Larimer County, Colorado
Larimer County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 299,630; the county seat and most populous city is Fort Collins. The county was named for Jr. the founder of Denver. Larimer County comprises CO Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located at the northern end of the Front Range, at the edge of the Colorado Eastern Plains along the border with Wyoming. Larimer County was created in 1861 as one of seventeen original counties in the Colorado Territory. Controversy existed as to whether Larimer County ended at the Medicine Bow Range or at the Continental Divide thirty miles farther west. An 1886 Colorado Supreme Court decision set the boundary at the Continental Divide, although the land between the Medicine Bow Range and the divide was made part of Jackson County in 1909. Unlike that of much of Colorado, founded on the mining of gold and silver, the settlement of Larimer County was based entirely on agriculture, an industry that few thought possible in the region during the initial days of the Colorado Gold Rush.
The mining boom entirely passed the county by. It would take the introduction of irrigation to the region in the 1860s to bring the first widespread settlement to the area. At the time of the arrival of Europeans in the early 19th century, the present-day county was occupied by Native Americans, with the Utes occupying the mountainous areas and the Cheyenne and Arapaho living on the piedmont areas along the base of the foothills. French fur trappers infiltrated the area in the early decades of the 19th century, soon after the area became part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase and was organized as part of the Missouri Territory. In 1828 William H. Ashley ascended the Cache la Poudre River on his way to the Green River in present-day Utah; the river itself received its name in the middle 1830s from an obscure incident in which French-speaking trappers hid gunpowder along its banks, somewhere near present-day Laporte or Bellvue. In 1848 a group of Cherokee crossed through the county following the North Fork of the Poudre to the Laramie Plains on their way to California along a route that became known as the Cherokee Trail.
The area of county was opened to white settlement following negotiations with the Cheyenne and Arapaho in the 1858 Treaty of Fort Laramie, by which time the area was part of the Nebraska Territory. The first U. S. settlers arrived. Janis, who had visited the area near Bellvue in 1844 and proclaimed it "the most beautiful place on earth", returned to file his official claim and helped found the first U. S. settlement in present-day Colorado, called Colona, just west of Laporte. Nearly Mariano Medina established Fort Namaqua along the Big Thompson River just west of present-day Loveland; the first irrigation canals were established along the Poudre in the 1860s. In 1862 the settlement established by Janis became a stagecoach stop along the Overland Stage Route, established because of threats of attacks from Native Americans on the northern trails in Wyoming. In 1861, Laporte was designated as the first county seat after the organization of the Colorado Territory. In 1862, the United States Army established an outpost near Laporte, designated as Camp Collins.
A devastating flood in June 1864 wiped out the outpost. At the urging of Joseph Mason, who had settled along the Poudre in 1860, the Army relocated its post downstream adjacent to Mason's land along the Overland stage route; the site of the new post became the nucleus of the town of Fort Collins, incorporated in 1873 after the withdrawal of the Army. By that time and others had convinced the Colorado Territorial Legislature to designate the new town as the county seat. In 1870, the legislature designated Fort Collins as the location of the state agricultural college, although the institution would exist only on paper for another decade while local residents sought money to construct the first campus buildings. In 1873, Robert A. Cameron and other members of the Greeley Colony established the Fort Collins Agricultural Colony, which expanded the grid plan and population of Fort Collins. One of the primary goals of the early citizens of the county was the courting of railroads. County residents were disappointed when the Denver Pacific Railroad bypassed the county in 1870 in favor of Greeley.
The first railroad arrived in the county in 1877 when the Colorado Central Railroad extended a line north from Golden via Longmont to Cheyenne. The town council of Fort Collins designated right-of-way through the center of town for the line, creating a contentious issue to this day. Along the new railroad sprung up the new platted towns of Loveland and Berthoud, named after the president and chief surveyor of the Colorado Central. Wellington was named for a railroad employee; the Greeley, Salt Lake and Pacific Railroad arrived three years as a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroad, with the intention of creating a transcontinental line over Cameron Pass. Although the line was never extended over the mountains, it opened up the quarrying of stone for the railroad at Stout, furnishing another industry for the region; the brief attempt at the mining of gold in the region centered at the now ghost town of Manhattan in the Poudre Canyon. The early growth of agriculture, which depended on direct river irrigation, experienced a second boom in 1902 with the introduction of the cultivation of sugar beets, accompanied by the construction of th
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. "Nyingma" means "ancient," and is referred to as Ngangyur because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Old Tibetan in the eighth century. The Tibetan alphabet and grammar was created for this endeavour; the Nyingma believes in hidden terma treasures and place an emphasis on Dzogchen. They incorporate local religious practices and local deities and elements of shamanism, some of which it shares with Bon; the Nyingma tradition comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to the Indian master Padmasambhava. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders, are adaptations. In modern times, the Nyingma lineage has been centered in Kham and has been associated with the Rime movement. Traditional Nyingma texts see themselves as a lineage, established by Samantabhadra, the “primordial buddha” and, the embodiment of the Dharmakāya, the "truth body" of all buddhas.
Nyingma sees Vajradhara and other buddhas as teachers of their many doctrines. Samantabhadra's wisdom and compassion spontaneously radiates myriad teachings, all appropriate to the capacities of different beings and entrusts them to "knowledge holders", the chief of, Dorjé Chörap, who gives them to Vajrasattva and the dakini Légi Wangmoché, who in turn disseminate them among human siddhas; the first human teacher of the tradition was said to be Garab Dorje. Padmasambhava is the most famous and revered figure of the early human teachers and there are many legends about him, making it difficult to separate history from myth. Other early teachers include Vimalamitra, Jambel Shé Nyen, Sri Simha, Jñanasutra. Most of these figures are associated with the Indian region of Oddiyana. Buddhism existed in Tibet at least from the time of king Thothori Nyantsen in the eastern regions; the reign of Songtsen Gampo saw an expansion of Tibetan power, the adoption of a writing system and promotion of Buddhism.
Around 760, Trisong Detsen invited Padmasambhava and the Nalanda abbot Śāntarakṣita to Tibet to introduce Buddhism to the "Land of Snows." Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist texts into Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Śāntarakṣita, 108 translators, 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project; the translations from this period formed the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet and are known as the "Old Translations". Padmasambhava supervised the translation of tantras. Padmasambhava and Śāntarakṣita founded the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet: Samye. However, this situation would not last: The explosive developments were interrupted in the mid-ninth century as the Empire began to disintegrate, leading to a century-long interim of civil war and decentralization about which we know little; the early Vajrayana, transmitted from India to Tibet may be differentiated by the specific term "Mantrayana". "Mantrayana" is the Sanskrit of what became rendered in Tibetan as "Secret Mantra": this is the self-identifying term employed in the earliest literature.
From this basis, Vajrayana was established in its entirety in Tibet. From the eighth until the eleventh century, this textual tradition was the only form of Buddhism in Tibet. With the reign of King Langdarma, the brother of King Ralpachen, a time of political instability ensued which continued over the next 300 years, during which time Buddhism was persecuted and forced underground because the King saw it as a threat to the indigenous Bön tradition. Langdarma persecuted monks and nuns, attempted to wipe out Buddhism, his efforts, were not successful. A few monks escaped to Amdo in the northeast of Tibet, where they preserved the lineage of monastic ordination; the period of the 9-10th centuries saw increasing popularity of a new class of texts which would be classified as the Dzogchen "Mind series". Some of these texts present themselves as translations of Indian works, though according to David Germano, most are original Tibetan compositions; these texts promote the view that true nature of the mind is empty and luminous and seem to reject traditional forms of practice.
An emphasis on the Dzogchen textual tradition is a central feature of the Nyingma school. From the eleventh century onward, there was an attempt to reintroduce Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet; this saw new translation efforts which led to the foundation of new Vajrayana schools which are collectively known as the Sarma "New translation" schools because they reject the old translations of the Nyingma canon. It was at that time that Nyingmapas began to see themselves as a distinct group and the term "Nyingma" came into usage to refer to those who continued to use the "Old" or "Ancient" translations. Nyingma writers such as Rongzom and Nyangrel were instrumental in defending the old texts from the critiques of the Sarma translators and in establishing a foundation for the mythology and philosophy of the Nyingma tradition. Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo was the most influential of the 11th century Nyingma authors, wr
Shambhala Training is a secular approach to meditation developed by Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chogyam Trungpa and his students. It is based on what Trungpa calls Shambhala Vision, which sees enlightened society as not purely mythical, but as realizable by people of all faiths through practices of mindfulness/awareness, non-aggression, sacred outlook, he writes: The Shambhala Training teachings cover art and politics and the goal of creating an enlightened society. That goal is presented as not a social and political process, but one requiring individuals to develop an awareness of the basic goodness and inherent dignity of themselves, of others, of the everyday details of the world around them; this is facilitated by cultivating bravery. Shambhala Training is administered worldwide by Shambhala International; the Satdharma community offers a comparable "Shambhala Education" course of training in Ojai, California. Though Shambhala Training is a personal, ongoing practice of meditation and engaged activities, the Shambhala Training curriculum is presented in a series of progressive weekend programs, a longer retreat.
"The Heart of Warriorship" curriculum consist of five weekend programs with each weekend followed by a corresponding'Everyday Life' class. The latter seven weekends are called "The Sacred Path," as follows: Level I: The Art of Being Human Meditation in Everyday Life Level II: Birth of the Warrior Contentment in Everyday Life Level III: Warrior in the World Joy in Everyday Life Level IV: Awakened Heart Fearlessness in Everyday Life Level V: Open Sky Wisdom in Everyday Life Great Eastern Sun Windhorse Drala Meek Perky Outrageous and Inscrutable Golden Key The Warrior Assembly is a residential program of less than two weeks duration These weekends are intended to be completed in order, though Windhorse and Drala are sometimes exchanged in the sequence. Students may continue onto an intensive nine- to fourteen-day-long residential retreat called Warriors Assembly. Practices and root texts are made available as students complete the prerequisite study and practice stages. However, it is claimed by Shambhala adherents that much of their content is found in the book Shambhala: The Sacred Path of the Warrior and others.
The basic meditation technique presented in Shambhala Training includes sitting with legs loosely crossed, taking good posture, leaving the eyes open, focusing attention on the out-breath. A feeling of dissolving accompanies the out-breath but no specific attention is prescribed during the in-breath; the hands are placed face down on the thighs. Thoughts may be labeled neutrally as "thinking". Variations on the technique are taught during the first five "Heart of Warriorship" weekends. Meditation is described in Shambala as "a natural state of the human mind—at rest, alert." Shambhala Training contains teachings relating to personal and societal situations. One central teaching is on natural hierarchy. At first glance this appears to suggest that hierarchy is inherent to human societies and therefore oppression and subjugation are inevitable, but conventional social hierarchies or privilege based on class, race, etc. would be considered unnatural hierarchies. Instead the Shambhala Training notion of natural hierarchy is akin to an arranged mandala where people are connected and communicate in natural ways.
The Chinese triune notion of Heaven and Man is considered the prototypical pattern of natural hierarchy. Natural hierarchy recognizes that some people are better than others at things and communities benefit from a natural arrangement. However, these arrangements of people are fluid and ossification creates unnatural hierarchy; some key concepts presented include: basic goodness - our essential nature is good and worthwhile. This is sometimes contrasted with the idea of original sin, although it is arguable that both notions include the concept of a primordial purity, stained or covered over. Cocoon - conceptualization can become armor that cuts us off from the vividness of the world around us, we are better to discard that armor. Wind Horse - akin to Qi or life force, practitioners cultivate windhorse through a variety of practices and disciplines. Drala - akin to kami or spirit conventionally, this refers to the use of direct sense perceptions to overcome conceptual mental fixation; the four dignities - Meek Tiger, Perky Lion, Outrageous Garuda and Inscrutable Dragon heaven and man - the role of humanity is to connect the ground of the situation with the vision of possibility, so to rule oneself or society is to join heaven and man.
