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Salé

Salé is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town. Founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers, the Banu Ifran, it became a haven for pirates in the 17th century as an independent republic before being incorporated into Alaouite Morocco; the city's name is sometimes transliterated as Sallee. The National Route 6 connects it to Fez and Meknes in the east and the N1 to Kénitra in the north-east, it recorded a population of 890,403 in the 2014 Moroccan census. The Phoenicians established a settlement called Sala the site of a Roman colony, Sala Colonia, on the south side of the Bou Regreg estuary, it is sometimes confused with Salé, on the opposite north bank. Salé was founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers who cultivated the legend that the name was derived from that of Salah, son of Ham, son of Noah; the Banu Ifran Berber dynasty began construction of a mosque about the time.

The present-day Great Mosque of Salé was built during the 12th-century reign of the Almohad sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf, although not completed until 1196. During the 17th century, Rabat was known as New Salé, or Salé la neuve, as it expanded beyond the ancient city walls to include the Chellah, which had become a fortified royal necropolis under the rule of Abu Yaqub Yusuf's son, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur. In September 1260, Salé was raided and occupied by warriors sent in a fleet of ships by King Alfonso X of Castile. After the victory of the Marinid dynasty, the historic Bab el-Mrissa was constructed by the Sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq which remains as a landmark of the city. In the 17th century, Salé became a haven for Barbary pirates, among them Moriscos turned corsair, who formed an independent Republic of Salé. Salé pirates roamed the seas, cruised the shipping routes between Atlantic colonial ports and Europe, seizing ships from the Americas and Europe for goods and captives, they sold their sometimes passengers into slavery in the Arabic world.

Despite the legendary reputation of the Salé corsairs, their ships were based across the river in Rabat, called "New Salé" by the English. The European powers took action to try to subdue the threat from the Barbary Coast. On 20 July 1629, the city of Salé was bombarded by French Admiral Isaac de Razilly with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Catherine, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. During the decades preceding the independence of Morocco, Salé was the stronghold of some "national movement" activists; the reading of the "Latif" became popular in some cities of Morocco. In 1851, Salé was bombarded in retaliation for piracy being practiced by Moroccan ships against European traders. A petition against the so-called "Berber Dahir" was given to Sultan Mohamed V and the Resident General of France; the petition and the "Latif" prayer led to the withdrawal and adjustment of the so-called "Berber Decree" of May 1930. The activists who opposed the "Berber Decree" feared that the explicit recognition of the Berber Customary Law would threaten the position of Islam and its Sharia law system.

Others believed that opposing the French-engineered "Berber Decree" was a means to turn the table against the French occupation of Morocco. The widespread storm, created by the "Berber Dahir" controversy created a somewhat popular Moroccan nationalist elite based in Salé and Fez; this period helped develop the political awareness and activism that would lead fourteen years to the signing of the Manifest of Independence of Morocco on 11 January 1944 by many "Slawi" activists and leaders. Salé has been deemed to have been the stronghold of the Moroccan left for many decades, where many leaders have resided. Salé has played a important part in Moroccan history; the first demonstrations for independence against the French, for example, began in Salé. Numerous government officials, decision makers, royal advisers of Morocco have been from Salé. Salé people, the Slawis, have always had a "tribal" sense of belonging, a sense of pride that developed into a feeling of superiority towards the "berranis", i.e. Outsiders.

The prefecture is divided administratively into the following: Salé features a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot dry summers and mild damp winters. Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Salé has a mild, temperate climate, shifting from cool in winter to warm days in the summer months; the nights are always cool, with daytime temperatures rising about +7/8 C°. The winter highs reach only 17.2 °C in December–February. Summer daytime highs hover around 25 °C, but may exceed 30 °C during heat waves. Summer nights are pleasant and cool, ranging between 11 °C and 19 °C and exceeding 20 °C. Rabat belongs to the sub-humid bioclimatic zone with an average annual precipitation of 560 mm. Salé's climate resembles the southwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the coast of SoCal. Recent developments, including the new bridge connecting to Rabat, the new Rabat-Salé tramway and coastal development demonstrate government investment. Private development companies such as Emaa

Port Austin Township, Michigan

Port Austin Township is a civil township of Huron County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,591 at the 2000 census; the Village of Port Austin is at the western end of the township on M-25 and at the northern terminus of M-53. Grindstone City is an unincorporated community in the eastern end of the township at 44°03′01″N 82°54′03″W, it was established in 1834. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 16.7 square miles, of which 16.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,591 people, 760 households, 471 families residing in the township; the population density was 97.0 per square mile. There were 1,690 housing units at an average density of 103.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 98.49% White, 0.13% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.38% of the population.

There were 760 households out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.63. In the township the population was spread out with 16.7% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 17.9% from 25 to 44, 33.1% from 45 to 64, 27.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the township was $32,841, the median income for a family was $39,554. Males had a median income of $30,563 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,219. About 11.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.

Romig, Walter. Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Great Lakes Books Series. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1838-X. Retrieved July 3, 2017

Northern Counties (bus manufacturer)

The Northern Counties Motor & Engineering Company was an English builder of bus and coach bodywork based in Wigan. Northern Counties Motor & Engineering Company was founded in Wigan in 1919 by Henry Lewis; the Lewis family remained owners of the company. As was common at the time, early products were bodywork and repairs for private automobiles together with a tyre fitting service. By the early 1920s, the private automobile work had ceased and the manufacture of bodywork for service buses commenced. Bodywork was for both double deck vehicles. Few coaches were produced. During World War II, Northern Counties was authorised by the government to produce bus bodies to a utility specification using steel-framed construction. Northern Counties established a loyal client base and reputation for quality construction in the post-war years. Notable clients included local operators SHMD Board, Manchester Corporation and Lancashire United Transport. Further afield, Barton Transport and Southdown Motor Services were among a number of regular customers.

In 1967, fellow bodybuilder Massey Brothers, located in nearby Pemberton, was acquired and became a part of the Northern Counties operations.' The Massey factory was retained and used as a paint-shop and for final completion of bodywork assembled at Wigan Lane. The Transport Act 1968 merged the municipal corporations of Manchester, Bolton, Stockport, Rochdale and Stalybridge, Hyde and Dukinfield Joint Board; the resulting conglomerate was known as the Southeast Lancashire Northeast Cheshire Passenger Transport Authority known as SELNEC. SELNEC was faced with a fleet of 2,500 vehicles consisting of a wide variety of types and manufacturers, reflecting the preferences of their former municipal owners. Northern Counties worked with SELNEC to develop a standard bus for fleet replacement; the Local Government Act 1972 came into effect on 1 April 1974. This reorganisation added Wigan Corporation Transport to SELNEC to create the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive, the largest bus operator outside London until privatisation in the late 1980s.

A large proportion of Northern Counties production after this time was for the Greater Manchester fleet. In 1975 the company collaborated with Foden, a well-known manufacturer of commercial vehicles, to produce a semi-integral double-deck vehicle intended to compete with chassis manufacturer Leyland. Leyland had merged with traditional rival Daimler and was experiencing production and quality problems. In the event, only seven Foden NCs were produced, going to Greater Manchester PTE, West Midlands PTE, West Yorkshire PTE, Derby City Transport and Potteries Motor Traction. In June 1983, Greater Manchester Transport purchased a 49% shareholding in the business. In May 1991, Northern Counties was placed in administration. Northern Counties reputation and engineering skills saw it survive these difficult times and become a major supplier once again as demand picked up in the mid-1990s. In May 1995, it was purchased for £10 million by the Henlys Group, owner of Plaxton; the Northern Counties name was dropped in 1999, vehicles were badged as Plaxton.

In 2000, Henlys entered a joint venture with the Mayflower Corporation, owner of bodybuilder Alexander and chassis manufacturer Dennis. The joint venture was known as TransBus, vehicles were badged using the TransBus name. On 31 March 2004, TransBus International was put into administration. On 21 May 2004, TransBus International was bought by a consortium of merchant banker Noble Grossart, businessmen David Murray and Brian Souter; the new company was named Alexander Dennis. On 26 January 2005, the former Northern Counties Wigan plant closed, after completing outstanding orders of Plaxton President bodies. Palatine Paladin Prestige President Ogden, Eric. Northern Counties of Wigan; the Transport Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903839-10-5. Booth, Gavin; the British Bus Today and Tomorrow. Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 0-7110-1296-2 Townsin, Alan; the British Bus Story - The'Sixties - Turbulent Times. The Transport Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86317-118-4 Rowe, Bob. Northern Counties of Wigan. Venture Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-905304-02-1 Media related to Northern Counties Motor & Engineering Company at Wikimedia Commons Showbus gallery A useful listing of all bodies built from 1956 to 2005 Detailed history of the development of the SELNEC standard Gallery of over 200 Northern Counties bodied buses