he died three hours later.

Al Capone was assumed to have been responsible for ordering the 1929 Saint Valentine's Day Massacre in an attempt to eliminate Bugs Moran, head of the North Side Gang. Moran was the last survivor of the North Side gunmen. Several factors contributed to the timing of the plan to kill Moran. Earlier in the year, North Sider Frank Gusenberg and his brother Peter unsuccessfully attempted to murder Jack McGurn; the North Side Gang was complicit in the murders of Pasqualino "Patsy" Lolordo and Antonio "The Scourge" Lombardo. Both had been presidents of the Unione Siciliana, the local Mafia, close associates of Capone. Moran and Capone had been vying for control of the lucrative Chicago bootlegging trade. Moran had been muscling in on a Capone-run dog track in the Chicago suburbs, he had taken over several saloons that were run by Capone, insisting that they were in his territory; the plan was to lure Moran to the SMC Cartage warehouse on North Clark Street on February 14, 1929 to kill him and two or three of his lieutenants.

It is assumed that the North Siders were lured to the garage with the promise of a stolen, cut-rate shipment of whiskey, supplied by Detroit's Purple Gang, associated with Capone. The Gusenberg brothers were supposed to drive two empty trucks to Detroit that day to pick up two loads of stolen Canadian whiskey. All of the victims were dressed in their best clothes, with the exception of John May, as was customary for the North Siders and other gangsters at the time. Most of the Moran gang arrived at the warehouse by 10:30 a.m. on Valentine's Day, but Moran was not there, having left his Parkway Hotel apartment late. He and fellow gang member Ted Newberry approached the rear of the warehouse from a side street when they saw a police car approaching the building, they turned and retraced their steps, going to a nearby coffee shop. They encountered gang member Henry Gusenberg on the street and warned him, so he turned back. North Side Gang member Willie Marks spotted the police car on his way to the garage, he ducked into a doorway and jotted down the license number before leaving the neighborhood.

Capone's lookouts mistook one of Moran's men for Moran himself Albert Weinshank, the same height and build. The physical similarity between the two men was enhanced by their dress that morning. Witnesses outside the garage saw. Four men emerged and walked inside, two of them dressed in police uniform; the two fake police officers carried shotguns and entered the rear portion of the garage, where they found members of Moran's gang and collaborators Reinhart Schwimmer and John May, fixing one of the trucks. The fake policemen ordered the men to line up against the wall, they signaled to the pair in civilian clothes who had accompanied them. Two of the killers opened fire with Thompson sub-machine guns, one with a 20-round box magazine and the other a 50-round drum, they were thorough, spraying their victims left and right continuing to fire after all seven had hit the floor. Two shotgun blasts afterward all but obliterated the faces of John May and James Clark, according to the coroner's report. To give the appearance that everything was under control, the men in street clothes came out with their hands up, prodded by the two uniformed policemen.

Inside the garage, the

Academic dress in the United States

Academic regalia in the United States has a history going back to the colonial colleges era. It has been most influenced by the academic dress traditions of Europe. There is an Inter-Collegiate Code that sets out a detailed uniform scheme of academic regalia, voluntarily followed by many, though not all institutions adhere to it. Bachelor's and master's gowns in the United States are similar to some of their counterparts in the United Kingdom Oxford; the main differences are that the bachelor's gown is designed to be worn closed and that the sleeves of the modern gown are square at the end instead of pointed as the Code calls for. The master's gown sleeve is oblong and, though the base of the sleeve hangs down, it is square-cut at the rear part of the oblong shape; the front part has an arc cut away, there is a slit for the wrist opening, but the rest of the arc is closed. The shape is evocative of the square-cut liripipe incorporated into many academic hoods; the master's gown is designed to be worn closed.

Doctoral gowns are black, although some schools use gowns in the school's colors. The Code calls for the outside shell of the hood to remain black in that case. Doctoral gowns have bell sleeves with three velvet bands on them and velvet facing on the front of the gown; the Code calls for the gown trim to be either black or the color designated for the field of study in which the doctorate is earned, with the proviso that the degree of Doctor of Philosophy uses the dark blue velvet of philosophy regardless of the particular field studied. Some gowns expose a cravat when closed, they are designed to be worn closed in the front. Members of the Board of Trustees or other governing body officers of a college or university, regardless of their degrees, are entitled to wear doctor's gowns, faced only with black velvet and black velvet bars on the sleeves. However, their hoods may be only those of the degree held by the wearer; the color standardization for the outside shell of the hood as black provides flexibility of use and helps facilitate this practice.

The hood's coloring and size represents the type and subject of degree earned, as well as the institution from which it was awarded. Though no shape is specified in the Code, American bachelors and masters wear the Wales simple shape with a split salmon cut. Shell – The Code calls for the shell material of the hood to match the robe, for the color to be black regardless of the color of the robe being worn. Interior lining – The interior lining satin, is worn so as to display the colors of the institution from which the wearer received the degree. Trim – The outer edge of the cowl is trimmed in velvet or velveteen; the width of the trim is 2 inches, 3 inches, 5 inches for the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, respectively. In most American colleges and universities, the color of the velvet hood trimming is distinctive of the academic field, or as related as possible, to which the degree earned pertains. For instance, one who has earned a Master of Arts in Journalism would wear velvet trim of crimson to signify "journalism", rather than white to represent "arts".

Trim colors should not be combined or displayed together in any way to attempt to indicate more than one academic field. Length – The length of the hood will vary with the level of academic achievement as well: bachelors wear a 3 foot length, masters a 3.5 foot length, doctors a 4 foot length. Only doctoral hoods are made with the cape or panels at the sides of the hood that lie cape-like across the back. Candidates may have the hood ceremoniously placed upon them, as is done at some British universities, or a college or school may'self-hood' en masse at the appropriate time during the ceremony. Additionally, the Code allows for the wearing of the hood into the commencement ceremony as part of the academic procession, but only if neither of the two procedures above are being employed; the Code states: "It is quite appropriate for the bachelor's gown to be worn without a hood." Many institutions larger ones, have therefore dispensed with the bachelor's hood at commencement ceremonies altogether, though a graduate is still entitled to wear one once the degree is conferred.

Both honorary and earned doctoral degrees are often conferred by the highest academic officer of an institution bestowing the appropriate hood at the podium, regardless of the procedure being followed for other candidates at the ceremony. Only one hood should be worn at any given time; the regalia indicating the highest degree attained is worn, though the Code seems to allow for a graduate to revert for some occasion to the entire academic costume of a lesser degree earned. Those who hold multiple degrees of the same level may wear at any given time the regalia, in its entirety, of any one degree earned; the Code does not allow for'mixing-and-matching.' The one exception is for officers of the academic institution who, while wearing a doctoral gown of the University being served, may display one hood from any degree earned from any institution. Headwear is an important com

Seljuks in Dobruja

Seljuks in Dobruja refers to Seljuk Turks settled at Dobruja, now in Bulgaria and Romania, in the 13th century. Seljuk Turks in Anatolia were defeated by the Mongols in the Battle of Kösedağ. During the rest of the century, they were less puppets of the Mongols. In 1257, the Mongols divided Seljuk lands between two brothers, Izzettin Keykavus II and Kılıç Aslan IV. Moreover, İzzettin was forced to obey his younger brother. Although İzzettin tried to struggle, in 1262 he had to flee from Antalya, a port in Seljuk territory to Byzantine territory with a large partisan group. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, who had just recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire, was a relative of İzzettin. However, he had allied himself with the Mongols of Baghdad and instead of supporting İzzettin, he kept İzzettin as a refuge and settled İzzettin's partisans to the area between Varna in Bulgaria and the estuary of the Danube, a region which on was named as Dobruja. After an unsuccessful revolt in Byzantine Empire, İzzettin fled to Crimea, under Golden Horde rule.

But his followers stayed in the area allocated to them. Their new leader was Sarı Saltık Dede. In 1307, a part of Dobruja Turks under Ece Halil returned to Anatolia, they settled in the northwest Anatolian beylik of Karesi, which became a part of the Ottoman Empire. The rest stayed in Dobruja. While keeping their language, they converted to Christianity, they maintained their political independence from Second Bulgarian Empire. Their small principality of Dobruja lived until the Ottoman conquest in 1417, they are believed to be the ancestors of modern Gagauz people. The name Gagauz may be a reminiscence of the name Kaykavus. Seljuk hypothesis for the origiın of Gagauz people

Wes Heffernan

Wes Heffernan is a Canadian professional golfer. Heffernan was born in Calgary and attended Mount Royal College and the University of Calgary. During his time at Mount Royal College, Heffernan dominated golf in Western Canada, he racked up four wins in six tournaments between 1997 and 1998. In September 1997 he, along with teammate Scott Baird, led the Cougars to a 26-shot, team victory in the Alberta Colleges Athletics Conference Championship. Heffernan won the silver medal finishing just behind Baird; that fall, he put together one of his finest efforts as a Cougar, leading Mount Royal to a Western Canadian Championship at the Kamloops Golf and Country Club. He won the individual tournament. Heffernan won his next three starts in early 1998, defeating some stiff competition from schools in the United States. In each of his three individual wins, he led Mount Royal to the overall team title each time, he won the 2000 Alberta Amateur Championship a year after he finished runner-up in the Canadian Amateur Championship.

He turned professional in 2000. His first victory on the Canadian Tour came in 2006 at the Casino de Montreal Open for the Players Championship and he would add three more wins after that between 2007 and 2008. Heffernan won the Alberta Open in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2018. Heffernan has played in two major championships on the PGA Tour, the 2001 and 2011 U. S. Opens. In 2011, Heffernan's back nine in the second round of 5 under par allowed him to make his first cut in a major. 2000 Alberta Amateur Championship 2006 Casino de Montreal Open for the Players Championship 2007 Northern California Classic, River Nayarit Classic 2008 Canadian Tour Players Cup 2006 Alberta Open 2007 Alberta Open 2008 Alberta Open 2011 Alberta Open 2012 Alberta Open 2018 Alberta Open 2019 PGA Assistants' Championship of Canada DNP = Did not play CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 2000Professional World Cup: 2007, 2008 Wes Heffernan at the PGA Tour official site Wes Heffernan at the Official World Golf Ranking official site

Jay Bista

Jay Bista is an Indian cricketer who plays for Mumbai in domestic cricket. He is a batting all-rounder who bats bowls right-arm off break, he represented Mumbai at the Under-16 and Under-19 levels before making his first-class cricket debut in November 2015 during the 2015–16 Ranji Trophy. He made his List A debut on 10 December 2015 in the 2015–16 Vijay Hazare Trophy, he scored his maiden first-class century on 6 March 2016 in the 2015–16 Irani Cup. Born in Bombay, Bista hails from a town in Nepal on the border of Uttar Pradesh, his family moved to Bombay. Bista studied at Sharadashram Vidyamandir in Mumbai, his father Gokul Bista played cricket for Mumbai University. On becoming the first person of Nepalese origin to play for Mumbai, Bista said, "My roots could be from Nepal but I am a hardcore Mumbaikar, born and brought up in Mumbai." Jay Bista at ESPNcricinfo Jay Bista at CricketArchive

Daniela Schiller

Daniela Schiller is a neuroscientist who leads the Schiller Lab for Affective Neuroscience at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. She is best known for her work on memory reconsolidation, on unlearning traumatic memories and addiction. Daniela Schiller was born in Israel, she is the daughter of a Ukrainian father. Schiller's father, Sigmund Schiller, is a survivor of the Holocaust. Schiller is the youngest of four children, she received a bachelor's degree in psychology and philosophy in 1996, her doctorate in cognitive neuroscience from Tel Aviv University in 2004. She was worked with Elizabeth A. Phelps at New York University. Schiller plays sings backing vocals for The Amygdaloids. Schiller was a 2010 Blavatnik Award Regional Award Winner - Post-Doc. Schiller, Daniela. "Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms". Nature. 463: 49–53. Doi:10.1038/nature08637. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 3640262. PMID 20010606. Schiller, D.. Levy. Niv. "From Fear to Safety and Back: Reversal of Fear in the Human Brain".

Journal of Neuroscience. 28: 11517–11525. Doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2265-08.2008. ISSN 0270-6474. PMC 3844784. PMID 18987188. Schiller, Daniela. "A neural mechanism of first impressions". Nature Neuroscience. 12: 508–514. Doi:10.1038/nn.2278. ISSN 1097-6256. Schiller, D.. Stern. "Evidence for recovery of fear following immediate extinction in rats and humans". Learning & Memory. 15: 394–402. Doi:10.1101/lm.909208. ISSN 1072-0502. PMC 2414250. PMID 18509113. Profile at Mt. Sinai Barth, Amy. "5 Questions for the Rock'n'Rolling, Sky-Diving Master of Memory". Discover. Retrieved 10 July 2013