McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Delhi Cantonment was established in 1914. Until February 1938, the Cantonment Board Delhi was known as the Cantt authority; the area of the Cantonment is approx. 10,521 acres. At the 2011 census, the population of the Cantonment was 116,352; the Delhi Cantonment is as Class I Cantonment Board. The Cantonment is governed by the Cantonments Act, 2006 while various policy letters and instructions from the Ministry of Defence pertaining to the area are issued from time to time. Although the board functions as a local municipal body, it remains under the administrative control of the Directorate General Defence Estates, New Delhi and Principal Director, Defence Estates, Western Command, Chandigarh. Cantonments in Delhi and Ahmedabad were established by the British; the Delhi Cantonment houses Delhi Area. The cantonment houses the Army Research and Referral Hospital, a tertiary care medical centre of the armed forces of India. There is a railway station within the cantonment, Delhi Cantonment railway station, from where trains depart for various parts of the country.
At the 2001 India census Delhi Cantt. had a population of 124,452. Males constituted 61% of the population and females 39%. Delhi Cantt. has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 74%: male literacy is 83% and, female literacy is 68%. In Delhi Cantt. 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. At the 2011 India census Delhi Cantt. had a population of 116,352. Males constituted ~58% of the population and females constituted ~42%. Delhi Cantt. has an average literacy rate of 91.11%, higher than the national average of 79.9%: male literacy is 94.54% and, female literacy is 86.26%. In Delhi Cantt. 11.36% of the population is under 6 years of age. Delhi Cantonment is connected by road and air. Delhi Airport is about 5 kilometres from Delhi Cantonment, it has its nearest metro station of Delhi Cantonment metro station. Delhi Cantonment has a railway station. All the trains plying from Delhi towards Rajasthan or Gujarat stop here, it is accessible by road and local bus to the residents of nearby residential neighbourhoods such as Palam, Dhaula Kuan, Tilak Nagar, Vasant Vihar and Janakpuri.
Delhi Metro has train stations nearby. Delhi Cantonment Board, website
Malviya Nagar (Delhi)
Malviya Nagar is a locality in South Delhi. It is between Hauz Khas and close to IIT Delhi, it is named after the noted freedom fighter Madan Mohan Malviya, an educator and founded Banaras Hindu University. Malviya Nagar was populated in the 1950s by refugees from Pakistan, after the Partition of India. A large portion of the population were ethnic Rajasthani, U. P. Haryanvi and Sindhis. Today, Malviya Nagar is bounded by Panchsheel Enclave in the north, Sheikh Sarai in the east, Saket in the south and Sarvapriya Vihar in the west. Enclaves that are part of Malviya Nagar include Geetanjali Enclave, Bhavishya Nidhi Enclave, Khirki Extension, Shivalik colony and Sarvodaya Enclave, it is serviced by the Malviya Nagar station of the Delhi Metro. Malviya Nagar is home to Delhi Police's Training School. Malviya Nagar has a speciality hospital. There are several neighbourhood parks that are running areas. A number of Mughal era monuments are located in Malviya Nagar and are clustered close to the Corner Market.
This includes the tomb of Sufi saint Sheikh Yusuf Qattal who lived during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi and died in 1526-27. Malviya Nagar main market houses several nationalised and public sector banks and ATMs including Axis Bank, Syndicate Bank, Punjab National Bank, State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, Canara Bank, Vijaya Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Central Bank of India, South Indian Bank, Andhra Bank, IDBI Bank, Indian Bank; some of the foreign banks are Deutsche Bank. Malviya Nagar is bordered by two major New Delhi thoroughfares. Malviya Nagar is connected by other parts of New Delhi by Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System bus lines; the bus fare ranges from ₹ 5.00 to ₹ 15.00. The buses connecting Malviya Nagar are: Route 413: Mehrauli to Nizamuddin, via Khel Gaon and Kranti Marg. Route 500: Saket to Shivaji Stadium. Route 501: Saket to Mori Gate in North Delhi, via Hauz Khas, Yusuf Sarai and AIIMS. Route 503: Malviya Nagar to Mori Gate in North Delhi, via the Main Market and Corner Market, Hauz Khas, Yusuf Sarai and AIIMS.
