The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
Guillaume Latendresse is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player. He was drafted by the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League in the second round, 45th overall, of the 2005 NHL Entry Draft, played in the NHL with Montreal, the Minnesota Wild and the Ottawa Senators. Latendresse was born in LaSalle, but grew up in Sainte-Catherine, Quebec; as a youth, Latendresse played in the 2001 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with the minor ice hockey team from Collège Charles-Lemoyne in Sainte-Catherine, Quebec. Latendresse was selected by the Drummondville Voltigeurs second overall in the 2003 Quebec Major Junior Hockey League Entry Draft, just after Sidney Crosby, taken first overall by the Rimouski Océanic. Latendresse played two seasons with the Voltigeurs before being selected by the Montreal Canadiens in the second round of the 2005 NHL Entry Draft, he attended the Canadiens' training camp in 2005, but was returned to the Voltigeurs for another season of development.
He was a member of the Canadian World Junior Team that won the gold medal in 2005. In 2006, he was again invited to the Team Canada camp, but was cut due to the effects of a concussion he sustained after being elbowed in the head by fellow Team Canada invitee Steve Downie. On January 7, 2017, Latendresse's number 22 was retired by the Voltigeurs as part of their 35th season celebrations, he scored 114 assists and 210 points in 169 games with the Voltigeurs. His linemate Derick Brassard had his number 61 retired earlier the same season. Latendresse's successful training camp in 2006 prompted then-Canadiens Head Coach Guy Carbonneau to give the 19-year-old a roster spot on the team. Latendresse was given the number 84 jersey prior to the start of his first season. While unaware of its significance, he became the first player in NHL history to wear the number 84 during a regular season game, the last number to have never been worn by a player. During his rookie NHL season, Latendresse moved up to the first line after forward Chris Higgins suffered an ankle injury.
On November 7, 2006, during his first game on the Canadiens' top line, Latendresse tapped in a rebound past goaltender Dwayne Roloson to record his first career NHL goal against the Edmonton Oilers, 1:04 into the third period. At a press conference after that game, Latendresse was asked about the comments of former Canadiens goaltender and Hall of Famer Patrick Roy. Just a few weeks earlier, Roy had said he thinks the only reason 19-year-old rookie Latendresse remains with the Canadiens is because he's a francophone, suggesting if his surname was "Smith" or "Brown," he would have been back in QMJHL. Latendresse talked about it: "It's me who's supposed to be 19, not him," said Latendresse. "I will act like a man. I'll leave it to him to act like a child. I don't know. I've never spoken to him, he should be delighted by the success of young Québecers in the NHL instead of making stupid comments."In 2005, Latendresse posed topless for Montreal's gay magazine La Voix du Village, creating a mild controversy and raising questions about his sexual orientation at the time.
Latendresse's agent, Pat Brisson, stated that his client was unaware of the nature of the publication he was being interviewed and photographed for, that he is heterosexual. Midway through his fourth season in Montreal, Latendresse was traded to the Minnesota Wild on November 23, 2009, for forward Benoît Pouliot. In his first 20 games with the Wild, Latendresse scored ten goals. On October 7, 2010, Latendresse scored the first goal of the 2010–11 season, just 3:33 into the first period, on Carolina Hurricanes goaltender Cam Ward in Helsinki, Finland. Latendresse's 2010–11 season was plagued with injuries. At the end of the season, Wild Owner Craig Leipold accused Latendresse of not taking his off-season training regimen and stated that Latendresse was expected to show up for the beginning of the 2011–12 season in top shape. However, Latendresse played just 16 games for the Wild in 2011–12, suffering from a hip injury and recurring concussion problems. On July 1, 2012, Latendresse signed a one-year contract as a free agent with the Ottawa Senators.
Latendresse was among a small group of Senators players who had planned on attending the 2013 Boston Marathon. Latendresse and the other players had intended to be at the marathon's finish line during the time at which bombs exploded, killing three and injuring several spectators and runners. Scratches for that night's game against the Boston Bruins, the players changed their plans at the last minute and elected to return to their hotel for a nap instead. "We would have been in that exact same spot, within a block or so," Latendresse's teammate Jared Cowen said. Latendresse's time with the Senators was short, as he played in only 27 games, missing the remainder of the season either with injuries or as a healthy scratch, he was informed by Senators General Manager Bryan Murray on May 29, 2013, that he was being released by the team, allowing him to become an unrestricted free agent. After an unsuccessful try-out with the Phoenix Coyotes, Latendresse signed a European contract with the ZSC Lions of the National League A in Switzerland.
In the 2013–14 season, he featured in just 12 games for 6 points before opting to end his professional career. On April 16, 2014, it was announced tha
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. Taekwondo is a combative sport and was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by Korean martial artists with experience in martial arts such as karate, Chinese martial arts, indigenous Korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyeon and Gwonbeop; the oldest governing body for taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association, formed in 1959 through a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The main international organisational bodies for taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation, founded by Choi Hong Hi in 1966, the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo, founded in 1972 and 1973 by the Korea Taekwondo Association. Gyeorugi, a type of full-contact sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000; the governing body for taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo.
Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, new martial arts schools called kwans opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean martial artists with backgrounds in Japanese and Korean martial arts; the umbrella term traditional taekwondo refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term "taekwondo" had not yet been coined at that time, indeed each Kwan was practicing its own unique style of martial art. During this time taekwondo was adopted for use by the South Korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian martial arts schools. After witnessing a martial arts demonstration by the military in 1952, South Korean President Syngman Rhee urged that the martial arts styles of the kwans be merged. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unified style of Korean martial arts; the name Tae Soo Do was used to describe this unified style. This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae "to stomp, trample", 手 su "hand" and 道 do "way, discipline".
Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the name Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su "hand" by 拳 kwon "fist", the term used for "martial arts" in Chinese. The new name was slow to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association was established to facilitate the unification of Korean martial arts. In 1966, Choi broke with the KTA to establish the International Taekwon-Do Federation - a separate governing body devoted to institutionalizing his own style of taekwondo. Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s complicated the adoption of ITF-style taekwondo as a unified style, however; the South Korean government wished to avoid North Korean influence on the martial art. Conversely, ITF president Choi Hong Hi sought support for the martial art from all quarters, including North Korea. In response, in 1973 South Korea withdrew its support for the ITF; the ITF continued to function as an independent federation headquartered in Toronto, Canada. After Choi's retirement, the ITF split in 2001 and again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate today under the same name.
In 1973 the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for taekwondo. Kukkiwon now serves many of the functions served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unified style of taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA and Kukkiwon supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation to promote taekwondo as an international sport. WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. For this reason, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo is referred to as WT-style taekwondo, sport-style taekwondo, or Olympic-style taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WTF. Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts that are included in the Olympic Games, it started as a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, a year after becoming a medal event at the Pan Am Games, became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.
Taekwondo is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award additional points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both. To facilitate fast, turning kicks, taekwondo adopts stances that are narrower and taller than the broader, wide stances used by martial arts such as karate; the tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility in Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. The emphasis on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi; the results of that analysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi's Theory of Power. Choi based his understanding of power on biomechanics and Newtonian physics as well as Chinese martial arts. For example, Choi observed that the power of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the strike, but increases only linearly with the mass of the striking object.
In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power. This principle w
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec, the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres with a population of 4,027,100. A smaller area of 3,838 square kilometres is governed by the Montreal Metropolitan Community; this level of government is headed by a president. The inner ring is composed of densely populated municipalities located in close proximity to Downtown Montreal, it includes the entire Island of Montreal and the Urban Agglomeration of Longueuil. The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities and towns are semi-rural; the term off-island suburbs refers to those suburbs that are located on the North Shore of the Mille-Îles River, those on the South Shore that were never included in the megacity of Longueuil, those on the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Peninsula. Communities in that area are informally referred to as the 450, after the telephone area code that has served the region since 1998.
Due to their proximity to Montreal's downtown core, some suburbs on the South Shore are not included in the off-island suburbs though they are on the mainland. There are 82 municipalities that are part of the MMC and 91 municipalities that are part of the CMA. A total of 79 municipalities overlap between the two, with 3 municipalities being part of the MMC but not the CMA, 12 municipalities being part of the CMA but not the MMC. Kanesatake and Kahnawake are not included in the previous counts. Exo operates the region's commuter rail and metropolitan bus services, is the second busiest such system in Canada after Toronto's GO Transit. Established in June 2007, Exo's commuter rail system has six lines linking the downtown core with communities as far west as Hudson, as Far south as Mont-Saint-Hilaire, as far east as Mascouche, as far north as Saint-Jérôme. Along with Exo, a sister agency, the Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain plans and coordinates public transport across Greater Montreal, including the Island of Montreal and communities along both the north shore of the Rivière des Mille-Îles and the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.
The ARTM's mandate includes the management of reserved High-occupancy vehicle lanes, metropolitan bus terminuses, park-and-ride lots, a budget of $163 million, shared amongst the transit corporations and inter-municipal public transit organizations. The Exo/ARTM's territory spans 63 municipalities and one native reserve, 13 regional county municipalities, 21 transit authorities, it serves a population of 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily. The major transit commissions under the ARTM are: Société de transport de Montréal, serving the Island of Montreal Société de transport de Laval, serving the city of Laval Réseau de transport de Longueuil, serving the Urban agglomeration of Longueuil Montreal Urban Community Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Metropolitan Community of Montreal website Greater Montreal Area Restaurants Greater Montreal Area map in.pdf
Quebec Autoroute 30
Autoroute 30, or the Autoroute de l'Acier is an Autoroute in Quebec, Canada. Construction of the A-30 dates back to the early days of autoroute construction in the 1960s. Called Highway 3, the A-30 was designed to replace Route 132 as the main artery linking the communities along the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River; the A-30 was intended to begin at the U. S. end at Saint-Pierre-les-Becquets. In the late 1970s an eight-year moratorium on new autoroute construction in favour of public transport by the Parti Québécois prevented implementation of that plan; the original section of Autoroute 30 in 1968 linked Sorel-Tracy to Route 116, called Highway 9. The A-30 was extended to an interchange with Autoroute 10 in Brossard by 1985 and to Autoroute 15 in Candiac by 1996. Growing road congestion in and around Montreal led to the announcement in 2006 of a federal-provincial partnership to complete A-30 as southwestern bypass ring road. At that time, the section from Châteauguay to Vaudreuil-Dorion was to be tolled, however by 2009 it was decided to collect tolls only on the St. Lawrence bridge.
A-30 was extended north of the St. Lawrence River to a realigned interchange with Autoroute 20 and Autoroute 540 in Vaudreuil-Dorion, afterward A-540 was annexed and renamed as an extension of A-30; as construction progressed, short sections of the original A-30 that are bypassed by the new route were converted to spur routes and assigned new route numbers. Opened to traffic on December 15, 2012, the realigned Autoroute 30 permits motorists travelling the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor to bypass Montreal. There are two discontinuous sections of A-30: The main 143 km segment extends from Autoroute 40 in Vaudreuil-Dorion to Route 133 in Sorel-Tracy. From the junction of Autoroute 20 in Vaudreuil-Dorion to Route 138 in Châteauguay a new freeway was constructed between 2007 and 2012, opening to traffic in December 2012; this new section, built under a Public-Private Partnership, along with the former A-540 west of Vaudreuil make up the first 38 km of the highway now. An 21 kilometre long section bypasses the Mohawk territory of Kahnawake and the South Shore communities of Saint-Constant and Candiac.
The Kahnawake bypass was built following the 1990 Oka Crisis and extended to the other three communities between 2005 and 2011. The A-30 was intended to supplant Route 132, crossing Kahnawake to a junction with the Honoré Mercier Bridge. Local opposition to the proposed route from the late 1960s coupled with the disruption of the Oka Crisis in 1990 prompted the decision to change the course of the new autoroute to bypass the Mohawk territory This new alignment resulted in the 1990 construction, 1992 twinning the 2010 redesignation of a 3.2 km portion of highway as Autoroute 730. The A-730 now extends from the A-30 mainline in Saint-Constant to Route 132 in Sainte-Catherine. Another 3.2 km section from the existing A-30 to Route 132 in Candiac has been redesignated Autoroute 930 since construction of the Jean-Leman section ended in November 2011. Further west, an 8.3 km bypass of Salaberry-de-Valleyfield became Autoroute 530 in 2012 when construction of the A-30 extension was completed. Northeast of Montreal the autoroute parallels Route 132, bypassing the steelmaking centres of Contrecoeur and Sorel-Tracy.
An 18.3 km super two segment in Bécancour, from Route 132 west to an interchange with Autoroute 55. The A-30 parallels the St. Lawrence River, bypassing the communities of Sainte-Angèle-de-Laval and Des Ormeaux and linking the Port of Bécancour to the autoroute network. Multiplexed with Route 132, the A-30 continues as a two-lane road for a short distance further before ending at the western approach to Gentilly; the road continues on as Route 132. The completion of Autoroute 30 as a southern bypass was intended to better integrate greater Montreal's network of autoroutes reduce transit time to and through the region, boost economic activity in Montérégie, improve access to markets in Ontario and the United States; this new section was completed on December 15, 2012. The westernmost section was financed through a public–private partnership, in which the government contracted with Acciona to design, operate and finance the autoroute; the eastern section of the A-30 extension was publicly funded.
Construction of this portion of the A-30—from an interchange with the A-15 in Candiac to Châteauguay—began in 2005 and opened to traffic on November 19, 2010. This section was linked to the A-30 mainline in November 2011. Motorists using A-30 can access New York via the A-15 and Interstate 87. A new 35 km four-lane divided highway has been constructed, opened to traffic on December 15, 2012; the A-30 crosses the St. Lawrence River to a redesigned interchange with A-20 and the former A-540; the new river crossing expedites the region's access to Toronto via A-20 and Ontario Highway 401. A-540 was re-designated A-30. Thus, A-30's ultimate western terminus is at the junction with A-40, providing access to Ottawa and eastern Ontario via Ontario Highway 417; the re-routing of A-30 across the St. Lawrence River resulted in the re-designation of a 7 km long section of the original route as A-530; this spur route links the re-aligned A-30 mainline with Salaberry-de-Valleyfield. A-530 fe