Hateruma is an island in the Yaeyama District of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Part of the town Taketomi, it is the southern-most inhabited island in Japan at 24°2’25" north latitude, 123°47’16" east longitude. Hateruma is one of the Yaeyama Islands, is located 24 kilometres south of Iriomote-jima, the largest of the island group. Hateruma, composed of corals, has 12.7 km² of area and 600 inhabitants. The primary products of the island include sugarcane, refined sugar, Awanami, a prized type of the alcoholic beverage awamori, its southern location makes it one of the few places in Japan where the Southern Cross can be observed. Hateruma is visited by a comparatively high number of Japanese tourists from Ishigaki on day trips, as it boasts the southernmost tip of land of Japan. In addition, the southernmost school and the southernmost police station of Japan are tourist attractions. Further places of interest include: In the only village several well-preserved old houses showing the traditional architecture with a hip roof, red tiles and a shisa statue on the top can be seen.
Many old houses are still surrounded by a thick wall consisting of dark coral stones. In the village center there is a memorial to Oyake Akahachi, a rebel, born on Haterumajima around 1500; the memorial was erected on a platform of coral stones. One of the most interesting buildings on Haterumajima is the old watchtower Kodomori dating from the 17th century, it was used for observing the ships sailing to and from Ishigaki. As the top of the tower was one of the highest points of the flat island, it was used for smoke signals and for signal lights. A similar tower, called Puzumari, can be visited on the neighboring island Kuroshima. On the south coast there is a memorial indicating the southernmost tip of land of Japan; the south coast is steep and the sea is rough there. The north coast of Haterumajima is a favorite tourist destination because of its fine sand. Hateruma has a tropical climate as all twelve months there have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C. Hateruma Airport is located on the island but is not served by any commercial flights.
Haterujima is accessible by ferry from Ishigaki several times a day. There are some shops and restaurants on the island. Bikes are for hire at the harbour. Geography of Japan Japanese Archipelago List of extreme points of Japan Okinotorishima Paipatirōma-jima Yamakei: Ryukyu Nansei Shoto, p. 120-121. Tokio 2003. ISBN 4-635-01718-4 美しき島々 ～波照間島～ 美ら島物語 波照間島情報
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving in November 2000, it has been inhabited continuously since that date. The last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, an experimental inflatable space habitat was added in 2016; the station is expected to operate until 2030. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several new elements scheduled for launch in 2019; the ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles; the ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and other fields.
The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft, it circles the Earth in 92 minutes and completes 15.5 orbits per day. The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CSA; the ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment and the United States Orbital Segment, shared by many nations; as of January 2018, operations of the American segment were funded until 2025. Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024, but has proposed using elements of the Russian segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK; the ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and Russian Salyut and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US.
The station has been continuously occupied for 18 years and 161 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000. This is the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by Mir, it has been visited by astronauts and space tourists from 18 different nations. After the American Space Shuttle programme ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the ISS; the station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the American Dragon and Cygnus, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, the American Space Shuttle and the European Automated Transfer Vehicle. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, used for example to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis; the Soyuz return capsule has minimal downmass capability next to the astronauts. As of 14 March 2019, 236 people from 18 countries had visited the space station, many of them multiple times.
The United States sent 149 people, Russia sent 47, nine were Japanese, eight were Canadian, five were Italian, four were French, three were German, there were one each from Belgium, Denmark, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain and the United Kingdom. According to the original Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Rosaviakosmos, the International Space Station was intended to be a laboratory and factory in low Earth orbit, it was planned to provide transportation and act as a staging base for possible future missions to the Moon and asteroids. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial and educational purposes; the ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research. Small unmanned spacecraft can provide platforms for zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers over periods that exceed the capabilities of manned spacecraft.
The ISS simplifies individual experiments by eliminating the need for separate rocket launches and research staff. The wide variety of research fields include astrobiology, human research including space medicine and life sciences, physical sciences, materials science, space weather, weather on Earth. Scientists on Earth have access to the crew's data and can modify experiments or launch new ones, which are benefits unavailable on unmanned spacecraft. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing 160-man-hours per week of labour with a crew of 6. To detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe and scientists from all over the world built the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, which NASA compares to the Hubble Space Telescope, says could not be accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power requirements and data bandwidth needs. On 3 April 2013, NASA scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer.
According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays." The space environment is hostile to life. Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting pr
The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 5 million square kilometres. The Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the sea, which forms a portion of the western North Pacific Ocean, it is bordered by the Philippine archipelago on the southwest. The sea has a diverse undersea relief; the floor is formed into a structural basin by a series of geologic faults and fracture zones. Island arcs, which are extended ridges protruding above the ocean surface due to plate tectonic activity in the area, enclose the Philippine Sea to the north and south; the Philippine archipelago, Ryukyu Islands, the Marianas are examples. Another prominent feature of the Philippine Sea is the presence of deep sea trenches, among them the Philippine Trench and the Mariana Trench, containing the deepest point on the planet; the Philippine Sea has the Philippines and Taiwan to the west, Japan to the north, the Marianas to the east and Palau to the south.
Adjacent seas include the Celebes Sea, separated by Mindanao and smaller islands to the south, the South China Sea, separated by Philippines, the East China Sea, separated by the Ryukyu Islands. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Philippine Sea as "that area of the North Pacific Ocean off the Eastern coasts of the Philippine Islands", bounded as follows: On the west. By the eastern limits of the East Indian Archipelago, South China Sea and East China Sea. On the north. By the southeast coast of Kyushu, the southern and eastern limits of the Inland Sea and the south coast of Honshu Island. On the east. By the ridge joining Japan to the Bonin and Ladrone Islands, all these being included in the Philippine Sea. On the south. By a line joining Guam, Yap and Halmahera Islands; the Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the Philippine Sea. It subducts under the Philippine Mobile Belt which carries most of the Philippine archipelago and eastern Taiwan. Between the two plates is the Philippine Trench.
The Philippine Sea has a marine territorial scope of over 679,800 square kilometres, an EEZ of 2.2 million km2. Attributed to an extensive vicariance and island integrations, the Philippines contains the highest number of marine species per unit area relative to the countries within the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago, has been identified as the epicenter of marine biodiversity. With its inclusion in the Coral Triangle, the Philippine Sea encompasses over 3,212 fish species, 486 coral species, 800 seaweed species, 820 benthic algae species, wherein the Verde Island Passage is dubbed as “the center of the center of marine fish biodiversity”. Within its territory, thirty-three endemic species of fish have been identified, including the blue-spotted angelfish and the sea catfish; the Philippine marine territory has become a breeding and feeding ground for endangered marine species, such as the whale shark, the dugong, the megamouth shark. The Coral Triangle, or the Indo-Malayan Triangle, is considered as the global center of marine biodiversity, its total oceanic area 2 million square kilometers.
It encompasses the tropical waters of Malaysia, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. The Philippines is found at the apex of the Coral Triangle, taking up 300,000 square kilometres of the Coral Triangle, with the country's coral reef area in the Coral Triangle ranging from 10,750 square kilometres to 33,500 square kilometres, which has over 500 species of scleractinian or stony corals, 12 endemic coral species have been identified here as well; the Coral Triangle houses 75% of the world's coral species, estimated to be at around 600 different species, along with over 2000 different types of reef fish. It is home to six of the world's seven species of marine turtles, namely hawksbill, leatherback, green turtle, olive ridley, sea turtle. Up until now, there is no single explanation of the diversity found in the Coral Triangle, as most researchers have attributed the diversity to geological occurrences like plate tectonics, it helps in providing and supporting the livelihoods of 120 million people, is able to provide food to the Philippine coastal communities and millions more worldwide.
The whale shark tourism in the Coral Triangle helps provide a steady source of income for the community. Apart from the Philippines, the marine sources found in the Coral Triangle have high economic value across the globe. Countries surrounding the Coral Triangle help provide their locals with technical assistance and capability to build toward conservation and sustainability for food security, livelihoods and economic development. Climate change continuously affects the coastal ecosystem found in the Coral Triangle, as it contributes to rising sea levels and ocean acidification, thus endangering marine animals like fish and turtles; this has a negative effect on local livelihoods such as fishing and tourism. Corals are not able to adapt and survive if water will keep on warming, as this makes the corals absorb more carbon dioxide, altering pH balance making it acidic; the Philippine Sea hosts an exotic marine ecosyst
Yonaguni is a town located on Yonaguni Island in Yaeyama District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It is the westernmost municipality in Japan, is known for billfish fishing and as a diving spot. In 1987, divers discovered the Yonaguni Monument, a rock formation that some believe may be man-made, it is home to two Ryūkyūan writing systems, pictographic "kaida-di" and the symbols used to indicate family names, "dāhan". Presently, the oldest confirmed. Due to the southern style stone tools found, it is thought that a culture influenced by Southeast Asia existed here at one time. After this point, the history of the island of Yonaguni is unclear, but in the Gusuku Era, settlements were formed on the top of the plateau; the Shima Nakamura Ruins are one example, it is known for being the birth village of the famous woman chief, San’ai Isoba. From the time of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Yonaguni prospered as a commerce center with Taiwan. Due to World War II, until it was placed under control of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, the number of people involved in smuggling surged in the area.
The population in 1947 had reached 12,000, but although Yonaguni became incorporated as a town, a crackdown on smuggling led to a sharp decrease in the population. Ishigaki and the surrounding towns and cities are discussing a merger, with the exception of Yonaguni which abstained, cutting the members of parliament from 12 in half, down to 6. 1522 became a territory of the Ryūkyū Kingdom. 1872 The Ryūkyū Kingdom is abolished. 1879 The Ryūkyū Domain becomes Okinawa-ken. 1908 The island municipal system abolishes the magiri system, the Ishigaki-magiri, Ōhama-magiri, Miyara-magiri join the island of Yonaguni to become Yaeyama-son. 1914 Through a division of Yaeyama-son, the village of Yonaguni-son is formed. 1948 Yonaguni-chō is incorporated as a town. Yonaguni is the westernmost part of Japan and is a midpoint between the island of Ishigaki and Taiwan. At Cape Irizaki on the western edge of the island, there is a monument inscribed with the words: “The westernmost point in Japan.” The western third of the island is not part of Japan’s air defense identification zone or flight information region.
The distance between Yonaguni and Hualien City, Taiwan is 111 km and therefore closer than Ishigaki, 118 km away. For further comparison, Yonaguni is much closer to Taipei at 160 km than its own capital, about 2,000 km away. Due to this it is attempting to establish closer relations with Taiwan, including attempting to set up easier access to and from cities in Taiwan, with irregular service to Hualien established. Further cooperation has been opposed by the central government, thus the lack of further progress. Tahara River Mayor Shukichi Hokama Yonaguni Airport Japan Transocean Air – JAL group Ishigaki Airport 30 min. One round trip flight daily Ryūkyū Air Commuter – JAL and JTA groups Naha Airport 80 min. four round trip flights per week Ishigaki Airport 30 min. four round trip flights per week Kubura Harbor Fukuyama Maritime “Ferry Yonakuni” Ishigaki Harbor 4 hr. 30 min. Naha Harbor Sonai Harbor Okinawa Prefectural Road 216 – Yonaguni Island Route Okinawa Prefectural Road 217 – Yonaguni Harbor Route Yonaguni Transit Yonaguni Elementary School Kubura Elementary School Hikawa Elementary School Yonaguni Junior High School Kubura Junior High School – Japan’s westernmost schoolBecause there are no high schools on the island, students entering high school must attend on the Okinawa mainland or on the island of Ishigaki, 100% of junior-high schoolers continue on to high school.
Agarizaki Irizaki Tachigami-iwa Gunkan-iwa Kubura-bari The open set of the TV drama series, Dr. Kotō’s Clinic Sanninu-dai Tōyama-jinja – Japan’s westernmost Shinto shrine Yonaguni horse – One of eight traditional Japanese horses, the smallest horse in Japan. Unable to be seen anywhere other than the island of Yonaguni. Atlas moth – Called ayami habiru locally, this is the world’s largest moth. In Japan, it is found only in Yonaguni. Television broadcasts consist of translator stations in Yonaguni and Uchimichi and radio broadcasts are established from the Yonaguni television translator station, it is the only place in Japan where all three NHK Radio stations are on the FM band. In addition, Yonaguni receives Taiwanese television broadcasts, along with Taiwanese radio broadcasts. Through the cell towers on the east side of Taiwan that are geographically close to Yonaguni, it is possible, depending on the weather, to receive GSM phone service on Taiwanese phones from Irizaki. Yonaguni Homepage
Irabu Island, is an island in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The island is connected to Miyako Island by a 3,540-metre-long bridge, completed in January 2015. There are multiple language variants spoken on the island: Nakachi-Irabu, Sawada-Nakahama, Sarahama. Shimoji Island Ikema Island Miyako Island
Miyako Island is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Miyako Island is administered as part of the City of Miyakojima, which includes not only Miyako Island, but five other populated islands. Miyako-jima lies 300 kilometres southwest of Okinawa Island and 400 kilometres east of Taipei, Taiwan. With an area of 158.70 square kilometres, Miyako is the fourth-largest island in Okinawa Prefecture. The island is composed of limestone. Miyako-jima is subject to drought and is struck by typhoons. Miyako-jima is well known for its beauty the Eastern Cape, a nationally designated Place of Scenic Beauty at the southeastern most point of Miyako-jima, it is considered by many as one of the most beautiful spots in Japan. Other notable locations include Yonaha Maehama beach, Sunayama beach, Painagama Beach and the sights on Irabu-jima. There are three islands nearby which are connected by bridges to Miyako-jima, Ikema Island, Kurima Island. Ikema Bridge connects Ikema Island.
It is 1,425-metre-long and was completed in February 1992. Yonaha Maehama beach can be viewed from the opposite side on Kurima Island; the Miyako language, one of several Ryukyuan languages spoken there to some degree. Miyako is home to a unique festival called Paantu, which occurs in the ninth month of the old calendar. Three men dressed in grass and mud go walk around town smearing the mud on houses and people, they carry sticks in an expressionless mask in the other. Legend holds that those who have been muddied by the Pantu will have a year of protection and good fortune. Owners of new homes will invite Pantu to give a muddy'blessing' to their homes. Miyako has its own version of soba. Otōri is a custom of a distilled beverage native to Okinawa, Japan, it is performed by people sitting. One offers a toast, drinks from a small glass, offers some to each person at the table making a round, going to the right; when the toaster makes his way back to his spot the person who passed the otori before pours him another glass.
He announces "tsunagimasu" and drinks his second glass. After a brief interval, it is the turn of the next person to pass the otori, which continues until the celebration is ended. Miyako-jima is home to sugarcane cultivation, produces brown sugar. Miyako jōfu is a locally produced hand-woven textile made from ramie fiber, it was known as Satsuma jōfu. The textile traces its production to the Tensho period, 1573-92; the city has seen a tourism boom with locals and Taiwanese in the early 2010s, but since 2016 is struggling to cope with cruise megaships from mainland China, but the port can only handle ships as large as 50,000 tons they hope to service ships as large as 200,000 tons. However, this may change the character of the island as its population is rural; the Miyako Strait between the island and Okinawa mainland are problematic due to their width to allow Chinese ships to pass through, without invoking UNCLOS rights. However, such passages puts Japan on high alert due to fears of territory being cut off and degrades bilateral relations.
In late April 2015, it was confirmed that the Japanese Ministry of Defense was in advanced planning regarding the permanent deployment of a GSDF security unit to Miyakojima, to begin sometime in fiscal year 2016. This is part of ongoing efforts to improve the defenses of the Nansei Islands. A GSDF security unit is a battalion sized force, of up to 500 personnel, whose role on Miyakojima will include providing the initial response to large-scale disasters in the area as well as acting as a rapid response force to counterattacks on remote islands within its area of responsibility; the Miyakojima security unit's exact composition is unclear as of April 2015, though given its known taskings, it's that the TOE will include both the Komatsu LAV and soft skinned vehicles with all terrain capability. Consideration is currently being given to deploying GSDF units equipped with anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles to the island. Miyakojima City Tropical Plant Garden Japan Airlines maintains a ticketing office on Miyako Island.
It is only for domestic flights. Miyakojima 100 km Ultramarathon. Higashi-hennazaki Eastern Cape of Miyako Island Paantu Miyako Airport MIM-104F Type 3 Chū-SAM Miyakojima Website Pantu in Japanese WLCM.net, Miyako Folklore English translation by Mark Wisniewski WLMC.net, Miyako Natural Science English translation by Mark Wisniewski