Route 512: Ambedkar Nagar via Malviya Nagar, Hauz Khas, etc. Route 520: Malviya Nagar to Connaught Place via the Main Market and Corner Market, Hauz Khas, Yusuf Sarai and AIIMS. Routes 503 and 520 terminate at Malviya Nagar. Autorickshaws and taxis are available for public transportation. There is an auto-rickshaw stand is at the roundabout near Shivalik Gate. Saket is a nearby neighbourhood; the Delhi Metro Yellow Line to Gurgaon has a station at Malviya Nagar. Malviya Nagar is a constituency of the Delhi Assembly. Since 2013, the sitting Member of the Assembly has been Somnath Bharti of the Aam Aadmi Party. Malviya Nagar is part of the New Delhi and the current Member of Parliament is Meenakshi Lekhi. Malviya Nagar has two corporation seats ward no. 161 and 162. Malviya Nagar is residence of Kashmiri separatist leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani, where he lives for 3 months each year during winter in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani high commissioner to India Abdul Basit met Geelani at his Malviya Nagar residence in March 2015.
Map showing approximate location of Malviya Nagar "Development issues to the fore in Malviya Nagar" The Hindu', Friday 21 November 2008
A barista is a person a coffeehouse employee, who prepares and serves espresso-based coffee drinks. The word barista is an Italian word, in Italy, a barista is a male or female "bartender", who works behind a counter, serving hot drinks, cold alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, snacks; the native plural in English is baristas, while in Italian the plural is baristi for masculine or bariste for feminine. While the title is not regulated, most coffee shops use the title to describe the preparer of coffee and operator of an espresso machine. Baristas operate a commercial espresso machine, their role is preparing and pulling the shot. Espresso is a notoriously finicky beverage, good manual espresso making is considered a skilled task. Further, preparation of other beverages milk-based drinks such as cappuccinos and lattes, but non-espresso coffee such as drip or press pot, requires additional work and skill for effective frothing and most latte art; the barista has been trained to operate the machine and to prepare the coffee based on the guidelines of the roaster or shop owner, while more experienced baristas may have discretion to vary preparation or experiment.
To make the coffee well, there is a series of steps needing attention, including grinding the beans, extracting the coffee, frothing the milk and pouring. Beyond the preparation of espresso and other beverages and general customer service, skilled baristas acquire knowledge of the entire process of coffee to prepare a desired cup of coffee, including maintenance and programming of the machine, grinding methods and coffee plant cultivation, similar to how a sommelier is familiar with the entire process of wine making and consumption. A barista can acquire these skills by attending training classes, but they are more learned on the job. Formal barista competitions originated in Norway, one such is the World Barista Championships, held annually at varied international locations. Baristas worldwide compete, though they must first compete in a competition held in their own country to qualify to enter in the WBC; these competitions focus on promoting coffee. Each barista is judged on their skill representing their country's drinks.
National Barista Day is an event celebrated annually on the 1st of March in Australia. Created by the Almond Breeze Barista Blend company and the community Baristas for Baristas, the first National Barista Day was inaugurated in 2019; the day is to recognise the barista community in Australia, one of the leading coffee scenes in the world. The event was inspired from the results of a survey which demonstrated that only 79% of baristas feel appreciated; the concept was developed so Australians could show their barista love by celebrating the efforts of baristas on a nationwide basis. This is achieved by allowing the public to nominate their favourite barista for a cash prize. In 2019, the competition period in which these nominations occurred was between the 4th February 2019 and the 28th February 2019; the most successful nominee,'Australia's Barista of Choice', is given a $5,000 reward and an opportunity to share in the wisdom of a world-renowned barista. The champion is determined by an organised panel of industry leaders.
A further 9 barista champions are given $1000, of which they can use to further their skills or develop their business. In addition to this, the findings of a large research survey into Australia's barista culture are released on National Barista Day, in the form of an e-book available on the Baristas for Baristas website; the National Barista Day’s first champion was Celeste Norris, a barista from the Good 2 Go Cafe in Melbourne’s Hosier Lane. Bikini barista Soda jerk Sommelier Coffee portal
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte