The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Westmoreland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 365,169; the county seat is Greensburg. Formed from, Lancaster and Bedford Counties, Westmoreland County was founded on February 26, 1773, was the first county in the colony of Pennsylvania whose entire territorial boundary was located west of the Allegheny Mountains. Westmoreland County included the present-day counties of Fayette, Washington and parts of Beaver, Allegheny and Armstrong counties, it is named after a historic county of England. Westmoreland County is included in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,036 square miles, of which 1,028 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles is water. Armstrong County Indiana County Cambria County Somerset County Fayette County Washington County Allegheny County Butler County At the 2010 census, there were 365,169 people, 153,650 households and 101,928 families residing in the county.
The population density was 355.4 per square mile. There were 168,199 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% White, 2.3% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 153,650 households of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.86. 22.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.1 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. In November 2008, there were 249,147 registered voters in Westmoreland County. Democratic: 136,882 Republican: 87,813 Other Parties: 24,452 The Democratic Party had been dominant in county-level politics, however Westmoreland has trended Republican at the national and statewide levels. In 2000, Republican George W. Bush won 51% and Democrat Al Gore won 45%. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won 56% and Democrat John Kerry won 43%. In 2008, Republican John McCain won 57% to Democrat Barack Obama's 41%. Governor Ed Rendell lost Westmoreland in both 2002 and 2006. In 2008 Republican Tim Krieger picked up the 57th House district left open by the retirement of Democrat Tom Tangretti. In 2010, both Pat Toomey and Tom Corbett won Westmoreland in their statewide bids; the GOP gained control of two more State House districts, the 54th with Eli Evankovich and the 56th with George Dunbar. In 2011, the Republican Party swept all county row offices Gina Cerilli, Democrat Ted Kopas, Democrat Charles Anderson, Republican Clerk of Courts, Bryan Kline, Republican Controller, Jeff Balzer, Republican Coroner, Kenneth Bacha, Democrat District Attorney, John Peck, Democrat Prothonotary, Christina O'Brien, Democrat Recorder of Deeds, Tom Murphy, Democrat Register of Wills, Sherry Magretti-Hamilton, Republican Sheriff, Jonathan Held, Republican Treasurer, Jared M Squires, Republican Belle Vernon Area School District Blairsville-Saltsburg School District Burrell School District Derry Area School District Franklin Regional School District Greater Latrobe School District Greensburg-Salem School District Hempfield Area School District Jeannette City School District Kiski Area School District Leechburg Area School District Ligonier Valley School District Monessen City School District Mount Pleasant Area School District New Kensington–Arnold School District Norwin School District Penn-Trafford School District Southmoreland School District Yough School District Dr. Robert Ketterer Charter School grades 7th through 12th Latrobe According to EdNA Greensburg Central Catholic High School Penn State New Kensington Seton Hill University Saint Vincent College Westmoreland County Community College University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg Carlow College at Greensburg Triangle Tech A major coal strike occurred in the county in the winter of 1910–11.
Volkswagen's Westmoreland plant near New Stanton in Westmoreland County was the first foreign-owned factory mass-producing automobiles in the U. S, it operated from 1978 to 1988. There are four Pennsylvania state parks in Westmoreland County. Keystone State Park Laurel Ridge State Park Laurel Summit State Park Linn Run State Park Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns; the following cities and townships are located in Westmoreland County: Arnold Greensburg Jeannette Latrobe Lower Burrell Monessen New Kensington Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U. S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, they are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well. Franklin Township - now known as Murrysville, Pennsylvania The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Westmorelan
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as an honorary title to a clergyman, not the head of a monastery; the female equivalent is abbess. The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, soon became accepted in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery; the word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning "father" or abba, meaning "my father". In the Septuagint, it was written as "abbas". At first it was employed as a respectful title for any monk, but it was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. At times it was applied to various priests, e.g. at the court of the Frankish monarchy the Abbas palatinus and Abbas castrensis were chaplains to the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns’ court and army respectively. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests.
An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, called in the East hegumen or archimandrite. The English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined. Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid. By the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community; the rule, as was inevitable, was subject to frequent violations. Monks, as a rule, at the outset was the abbot any exception. For the reception of the sacraments, for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church; this rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, necessity compelled the ordination of some monks. This innovation was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher spiritual life, before the close of the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem universally to have become deacons, if not priests.
The change spread more in the West, where the office of abbot was filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance and votes at ecclesiastical councils, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD 448, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD 787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, a power reserved to bishops. Abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, continued so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century; the Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, AD 456; these exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century creating an imperium in imperio, depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.
In the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne. Abbots more and more assumed episcopal state, in defiance of the prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring and sandals, it has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury; the mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's, Battle, Bury St Edmunds, St Augustine's Canterbury, Croyland, Glastonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Malmesbury, Ramsey, Selby, Tavistock, Westminster, St Mary's York. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD 1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up.
Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Elsewhere, the mitred abbots that sat in the Estates of Scotland were of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart. To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that their mitre should be made
Belmont Abbey, North Carolina
The Abbey of Mary Help of Christians, better known as Belmont Abbey, is a small American monastery of Benedictine monks and Basilica in the town of Belmont, Gaston County, North Carolina, outside of Charlotte, North Carolina. The abbey was founded in 1876 by Saint Vincent Archabbey in Latrobe, is the motherhouse to Saint Leo Abbey in Tampa, Florida, as well as Mary Mother of the Church Abbey in Richmond, Virginia; the monks are the benefactors of Belmont Abbey College, a four-year Catholic liberal arts school. From 1910 through 1977, Belmont Abbey was a territorial abbey, exercising some functions of a diocese, it had authority over parishes in the North Carolina counties of Gaston, Cleveland, Lincoln, McDowell and Rutherford. In 1944, its territory, except for Gaston County, was given to the Diocese of Raleigh. In July 1960, Gaston County too was placed under the Diocese of Raleigh. In 1977, its status as a territorial abbey was suppressed under the Diocese of Charlotte. Belmont Abbey basilica was built between 1892 and 1894, is a large cruciform plan, Gothic Revival style brick church.
It has a steep gable roof and the front facade features two towers of unequal size. The cathedral was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the abbey numbers about twenty monks. April 21, 1876 Herman Wolfe, O. S. B; the first Benedictine monk to serve at Belmont, accompanied by the first two students for the new college. July 10, 1886 For the first time an alumnus of the college was received as a novice in the monastery. July 11, 1886 The first three novices professed vows for the new abbey in North Carolina. May 7, 1891 The monastery's Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes was blessed by Abbot-Bishop Leo Haid, O. S. B, it was designated as a pilgrimage shrine. June 8, 1910 The'diocesan' jurisdiction of Belmont Abbey was erected by decree of the Pope. July 27, 1998 The Vatican issued a decree elevating the abbey church at Belmont to the rank of a minor basilica. July 14, 1993 The central campus was entered on the National Register of Historic Places as the "Belmont Abbey National Historic District."
June 20, 2011 Belmont Abbey College breaks ground on a center of residences for female students with or expecting children—regardless of religious affiliation—that can hold 15 babies, 15 women, 8 toddlers at a time, with a shared living room, dining room, laundry room, called "Room at the Inn" near the campus of the Abbey and University, operated by a Charlotte, North Carolina-based maternity and aftercare center of the same name. List of Catholic cathedrals in the United States List of cathedrals in the United States official website
Metten Abbey, or St. Michael's Abbey at Metten is a house of the Benedictine Order in Metten near Deggendorf, situated between the fringes of the Bavarian Forest and the valley of the Danube, in Bavaria in Germany; the abbey was founded in 766 by Gamelbert of Michaelsbuch. For many centuries Metten was under the lordship of the Electors of Bavaria; when Charlemagne stayed in Regensburg for three years after 788, Utto turned his abbey over to the Frankish ruler, making the Ducal Abbey a Royal Abbey. After the Carolingians became extinct, Metten was turned into an Imperial Abbey. Besides the work of land clearance in the Bavarian border territories, the monks were active in education. Members of the abbey were not only schoolteachers, but members of the Bavarian Academy of Science in Munich and professors of philosophy and theology in Freising and Salzburg. Gerhard, Bishop of Passau was abbot in the 10th century. After secularisation in 1803 the abbey's property was confiscated, by 1815 had all been auctioned off.
Over a number of years Johann von Pronath acquired the greater part of the former premises and succeeded in persuading King Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1830 to re-establish the monastery, which by 1837 had been set up to incorporate a boarding school, in continuance of its educational traditions, which the monastery has run to this day. The re-founded abbey was active in re-settling new monasteries. Since 1858 it has been a member of the Bavarian Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation. Besides the boarding school, the abbey runs various craft enterprises; the library, open for tours, contains over 150,000 volumes on theology and history. Dom Edmund Beck, a monk of Metten, edited many of the Syriac works of Saint Ephrem the Syrian in the Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium. A 1415 manuscript found in the abbey's library helped identify the meaning of the abbreviations for the Vade retro satana formula that appears on Saint Benedict Medals. Like many Benedictine abbeys in Europe, the monks ran a school for local boys.
St.-Michaels-Gymnasium is a state recognised coeducational day and boarding school still run by the abbey. It is a Humanistisches and Neusprachliches gymnasium, meaning that its curriculum specialises in the classics and modern languages. Notable alumni include educationist Aloys Fischer, diplomat Karl von Spreti, military officer Vincenz Müller and Karl-Josef Cardinal Rauber. Georg Aichinger: Kloster Metten und seine Umgebungen, Landshut 1859. Benedikt Busch: Die Abtei Metten im Dritten Reich, in: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Bistums Regensburg 15 333–362. Georg Dehio – Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Bayern II: Niederbayern, bearbeitet von Michael Brix, mit Beiträgen von Franz Bischoff, Gerhard Hackl und Volker Liedke, München/Berlin 1988, 398–405. Wilhelm Fink: Entwicklungsgeschichte der Benedictinerabtei Metten. Bd. 1: Das Profeßbuch der Abtei, München 1927. Wilhelm Fink: Entwicklungsgeschichte der Benedictinerabtei Metten. Bd. 2: Das königliche Kloster, München 1928. Wilhelm Fink: Entwicklungsgeschichte der Benedictinerabtei Metten.
Bd. 3: Das landständische Kloster, München 1930. Wilhelm Fink: Die Benediktinerabtei Metten und ihre Beziehungen zur Kunst, Augsburg 1922. Maurus Gandershofer: Verdienste der Benediktiner von Metten um die Pflege der Wissenschaften und Künste. Eine den einstigen Bewohnern dieses Stiftes geweihte Rückerinnerung, Landshut 1841. Stephan Haering: Der Streit um die Mettener Abtwahl 1905, in: Anna Egler: Dienst an Glaube und Recht, Berlin 2006, S. 105–198. Michael Kaufmann: Säkularisation, Desolation und Restauration in der Benediktinerabtei Metten, Metten 1993. Michael Kaufmann: Memento Mori. Zum Gedenken an die verstorbenen Konventualen der Benediktinerabtei Metten seit der Wiedererrichtung 1830, Metten 2008. Richard Loibl/Raban Schinabeck: 1200 Jahre Abtei Metten, Metten 1966. Rupert Mittermüller: Das Kloster Metten und seine Aebte. Ein Überblick über die Geschichte dieses alten Benedictinerstiftes, Straubing 1856. Friedrich Prinz: Die Anfänge der Benediktinerabtei Metten, in: Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte 25 20–32.
Kloster Metten Kloster Metten Klöster in Bayern St Michael's Gymnasium at Metten Abbey
Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond is an episcopal see or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. Its current territory encompasses all of central and southern Virginia, Hampton Roads, the Eastern Shore, it is a suffragan diocese of the metropolitan Archdiocese of Baltimore, from which its territory was taken, is a constituent of the ecclesiastical province of Baltimore. There are 236,061 active Catholics and 142 parishes that are part of the Diocese of Richmond; the diocese has 87 active priests, 59 retired priests, 115 permanent deacons, six religious brothers, 139 religious sisters of Catholic religious orders and 25 seminarians. There are 28 diocesan Catholic schools in the diocese, with a total enrollment of 12,062 students in 6 high schools and 22 elementary schools; the diocese's current Bishop is Barry C. Knestout, appointed by Pope Francis on December 5, 2017, he was installed to the position on January 12, 2018. Prior to the American Revolution, few Catholics lived in colonial Virginia.
Anti-Catholic laws discouraged the faithful from settling in that area. It was not until the passage of Thomas Jefferson's Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in 1786 that Catholics were free to worship in the commonwealth; the Diocese of Richmond was canonically erected by Pope Pius VII on July 11, 1820. The new Diocese of Wheeling was formed by splitting off the western part of this diocese in 1850, that same year, this diocese received the small area, retroceded from the District of Columbia in 1846; the Civil War led to formation of the state of West Virginia, but the boundary between that state and Virginia did not coincide with the boundary of the Wheeling and Richmond dioceses. The two eastern-shore counties were transferred to the new Diocese of Wilmington in 1868, leaving Virginia split between three dioceses. In 1974, Virginia and West Virginia dioceses were realigned so that West Virginia was a diocese by itself and Virginia had the Richmond diocese and the new Arlington diocese, both in their entirety.
On February 13, 2019 Bishop Knestout released a list of 58 priests who had "credible and substantiated" accusations of sexual abuse made against them. Patrick Kelly, appointed Bishop of Waterford and Lismore Richard Vincent Whelan, appointed Bishop of Charleston John McGill James Gibbons, appointed Archbishop of Baltimore John Joseph Keane, appointed Rector of The Catholic University of America and Archbishop of Dubuque Augustine Van de Vyver Denis Joseph O'Connell Andrew James Louis Brennan Peter Leo Ireton John Joyce Russell Walter Francis Sullivan Francis Xavier DiLorenzo Barry Christopher Knestout Joseph Howard Hodges, appointed Bishop of Wheeling Ernest Leo Unterkoefler, appointed Bishop of Charleston James Louis Flaherty Walter Francis Sullivan, appointed Bishop of Richmond David Edward Foley, appointed Bishop of Birmingham Francis Janssens, appointed Bishop of Natchez and Archbishop of New Orleans Vincent Stanislaus Waters, appointed Bishop of Raleigh Carroll Thomas Dozier, appointed Bishop of Memphis Antons Justs, appointed Bishop of Jelgava Servant of God Francis J. Parater and candidate for canonization The Knights of Columbus has several councils in the Richmond Diocese.
The Knights serve parish and communities throughout both dioceses in the Commonwealth. One of the best known services is the KOVAR drive which raises money for assisting Virginians with intellectual disabilities. Benedictine High School, Richmond Bishop Sullivan Catholic High School, Virginia Beach Blessed Sacrament Huguenot Catholic School, Powhatan Holy Cross Regional Catholic School, Lynchburg Peninsula Catholic High School, Newport News Roanoke Catholic School, Roanoke Saint Gertrude High School, Richmond Walsingham Academy, Williamsburg Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States List of Catholic bishops of the United States List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States List of Roman Catholic archdioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond Official Site Cathedral of the Sacred Heart "Diocese of Richmond" article in the Catholic Encyclopedia
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups