Peter Berngardovich Struve was a Russian political economist and editor. He started out as a Marxist became a liberal and after the Bolshevik revolution joined the White movement. From 1920, he lived in exile in Paris. Peter Struve is the best known member of the Russian branch of the Struve family. Son of Bernhard Struve and grandson of astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, he entered the Natural Sciences Department of the University of Saint Petersburg in 1889 and transferred to its law school in 1890. While there, he became interested in Marxism, attended Marxist and narodniki meetings and wrote articles for published magazines—hence the term Legal Marxism, whose chief proponent he became. In September 1893 Struve was hired by the Finance Ministry and worked in its library, but was fired on 1 June 1894 after an arrest and a brief detention in April–May of that year. In 1894, he published his first major book, Kriticheskie zametki k voprosu ob ekonomicheskom razvitii Rossii in which he defended the applicability of Marxism to Russian conditions against populist critics.
In 1895, Struve finished his degree and wrote an Open letter to Nicholas II on behalf of the Zemstvo. He went abroad for further studies, where he attended the 1896 International Socialist Congress in London and befriended famous Russian revolutionary exile Vera Zasulich. After returning to Russia Struve became one of the editors of the successive Legal Marxist magazines Novoye Slovo and Zhizn. Struve was the most popular speaker at the Legal Marxist debates at the Free Economic Society in the late 1890s—early 1900s in spite of his impenetrable-to-laymen arguments and unkempt appearance. In 1898 Struve wrote the Manifesto of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. However, as he explained: Socialism, to tell the truth, never aroused the slightest emotion in me, still less attraction... Socialism interested me as an ideological force – which... could be directed either to the conquest of civil and political freedoms or against them By 1900, Struve had become a leader of the revisionist, i.e. compromising, wing of Russian Marxists.
Struve and Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky represented the moderates during the negotiations with Julius Martov, Alexander Potresov and Vladimir Lenin, the leaders of the party's radical wing, in Pskov in March 1900. In late 1900, Struve went to Munich and again held lengthy talks with the radicals between December 1900 and February 1901; the two sides reached a compromise which included making Struve the editor of Sovremennoe Obozrenie, a proposed supplement to the radicals' magazine Zaria, in exchange for his help in securing financial support from Russian liberals. The plan was frustrated by Struve's arrest at the famous Kazan Square demonstration on 4 March 1901 upon his return to Russia. Struve was banished from the capital and, like other demonstrators, was offered to choose his own place of exile, he chose a center of Zemstvo radicalism. In 1902 Struve secretly left Tver and went abroad, but by the radicals had abandoned the idea of a joint magazine and Struve's further evolution from socialism to liberalism would have made collaboration difficult anyway.
Instead he founded an independent liberal semi-monthly magazine Osvobozhdenie with the help of liberal intelligentsia and the radical part of Zemstvo. The magazine was at first published in Stuttgart, Germany. In mid-1903, after the founding of the liberal Soyuz Osvobozhdeniya, the magazine became the Union's official organ and was smuggled into Russia, where it enjoyed considerable success; when German police, under pressure from Okhrana, raided the premises in October 1904, Struve moved his operations to Paris and continued publishing the magazine for another year until the October Manifesto proclaimed freedom of the press in Russia. In October 1905 Struve returned to Russia, became a co-founder of the liberal Constitutional Democratic party and a member of its Central Committee. In 1907 he represented the party in the Second State Duma. After the Duma's dissolution on 3 June 1907, Struve concentrated on his work at Russkaya Mysl, a leading liberal newspaper, of which he had been publisher and de facto editor-in-chief since 1906.
Struve was the driving force behind Vekhi, a groundbreaking and controversial anthology of essays critical of the intelligentsia and its rationalistic and radical traditions. As Russkaya Mysl editor, Struve rejected Andrey Bely's seminal novel Petersburg, which he saw as a parody of revolutionary intellectuals. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914 Struve adopted a position of support for the government, in 1916 he resigned from the Constitutional Democratic party's Central Committee over what he saw as the party's excessive opposition to the government in a time of war. In May 1917, after the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew monarchy in Russia, Struve was elected as member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, until he was excluded by the Bolshevik-engineered expulsion of 1928. After the October Revolution of 1917, Struve went to the South of Russia where he joined the Volunteer Army's Council. In early 1918 he returned to Moscow, wher
A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis meaning "city of the dead"; the term implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields. While the word is most used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis; the Giza Necropolis of ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and the most well-known necropolis in the world since the Great Pyramid of Giza was included in the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Aside from the pyramids, which were reserved for the burial of Pharaohs, the Egyptian necropoleis included mastabas, a typical royal tomb of the early Dynastic period. Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran; the oldest relief at Naqsh-i Rustam dates to c. 1000 BC.
Though it is damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual headgear and is thought to be Elamite in origin. The depiction is part of a larger image, most of, removed at the command of Bahram II. Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground; the tombs are known locally after the shape of the facades of the tombs. Sassanian kings added a series of rock reliefs below the tombs. In the Mycenean Greek period predating ancient Greece, burials could be performed inside the city. In Mycenae, for example, the royal tombs were located in a precinct within the city walls; this changed during the ancient Greek period when necropoleis lined the roads outside a city. There existed some degree of variation within the ancient Greek world however. Sparta was notable for continuing the practice of burial within the city; the Etruscans took the concept of a "city of the dead" quite literally. The typical tomb at the Banditaccia necropolis at Cerveteri consists of a tumulus which covers one or more rock-cut subterranean tombs.
These tombs were elaborately decorated like contemporary houses. The arrangement of the tumuli in a grid of streets gave it an appearance similar to the cities of the living; the art historian Nigel Spivey considers the name cemetery inadequate and argues that only the term necropolis can do justice to these sophisticated burial sites. Etruscan necropoleis were located on hills or slopes of hills. List of necropoleis Funerary art Catacombs
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, peace activism and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics"; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented ballistite; this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature; the article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes; because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize; the Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal ad
Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebriakova was a Russian painter. Zinaida Serebriakova was born on the estate of Neskuchnoye near Kharkov into one of the most refined and artistic families in the Russian Empire, she belonged to the artistic Benois family. Her grandfather, Nicholas Benois, was a famous architect, chairman of the Society of Architects and member of the Russian Academy of Science, her uncle, Alexandre Benois, was founder of the Mir iskusstva art group. Her father, Yevgeny Nikolayevich Lanceray, was a well-known sculptor, her mother, Alexandre Benois' sister, had a talent for drawing. One of Zinaida's brothers, Nikolay Lanceray, was a talented architect, her other brother, Yevgeny Yevgenyevich Lanceray, had an important place in Russian and Soviet art as a master of monumental painting and graphic art; the Russian-English actor and writer Peter Ustinov was related to her. In 1900 she graduated from a women's gymnasium, entered the art school founded by Princess Maria Tenisheva, she studied under Repin in 1901, under portrait artist Osip Braz between 1903 and 1905.
In 1902–1903 she spent time in Italy, from 1905 to 1906 she studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. In 1905, she married her first cousin, Boris Serebriakov, the son of Evgenyi's sister, took his surname. Serebriakova went on to become a railroad engineer. From her youth onwards, Zinaida Serebriakova strove to express her love of the world and to show its beauty, her earliest works, Country Girl and Orchard in Bloom, speak eloquently of this search, of her acute awareness of the beauty of the Russian land and its people. These works are études done from nature, though she was young at the time, her extraordinary talent and boldness were apparent. Broad public recognition came with Serebriakova's self-portrait At the Dressing-Table, first shown at a large exhibition mounted by the Union of Russian Artists in 1910; the self-portrait was followed by a portrait of Ye. K. Lanceray, a portrait of the artist's mother Yekaterina Lanceray mature works, strict in composition, she joined the Mir iskusstva movement in 1911, but stood out from the other members of the group because of her preference for popular themes and because of the harmony and generalized nature of her paintings.
In 1914–1917, Zinaida Serebriakova was in her prime. During these years she produced a series of pictures on the theme of Russian rural life, the work of the peasants and the Russian countryside, so dear to her heart: Peasants, Sleeping Peasant Girl; the most important of these works was Bleaching Cloth, which revealed Zinaida Serebriakova's striking talent as a monumental artist. The figures of the peasant women, portrayed against the background of the sky, gain majesty and power by virtue of the low horizon; when in 1916 Alexander Benois was commissioned to decorate the Kazan Railway Station in Moscow, he invited Yevgeny Lanceray, Boris Kustodiev, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Zinaida Serebriakova to help him. Serebriakova took on the theme of the Orient: India, Japan and Siam are represented allegorically in the form of beautiful women. At the same time she began compositions on subjects from classical mythology, but these remained unfinished. At the outbreak of the October Revolution in 1917, Serebriakova was at her family estate of Neskuchnoye, her whole life changed.
In 1919 her husband Boris died of typhus contracted in Bolshevik jails. She was left without any income, responsible for her sick mother. All the reserves of Neskuchnoye had been plundered, so the family suffered from hunger, she had to give up oil painting in favour of the less expensive techniques of pencil. This was the time of her most tragic painting, House of Cards, which depicts her four orphaned children, she did not want to switch to the futurist style popular in the art of the early Soviet period, nor paint portraits of commissars, but she found some work at the Kharkov Archaeological Museum, where she made pencil drawings of the exhibits. In December 1920 she moved to her grandfather’s apartment in Petrograd. After the October Revolution, inhabitants of private apartments were forced to share them with additional inhabitants, but Serebriakova was lucky - she was quartered with artists from the Moscow Art Theatre. Thus, Serebriakova's work during this period focuses on theatre life. Around this time, Serebriakova's daughter, entered the academy of ballet, Serebriakova created a series of pastels on the Mariinsky Theater.
In the autumn of 1924, Serebriakova went to Paris, having received a commission for a large decorative mural. On finishing this work, she intended to return to the Soviet Union, where her mother and the four children remained. However, she was not able to return, although she was able to bring her younger children and Catherine, to Paris in 1926 and 1928 she could not do the same for her two older children and Tatiana, did not see them again for many years. After this, Zinaida Serebriakova traveled a great deal. In 1928 and 1930 she traveled to Africa, she was fascinated by the landscapes of northern Africa and painted the Atlas mountains, as well as Arab women and Africans in ethnic clothing. She painted a cycle devoted to Breton fishermen; the salient f
Afrikan P. Bogaewsky
Afrikan Petrovich Bogaewsky, 8 January 1873, stanitsa Kamenskaya – October 1934 Paris), from the Don Cossacks family of Bogaewskich. He was a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army when he was Ataman of Don Republic. Between 1909 and 1914, he was Chief of Staff of the 2nd Guards Cavalry Division. By April 7, 1917, he was Commander of the 1st Transbaikalian Cossack Division, in the summer of 1917, Commander of the 1st Guards Cavalry Division. In August 1917, he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the 4th Cavalry Corps. After the October Revolution, Bogaewky travelled form Kiev to the Don where he arrived in December 1917, he participated in the First Kuban Campaign and became leader of the 2nd brigade of the Volunteer Army. Between May 1918 and January 1919, he was part of the leadership of the Don Army under Ataman Pyotr Krasnov. In February 1919, he remplaced Krasnov as Ataman of the Don Cossacks, a title he would hold until his death, he fought with Denikin and Wrangel against the Bosheviks and was evacuated from the Crimea in November 1920.
He lived in Constantinople and Belgrade, but settled in Paris in 1923. He died there of a heart attack on October 21, 1934, he was buried on October 28 in the Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery. Afrikan P. Bogaewsky. Ice March 1918. Publ. in New-York. 1963. Don Army Don Republic Volunteer Army Russian Civil War
Ivan Alexandrovich Ilyin was a Russian religious and political philosopher, White emigre publicist and an ideologue of the Russian All-Military Union. Ivan Ilyin was born in Moscow in an aristocratic family, his father, Alexander Ivanovich Ilyin, had been born and spent his childhood in the Grand Kremlin Palace since Ilyin's grandfather had served as the commandant of the Palace. Alexander Ilyin's godfather had been emperor Alexander III of Russia. Ivan Ilyin's mother, Caroline Louise née Schweikert von Stadion, was a German Russian and confessing Lutheran whose father, Julius Schweikert von Stadion, had been a Collegiate Councillor under the Table of Ranks, she converted to Russian Orthodoxy, took the name Yekaterina Yulyevna, married Alexander Ilyin in 1880. Ivan Ilyin was brought up in the centre of Moscow not far from the Kremlin in Naryshkin Lane. In 1901 he entered the Law faculty of the Moscow State University. Ilyin disapproved of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and did not participate in student political actions.
While a student Ilyin became interested in philosophy under influence of Professor Pavel Ivanovich Novgorodtsev, a Christian philosopher of jurisprudence and a political liberal. In 1906 Ilyin graduated with a law degree, from 1909 he began working there as a scholar. In 1911, Ilyin moved for a year to Western Europe to work on his thesis: "Crisis of rationalistic philosophy in Germany in the 19th century", he returned to work in the university and delivered a series of lectures called "Introduction to the Philosophy of Law". Novgorodtsev offered Ilyin to lecture on theory of general law at Moscow Commerce Institute. In total, he lectured at various schools for 17 hours a week. At that time, Ilyin studied the philosophy of Hegel his philosophy of state and law, he regarded this work not only as a study of Hegel but as preparation for his own work on theory of law. His thesis on Hegel was finished in 1916 and published in 1918. In 1914, after the breakout of World War I, Professor Prince Evgeny Trubetskoy arranged a series of public lectures devoted to the "ideology of the war".
Ilyin contributed to this with several lectures, the first of, called "The Spiritual Sense of the War". He was an utter opponent of any war in general but believed that since Russia had been involved in the war, the duty of every Russian was to support his country. Ilyin's position was different from that of many Russian jurists, who disliked Germany and Tsarist Russia equally. At first Ilyin perceived the February Revolution as the liberation of the people. Along with many other intellectuals he approved of it. However, with the October Revolution complete, disappointment followed. On the Second Moscow Conference of Public Figures he said, "The revolution turned into self-interested plundering of the state", he assessed the revolution as the most terrible catastrophe in the history of Russia, the collapse of the whole state. However, unlike many adherents of the old regime, Ilyin did not emigrate immediately. In 1918, Ilyin became a professor of law in Moscow University. After April 1918, Ilyin was imprisoned several times for alleged anti-communist activity.
His teacher Novgorodtsev was briefly imprisoned. In 1922, he was expelled among some 160 prominent intellectuals, on the so-called "philosophers' ship". From 1922 to 1938 he lived in Berlin, he wrote as well in German as in Russian. Between 1923 and 1934 Ilyin worked as a professor of the Russian Scientific Institute in Berlin, he was offered the professorship in the Russian faculty of law in Prague under his teacher Pavel Novgorodtsev but he declined. He became the main ideologue of the Russian White movement in emigration and between 1927 and 1930 was a publisher and editor of the Russian-language journal, he lectured in other European countries. In 1934, the German National Socialists put him under police surveillance. In 1938 with financial help from Sergei Rachmaninoff he was able to leave Germany and continue his work in Geneva, Switzerland, he died in Zollikon near Zürich on December 21, 1954. Russian President Vladimir Putin was involved in moving his remains back to Russia, in 2009 consecrated his grave.
In exile, Ivan Ilyin argued that Russia should not be judged by the Communist danger it represented at that time but looked forward to a future in which it would liberate itself with the help of Christian Fascism. Starting from his 1918 thesis on Hegel's philosophy, he authored many books on political and spiritual topics pertaining to the historical mission of Russia. One of the problems he worked on was the question: what has led Russia to the tragedy of the revolution? He answered that the reason was "the damaged self-respect" of Russians; as a result, mutual distrust and suspicion between the state and the people emerged. The authorities and nobility misused their power, subverting the unity of the people. Ilyin thought that any state must be established as a corporation in which a citizen is a member with certain rights and certain duties. Therefore, Ilyin recognized inequality of people as a necessary state of affairs in any country, but that meant that educated upper classes had a special duty of spiritual guidance towards uneducated lower classes.
This did not happen in Russia. The other point was the wrong attitude towards private property among common people in Russia. Ilyin wrote that many Russians believed that private property and large estates are gained not through hard labour but through power and maladministration of officials. Therefore, property