During the Sacred Path weekends and Warriors Assembly, students study Shambhala texts composed by Chögyam Trungpa, as well as practices such as that of the stroke of ashé. The stroke of ashé was first produced on the night of October 25, 1976, while Trungpa was leading a three-month seminary in Land O' Lakes, Wisconsin, it was followed by subsequent texts, some of which were considered to be terma, which were received over the next few years. Chogyam Trungpa wrote a number of Shambhala texts throughout his life, received a number of them as terma. Long-time students and members of his Nalanda Translation Committee elaborated on his reception of terma in a 2006 newsletter: At the first Kalapa Assembly in the fall of 1978, during one of our translation sessions with the Vidyadhara, Larry Mermelstein engaged him in an interesting discussion about the nature of the Shambhala texts he was presenting to us; when asked whether they were terma, he replied, “Yes, sort of.” When w
The Chogyal were the monarchs of the former kingdoms of Sikkim and Ladakh in present-day India, which were ruled by separate branches of the Namgyal dynasty. The Chogyal was the absolute monarch of Sikkim from 1642 to 1975, when the monarchy was abolished and its people voted in a referendum to make Sikkim India's 22nd state. In Bhutan, Chogyal "Dharma King" or "Religious King" is a title, conferred upon a special class of temporal and spiritual rulers. In Bhutan, the Chogyal were given the respectful title Zhabdrung. In this context, the Chogyal was a recognised reincarnation of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the 17th century Tibetan-born founder of Bhutan. A position of supreme importance, the Bhutanese Chogyal was above both the highest monastic authority, the Je Khenpo, the highest temporal ruler, the Deb Raja or Druk Desi. There were two main lines of Zhabdrung incarnations in Bhutan. From 1642 to 1975, Sikkim was ruled by the Namgyal Monarchy, founded by the fifth-generation descendants of Guru Tashi, a prince of the Minyak House who came to Sikkim from the Kham district of Tibet.
Chogyal means'righteous ruler', was the title conferred upon Sikkim's Buddhist kings during the reign of the Namgyal Monarchy. The reign of the Chogyal was foretold by the patron saint of Guru Rinpoche; the 8th-century saint had predicted the rule of the kings. In 1642, Chogyal Phuntsog Namgyal was crowned as Sikkim's first ruler in Yuksom; the crowning of the king was a great event and he was crowned by three revered lamas who arrived there from three different directions, namely the north and south. The son from the first marriage of Palden Thondup Namgyal, Wangchuk Namgyal, was named the 13th Chogyal after his father's death on 29 January 1982, but the position no longer confers any official authority. Kingdom of Sikkim Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh History of the Namgyal Dynasty
Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche was a Vajrayana master, poet and head of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism from 1987 to 1991. As the primary custodian of the teachings of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Dilgo Khyentse was the de facto custodian of the vast majority of Tibetan Buddhist teachings, he taught many eminent teachers, including the Dalai Lama. After the Chinese invasion of Tibet, his personal effort was crucial in the preservation of Tibetan Buddhism, he was born in 1910 in the Denhok Valley at Kham Derge, Eastern Tibet, to a family directly descended from the ninth-century King Trisong Detsen. His father was a minister to the King of Derge; when he was seven years old, he was publicly recognized as one of the reincarnations of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo by Shechen Gyaltsap Rinpoche at Shechen, one of the six principal monasteries of the Nyingmapa school. During the next few years Dilgo Khyentse received full schooling from various tutors, in addition to training in meditation, in the study of the dharma in general, of tantra specifically.
His root guru was Shechen Gyaltsap Rinpoche, Dzongsar Khyentse Chokyi Lodro was his other main spiritual master. After he completed what is known as the Preliminary Practices, Khyentse spent most of the next 13 years in silent retreat in remote hermitages and caves near his birthplace. After completing his retreat at the age of 28, Khyentse spent many years with Dzongsar Khyentse Chokyi Lodro. After receiving from Khyentse Chokyi Lodro the many empowerments of the Rinchen Terdzo, Dilgo Khyentse requested to spend the rest of his life in solitary meditation, but Khyentse Chokyi Lodro answered, "The time has come for you to teach and transmit to others the countless precious teachings you have received." Additionally he received teachings at Palpung Monastery from the 11th Tai Situ Rinpoche, full instruction on the ancient Guhyagarbha Tantra and its various commentaries from Khenpo Tubga at Kyangma Ri-tro. In all he studied with over 50 teachers from the various oral and practice lineages of Tibetan Buddhism.
On, the Dalai Lama regarded Dilgo Khyentse as his principal teacher in the Nyingma tradition and of Dzogchen. Khyentse was one of the main teachers of Chögyam Trungpa, whom he held in high regard. In the 1950s, as rebellions broke out in Kham in response to the imposition of Chinese Communist rule and his family escaped to central Tibet, leaving behind his library of dharma books and most of his own writings. In 1959, after the 14th Dalai Lama left Tibet, his family and a few disciples left Tibet, including his brother, the 9th Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche and Tenga Rinpoche, headed for Bhutan; the royal family of Bhutan invited him to teach. As he made frequent visits to give teachings to the 14th Dalai Lama at Dharamasala in India, he began giving teachings all over the Himalayas, Southeast Asia and the West, he engaged in scholarship and composed numerous poems, meditation texts and commentaries. He was considered to have discovered numerous termas, he was one of the leading masters of the pith-instructions of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, one of the principal holders of the Longchen Nyingtik tradition.
In 1980, he founded the Shechen Tennyi Dargyeling Monastery in Nepal, where he transplanted the Shechen tradition to a new home near the great stupa of Boudhanath, just northeast of Kathmandu. There he gave many teachings over the years to hundreds of other lamas and students from around the world. Over this same period, until his paranirvana in 1991, Khyentse was involved in publishing as many Tibetan Buddhist teachings as possible, over 300 volumes altogether, he was one of the few Tibetan Lamas accorded the honorific title "His Holiness". Following the death of Dudjom Rinpoche in 1987, he became the head of the Nyingma School, remained so until his death in Bhutan on 28 September 1991. Final cremation ceremonies were held for him over a three-day period near Paro in Bhutan, in November 1992 and were attended by over 100 lamas, the Royal Family and ministers of Bhutan, 500 western disciples and 50,000 devotees. Gyatrul, in a purport to Karma Chagmé, conveys Khyentse's'samaya', diligence and humility in receiving'wang', lineal transmission and'rlung' as rendered into English by Wallace: With respect to oral transmission if the lineage is impure, it is not a problem.
Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche sought out and received any oral transmission he thought was on the verge of disappearing. It made no difference, giving it, he would receive it and, in turn, pass it on to make sure. Dilgo Khyentse Yangsi Rinpoche, aka Ugyen Tenzin Jigme Lhundrup, the son of Tsikey Chokling Rinpoche and brother of Phakchok Rinpoche, who resides in Bhutan, was appointed as the incarnation of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche in December 1995: Khyentse Yangsi Rinpoche was born in Nepal on June 30, 1993; when Khyentse Rinpoche passed away, his close students requested Trulshik Rinpoche, his most senior and accomplished disciple, to find his incarnation. In 2015 he visited the newly-opened Buddhist Community Centre UK in Aldershot in the United Kingdom; the film Spirit of Tibet: Journey to Enlightenment, The Life and World of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche was released in 1998. It was made by Matthieu Ricard who had traveled with Khyen
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog