Salamanca is a city in western Spain, the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River, its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. As of 2018, the municipality has a population of 143,978, it is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students, it is situated 200 kilometres west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is one of the oldest universities in Spain and the third oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca, it is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago. The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vaccaei, a Celtic tribe, or the Vettones, a Celtic or pre-Celtic indo-European tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river.
In 220 BC Hannibal captured it. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta to the south and Asturica Augusta to the north, its Roman bridge dates from the 1st century, was a part of this road. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania, Salamanca was part of this region; the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was an episcopal see, signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo. Salamanca surrendered to the Moors, led by Musa bin Nusair, in the year 712 AD. For years, this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers; the constant fighting of the Kingdom of León first, the Kingdom of Castile and León against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement.
After the battle of Simancas the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102. One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most prestigious academic centres in Europe. During the 16th century, the city reached its height of splendour. During that period, the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time; the juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being, economic rights and spiritual rights.
In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine. Vesalius was acquitted. Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century, but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth. In this period, the new baroque Cathedral and main square were finished. In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, in which an Anglo-Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont, was fought on 22 July 1812; the western quarter of Salamanca was damaged by cannon fire. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history and many thousands of men were killed in the space of only a few short hours. During the devastating Spanish Civil War the city went over to the Nationalist side and was used as the de facto capital. Franco was named Generalissimo on 21 September 1937 while at the city, in the same year was formed, by a decree signed in the city, the official fascist party that ruled Spain until the end of the Francoist regime suppressing any other political party.
The Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative departments to Burgos, being more central, was better suited for this purpose. However, some administrative departments, Franco's headquarters and the military commands stayed in Salamanca, along with the German and Italian fascist delegations, making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war. Like much of fervently Catholic and rural Leon and Old Castile regions, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Francisco Franco's regime for its long duration. In 1988, the old city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1998, it was declared a European Capital of Culture for year 2002 (shared
Ali Abdi Aware is a Somali politician. Aware hails from the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia Born in 15 may 1957 in Bander beila city, he belongs to the Majeerteen Harti Darod clan. Aware has over the years held various positions in the Puntland government, including as the State Minister of the Presidency for International Relations and Social Affairs. In 2008, he ran for president in that year's Puntland elections, he was eliminated in the first round of receiving 4.55 % of ballots. In 2013, Aware presented himself as a candidate in the 2014 Puntland presidential elections, which took place on 8 January 2014 in Garowe, he was eliminated in the first round of voting, with former Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Mohamed Ali declared the winner. Ali Haji Warsame Haji Mohamed Yasin Ismail Ibrahim Artan Ismail Shire Haji Farah
Laura is a village in Miami County, United States. The population was 474 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. Laura was laid out around 1840. A post office called Laura has been in operation since 1850; the village was named after the first postmaster's daughter. Laura was incorporated as a village in 1892. Laura is located at 39°59′39″N 84°24′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.27 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 474 people, 174 households, 120 families living in the village; the population density was 1,755.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 185 housing units at an average density of 685.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.6% White, 1.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 174 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.0% were non-families.
19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.19. The median age in the village was 38 years. 23.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 487 people, 175 households, 131 families living in the village; the population density was 1,714.6 people per square mile. There were 182 housing units at an average density of 640.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.54% White, 0.21% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.26% of the population. There were 175 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.1% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.18. In the village, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $45,833, the median income for a family was $46,250. Males had a median income of $33,542 versus $23,906 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,912. About 2.7% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over