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Sake spelled saké, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice, polished to remove the bran. Despite the name, unlike wine, in which alcohol is produced by fermenting sugar, present in fruit, sake is produced by a brewing process more akin to that of beer, where starch is converted into sugars, which ferment into alcohol; the brewing process for sake differs from the process for beer, where the conversion from starch to sugar and from sugar to alcohol occurs in two distinct steps. Like other rice wines, when sake is brewed, these conversions occur simultaneously. Furthermore, the alcohol content differs between sake and beer. In Japanese, the word sake can refer to any alcoholic drink, while the beverage called "sake" in English is termed nihonshu. Under Japanese liquor laws, sake is labelled with the word "seishu", a synonym not used in conversation. In Japan, where it is the national beverage, sake is served with special ceremony, where it is warmed in a small earthenware or porcelain bottle and sipped from a small porcelain cup called a sakazuki.

As with wine, the recommended serving temperature of sake varies by type. The origin of sake is unclear; the earliest reference to the use of alcohol in Japan is recorded in the Book of Wei in the Records of the Three Kingdoms. This 3rd-century Chinese text speaks of dancing. Alcoholic beverages are mentioned several times in the kōjiki, Japan's first written history, compiled in 712. Bamforth places the probable origin of true sake (which is made from rice, kōji mold in the Nara period. In the Heian period, sake was used for religious ceremonies, court festivals, drinking games. Sake production was a government monopoly for a long time, but in the 10th century and shrines began to brew sake, they became the main centers of production for the next 500 years; the Tamon-in Diary, written by abbots of Tamon-in from 1478 to 1618, records many details of brewing in the temple. The diary shows that pasteurization and the process of adding ingredients to the main fermentation mash in three stages were established practices by that time.

In the 16th century, the technique of distillation was introduced into the Kyushu district from Ryukyu. The brewing of shōchū, called "Imo—sake" started, was sold at the central market in Kyoto. In the 18th century, Engelbert Kaempfer and Isaac Titsingh published accounts identifying sake as a popular alcoholic beverage in Japan; the work of both writers was disseminated throughout Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. During the Meiji Restoration, laws were written that allowed anybody with the money and know-how to construct and operate their own sake breweries. Around 30,000 breweries sprang up around the country within a year. However, as the years went by, the government levied more and more taxes on the sake industry and the number of breweries dwindled to 8,000. Most of the breweries that grew and survived this period were set up by wealthy landowners. Landowners who grew rice crops would have rice left over at the end of the season and, rather than letting these leftovers go to waste, would ship it to their breweries.

The most successful of these family breweries still operate today. During the 20th century, sake-brewing technology grew by bounds; the government opened the sake-brewing research institute in 1904, in 1907 the first government-run sake-tasting competition was held. Yeast strains selected for their brewing properties were isolated and enamel-coated steel tanks arrived; the government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, being devoid of bacterial problems. Although these things are true, the government wanted more tax money from breweries, as using wooden barrels means that a significant amount of sake is lost to evaporation, which could have otherwise been taxed; this was the end of the wooden-barrel age of sake and the use of wooden barrels in brewing was eliminated. In Japan, sake has long been taxed by the national government. In 1898, this tax brought in about ¥5 million out of a total of about ¥120 million, about 4.6% of the government's total direct tax income.

During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, the government banned the home brewing of sake. At the time, sake still made up an astonishing 30% of Japan's tax revenue. Since home-brewed sake is tax-free sake, the logic was that by banning the home brewing of sake, sales would go up, more tax money would be collected; this was the end of home-brewed sake, the law remains in effect today though sake sales now make up only 2% of government income. When World War II brought rice shortages, the sake-brewing industry was dealt a hefty blow as the government clamped down on the use of rice for brewing; as early as the late 17th century, it had been discovered that small amounts of alcohol could be added to sake before pressing to extract aromas and flavors from the rice solids, but during the war, pure alcohol and glucose were added to small quantities of rice mash, increasing the yield by as much as four times. 75% of today's sa


Darunavir/cobicistat is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS. It is a fixed dose combination drug containing 150 mg of cobicistat. Darunavir is an HIV protease inhibitor and cobicistat increases the effectiveness of darunavir by blocking its metabolism by the enzyme CYP3A, it was approved for use in United States in 2015. As of February 2020, Darunavir/cobicistat is one of several antiviral drugs being tested for the treatment of the Coronavirus disease 2019. "Cobicistat mixture with darunavir". Drug Information Portal. U. S. National Library of Medicine

Mario Pei

Mario Andrew Pei was an Italian-American linguist and polyglot who wrote a number of popular books known for their accessibility to readers without a professional background in linguistics. Pei was born in Rome and emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1908. By the time that he was out of high school, he spoke not only English and his native Italian but French and had studied Latin as well. Over the years, he became fluent in several other languages capable of speaking some 30 others, having become acquainted with the structure of at least 100 of the world's languages. In 1923, he began his career teaching languages at City College of New York, in 1928, he published his translation of Vittorio Ermete de Fiori's Mussolini: The Man of Destiny. Pei received his doctorate from Columbia University in 1937, focusing on Sanskrit, Old Church Slavonic, Old French; that year, he joined the Department of Romance Languages at Columbia University, becoming a full professor in 1952. In 1941, he published The Italian Language.

His facility with languages was in demand in World War II, Pei served as a language consultant with two agencies of the Department of War. In this role, he wrote language textbooks, developed language courses, wrote language guidebooks. While working as a professor of Romance Philology at Columbia University, Pei wrote over 50 books, including the best-sellers The Story of Language and The Story of English, his other books included Languages for War and Peace, A Dictionary of Linguistics, All About Language, Invitation to Linguistics: A Basic Introduction to the Science of Language, Weasel Words: Saying What You Don't Mean. Pei wrote The America We Lost: The Concerns of a Conservative, a book advocating individualism and constitutional literalism. In the book, Pei denounces the income tax as well as communism and other forms of collectivism. Pei was an internationalist and advocated the introduction of Esperanto into school curricula across the world to supplement local languages. Pei was fond of an international auxiliary language.

He wrote his positive views on it in his book called One Language for the World. He wrote a 21-page pamphlet on world language and Esperanto called Wanted: a World Language. Noting that neologisms are of immense value to the continued existence of a living language, as most words are developed as neologisms from root words, Pei stated in The Story of Language: Of all the words that exist in any language only a bare minority are pure, original roots; the majority are "coined" words, forms that have been in one way or another created, cut down and recombined to convey new needed meanings, The language mint is more than a mint. While slang may be condemned by purists and schoolteachers, it should be remembered that it is a monument to the language's force of growth by creative innovation, a living example of the democratic anonymous process of language change, the chief means whereby all the languages spoken today have evolved from earlier tongues; the American road to peace: a constitution for the world, 1945, S.

F. Vanni Introduction to Ada Boni, Talisman Italian Cookbook. 1950. Crown Publishers Swords of Anjou, 1953, John Day Company. Pei's first and only novel, praised in HISPANICA as "an admirable combination of absorbing narrative and sound scholarship..." THE CONSUMER'S MANIFESTO: A Bill Of Rights to Protect the Consumer in the Wars Between Capital and Labor, 1960, Crown Publishers Our National Heritage, 22021, Houghton Mifflin America We Lost: The Concerns of a Conservative, 1968, World Publishing Tales of the natural and supernatural, 1971, Devin-Adair Remarks on the Esperanto Symposium Mario Pei On Esperanto Education One Language For The World Pei Discography at Smithsonian Folkways

Language documentation

Language documentation is a subfield of linguistics which aims to describe the grammar and use of human languages. It aims to provide a comprehensive record of the linguistic practices characteristic of a given speech community. Language documentation seeks to create as thorough a record as possible of the speech community for both posterity and language revitalization; this record can be public or private depending on the needs of the community and the purpose of the documentation. In practice, language documentation can range from solo linguistic anthropological fieldwork to the creation of vast online archives that contain dozens of different languages, such as FirstVoices or OLAC. Language documentation provides a firmer foundation for linguistic analysis in that it creates a corpus of materials in the language; the materials in question can range from vocabulary lists and grammar rules to children's books and translated works. These materials can support claims about the structure of the language and its usage.

Typical steps involve recording, maintaining metadata, transcribing and analysis, translation into a language of wider communication and dissemination. Critical is the creation of good records in the course of doing language description; the materials can be archived, but not all archives are adept at handling language materials preserved in varying technological formats, not all are accessible to potential users. Language documentation complements language description, which aims to describe a language's abstract system of structures and rules in the form of a grammar or dictionary. By practicing good documentation in the form of recordings with transcripts and collections of texts and a dictionary, a linguist works better and can provide materials for use by speakers of the language. New technologies permit better recordings with better descriptions which can be housed in digital archives such as AILLA or PARADISEC; these resources can be made available to the speakers. Language documentation has given birth to new specialized publications, such as the free online and peer-reviewed journals Language Documentation & Description and Language Documentation & Conservation.

The digitization of archives is a critical component of language documentation and revitalization projects. There are descriptive records of local languages that could be put to use in language revitalization projects that are overlooked due to obsolete formatting, incomplete hard-copy records, or systematic inaccessibility. Local archives in particular, which may have vital records of the area's indigenous languages, are chronically underfunded and understaffed. Historic records relating to language that have been collected by non-linguists such as missionaries can be overlooked if the collection is not digitized. Physical archives are more vulnerable to damage and information loss. Language documentation can be beneficial to individuals who would like to teach or learn an endangered language. If a language has limited documentation this limits how it can be used in a language revitalization context. Teaching with documentation and linguist's field notes can provide more context for those teaching the language and can add information they were not aware of.

Documentation can be useful for understanding culture and heritage, as well as learning the language. Important components when teaching a language includes: Listening, speaking and cultural components. Documentation gives resources to further the skills for learning a language. For example, the Kaurna language was revitalized through written resources; these written documents served as the only resource and were used to re-introduce the language and one way was through teaching, which included the making of a teaching guide for the Kaurna language. Language documentation and teaching have a relationship because if there are no fluent speakers of a language, documentation can be used as a teaching resource. Language description, as a task within linguistics, may be divided into separate areas of specialization: Phonetics, the study of the sounds of human language Phonology, the study of the sound system of a language Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, how these combine to form the meanings of sentences Historical linguistics, the study of languages whose historical relations are recognizable through similarities in vocabulary, word formation, syntax Pragmatics, the study of how language is used by its speakers Stylistics, the study of style in languages Paremiography, the collection of proverbs and sayings Linguistic description Orthography, the study of writing systems Lexicography, the study and practice of making dictionaries Phonology, the study of describing the sound system of a language Etymology, the study of how words acquire their meanings Anthropological linguistics HRELP DoBeS The Language Conservancy SIL International PARADISEC Archive LACITO and the Pangloss Collection First Peoples' Heritage and Culture Council World Oral Literature Project, Voices of Vanishing Worlds Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity Dying Words, by Prof.

Nick Evans, about what is lost when languages are lost. The Poet’s Salary, award-winning documentary by Éric Wittersheim, about linguistic fieldwork in northern Vanuatu; the Linguists, documentary film about two linguists traveling the world to rescue languages Recording your elder/Native speaker, practical vocal recording tips for non-professionals Resource Network for Linguisti


Parosi was a Pakistani drama serial aired on NTM in the 1990s. The drama was directed by Raana Sheikh, it was filmed in Murree. It starred Marina Khan, Badar Khalil, Ali Ejaz, Saleem Sheikh and Jamal Shah; this was Khalida Riyasat's last drama serial as she died soon after working in this drama and the long play Ab Tum Ja Sakte Ho. Parosi tells the story of two sisters, Jahan Ara, a single parent as her husband Jamal Shah left her for a wealthier woman, Roshan Ara, much more mature and composed as compared to her elder sister. They, along with Haryali Bua, come to live in a house they have rented from Ali Ejaz, a strict man living with his nephew Arsal; the comedy of errors starts. Roshan Ara and Arsal fall in love. Ali Ejaz as Shahnawaz Ali Khan, aka Agha Jani, the landlord. Saleem Sheikh as Arsal, nephew of Aga Jani. Jamal Shah as Malik Iqbal, Jehan Ara's husband Shamim Hilaly as Bari Aapa, elder sister of Roshan Ara and Jehan Ara Humera Syed as Nani, maternal grandmother of the sisters Parveen Rasheed as Amma, mother of the sisters Sikander as Ali, Jehan Ara and Malik Iqbal's son The drama serial was shot in Murree and Islamabad and was well received by the audiences.

It is considered to be one of Haseena Moin's best works. It featured the great actresses Khalida Riyasat and Marina Khan and it was a treat for the viewers to watch both of them perform together; the drama serial has had several reruns on TV and its DVDs are still in demand. Parosi's soundtrack featured two songs. One was a ghazal called Abhi Kuch Din Lagen Ge sung by Mehnaz with poetry by Iftikhar Arif; the second song was called Ga Raha Tha Koi sung by Ali Haider with poetry by Nasir Kazmi. Both were composed by Arshad Mahmood, are used during the show. Network Television Marketing

Tat Ming Pair

Tat Ming Pair are an experimental Cantopop duo formed in Hong Kong in 1985 by composer Tats Lau and vocalist Anthony Wong Yiu-ming. Their blend of Cantopop, new wave and electronic dance music with lyrics which reflected contemporary social and literary themes, made them one of the first alternative and most influential bands of the 1980s Hong Kong music scene; the band enjoyed critical and commercial success until a hiatus in 1990. After their breakup, Wong proceeded as a solo artist while Lau went into acting although the duo have reunited several times over the years. On 3 January 2019, the duo received the Golden Needle Award for their outstanding musical contributions at the RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards. Tats Lau and Anthony Wong Yiu-ming met in 1985 when Wong was working as a DJ for Commercial Radio Hong Kong. Wong answered a singer-wanted advert placed in a music magazine by instrumentalist Lau, who had created two previous bands known as DLLM and Oriental Electronic Orchestra; the two discovered that they had a mutual interest in electronic music and they began working on original material.

Lau became the main music composer of their songs. Hong Kong radio personality Winnie Yu christened them as "Tat Ming Pair" and they were signed to PolyGram Records; the band provided an alternative to the mainstream pop/rock bands of the time due to their melodious synth-based music and politically conscious lyrics combined with themes drawn from classic literature. Their music was influenced by British musicians including Pet Shop Boys and David Bowie. Due to the pitch-sensitive tonal nature of Cantonese, pairing Cantonese lyrics with the western-style musical scale can be a difficult process, thus they began their ongoing collaboration with lyricists such as Calvin Poon Yuen-Leung, Yiu-Fai Chow and Keith Chan Siu-Kei. The majority of their album art was directed by famed designer William Chang, they released their first mini-album Tat Ming Pair in March 1986, followed by their debut full-length LP Tat Ming Pair II in September of the same year. The cover of their debut EP contained an image prominently displaying Wong's long hair, a hairstyle, considered subversive for men at the time in Hong Kong.

Selected songs from their first full-length album were included in the 1986 film Kiss Me Good-Bye starring Wong and Loletta Lee. Their second full-length album The Story of the Stone was released in 1987 and contained some of their biggest hit songs such as the title track, "Angels of the Road" and "Rear Window". An instrumental version of the title track was included as the opening theme for the film Golden Swallow starring Wong and Cherie Chung; the film's soundtrack included an alternate recording of their song "Searching For Love". They continued to produce innovative records and their January 1988 release I Shall Wait For Your Return was considered Hong Kong's first concept album; the album theme dealt with the ongoing emigration of Hong Kong residents due to an uncertain political status after the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration. The album won the award for Best Record Design at the 1988 RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards in which the band won the award for Best Performance. In June 1988, they released Do You Still Love Me?.

The album contains one of their most famous songs "A Murder Unannounced in Advance". The album is noted for containing the song "Forbidden Colors", one of the first songs in the Hong Kong music industry to deal with homosexuality and has since become a LGBT anthem; the title of the song was inspired by Yukio Mishima's novel and the song has been covered by other artists including Denise Ho and Eason Chan and was featured in the 1992 Evans Chan film To Liv. They released Fallen Angel in 1989, the original Chinese title being taken from a line in Dream of the Red Chamber; the album was influenced by Spanish guitar melodies. The album lyrically contained varying themes such as "Love in the Time of Cholera", a dedication to victims of AIDS; the album is lauded for containing the song "Forget He Or She" the first song on the Hong Kong music scene to examine gender fluidity. On May 27, 1989, the band participated in the Concert for Democracy in China, a benefit concert held at Happy Valley Racecourse in support of the students involved in the Tiananmen Square protests.

The event raised over 1.5 million USD for the students in Beijing. Their final release before their initial hiatus was 1990's acclaimed Nerves, another concept album which contained many songs relating to the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and unease towards the upcoming 1997 handover of Hong Kong such as "The Ten Young Firemen" and "Don't Ask The Sky". In 1991, the duo split amicably over a difference in musical opinion and a desire to pursue other work. After their separation, Lau formed several musical projects including Tats Lau and Dream and wrote songs for other singers. Lau composed music for film soundtracks and pursued his own acting career. Wong began to collaborate with other lyricists, such as Jason Choi and Lin Xi. During this period, Wong released several successful albums which reached critical and commercial success, his solo career culminated in him winning the award for Best Original Song at the 1995 RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards and the Metro Showbiz Hit Awards for his song "Before Sunrise".

The video for "Before Sunrise" was directed by Susie Au and cinematography was done by Christopher Doyle. The band reunited in 1996 to celebrate their 10-year anniversary and released a new single "A Forbidden Fruit Once Per Day" which won the top prize