Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat pork. Salami was popular among southern and central European peasants because it can be stored at room temperature for up to 40 days once cut, supplementing a meager or inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Countries and regions across Europe make their own traditional varieties of salami; the word salami in English comes from the plural form of the Italian salame. It is a plural word in English for cured meats of a European style. In Romanian and Turkish, the word is salam; the name may be derived from the Latin word salumen. The word originates from the word sale with a termination that in Italian indicates a collective noun. Thus, it meant "all kinds of salted"; the Italian tradition of cured meats includes several styles, the word salame soon meant only the most popular kind—a salted and spiced meat and extruded into an elongated, thin casing left to undergo natural fermentation and drying for days, months, or years. Fermentation—allowing beneficial or benign organisms to grow in food to prevent destructive or toxic ones from growing, with respect to meat, has been around for thousands of years.

This is evident in the presence of various types of sausages found globally. Environmental conditions dictate what food processes are used, as seen in the Mediterranean and southern Europe, where "meat products are dried to lower water activity values, taking advantage of the long dry and sunny days, while in northern Europe, fermented sausages require smoking for further preservation."In Europe, the main countries that produce salami are France, Hungary and Spain, which make several hundred million kilograms per year. Worldwide, the many different versions of sausage each have their own flavor profiles. Additionally, each sausage has its own type of seasonings and amount of salt, making each flavor and texture unique; this wide array of fermented sausages in terms of salami, shows its ubiquitous but exclusive nature. For example, due to immigration to North America, European settlers brought many traditions, including fermented meats such as pepperoni. Similar types of sausages are found in the Middle East, where various meats such as beef and mutton are used.

In Eastern Europe, Hungarian salami is quite popular. Hungarian salami is "intensively smoked, its surface is inoculated with mold starters or spontaneous mold growth." A traditional salami, with its typical marbled appearance, is made from pork. Beef is usual in kosher salami, which never include pork for religious reasons. Makers use other meats, including venison and poultry. Goose salami is traditional in parts of Northern Italy. Salami has been made from horse meat. In the Provence region of France, donkey meat is used for salami, as well, the product being sold in street markets. Typical additional ingredients include: Garlic Minced fat Salt Spices white pepper Various herbs Vinegar WineThe maker ferments the raw meat mixture for a day stuffs it into either an edible natural or inedible cellulose casing, hangs it up to cure; some recipes apply heat to about 40 drying. Higher temperatures stop the fermentation when the salami reaches the desired pH, but the product is not cooked. Makers treat the casings with an edible mold culture.

The mold imparts flavor, helps the drying process, helps prevent spoilage during curing. Though uncooked, salami is not raw, but cured. Salame cotto—typical of the Piedmont region in Italy—is cooked or smoked before or after curing to impart a specific flavor, but not for any benefit of cooking. Before cooking, a cotto salame is not ready to eat. Three major stages are involved in the production of salami: preparation of raw materials and ripening and drying. Minor differences in the formulation of the meat or production techniques give rise to the various kinds of salami across different countries. Before fermentation, raw meat is ground and mixed with other ingredients such as salt, sugar and yeast, and, if the particular salami variety requires it, lactic acid bacterial starter culture; this mixture is inserted into casings of the desired size. To achieve the flavor and texture that salami possesses, which can be referred to as a slow acidification process promoting a series of chemical reactions in the meat, has to take place.

Direct acidification of meat was found to be inappropriate for salami production, since it causes protein denaturation and an uneven coagulation, thereby causing an undesirable texture in the salami. For a more modern controlled fermentation, makers hang the salami in warm, humid conditions for 1–3 days to encourage the fermenting bacteria to grow hang it in a cool, humid environment to dry. In a traditional process, the maker skips the fermentation step and hangs the salami in a cool, humid curing environment. Added sugars provide a food source for the curing bacteria; the bacteria produce lactic acid as a waste product, which lowers the pH and coagulates the

Tolgahan Sayışman

Turgut Tolgahan Sayışman is a Turkish actor and model. Sayışman was the winner of the Best Model of Turkey competition in 2002 and won Manhunt International competition in 2005 in South Korea, he was born on December 1981 in Istanbul, Turkey. He graduated from Kadıköy İntaş High School and Doğuş University, Faculty of Business Administration. Tolgahan is the second winner of the Best Model Of Turkey competition, which he participated in 2002. In 2004, Tolgahan Sayışman is the winner of Manhunt of Turkey and in 2005, won Manhunt International, international men's beauty contest, in South Korea, representing Turkey


QuickStrike is an out-of-print collectible card game gaming system developed by Upper Deck Entertainment for use in their games. This system made its initial debut in 2006. All games making use of the QuickStrike system are compatible with one another, with the cards from different game sets able to be mixed together in a single deck. Specific tournaments or game formats may require that a deck consist of only cards from a single television series or film; the QuickStrike mechanics appear to be based on the rules from the older Shaman King Trading Card Game, share a number of similarities with this earlier game. The cards from this earlier title are not, directly compatible. Games are fought as one-on-one battles between two characters, with each player represented by one of the characters; the objective of the game is to be the first player to score three points. A point can be earned when opponents are unable to stop an incoming attack after it has penetrated all three of their colored zones.

Unlike in many collectible card games, games utilizing the QuickStrike system do not involve players playing cards from a hand. Instead, players flip over cards from the top of their decks at the appropriate times; the cards which are flipped over consist of the following types: Strikes - Cards with a blue border can be used either offensively, to launch an attack, or defensively, to stop an opponent's attack. Advantages - Gold bordered cards represent special training and tactics; these cards have a number including allowing players to charge a zone. Allies - Cards with a purple border represent friends and companions who are providing assistance. Players have a special Chamber card, which holds hidden signature moves for a character. At the appropriate points during play, a powerful signature move can be slid out of the Chamber and revealed. Games are played utilizing a playmat; the green zone is the first line of defense, with the yellow zone being second, the red zone being the last chance to stop an attack.

The zones are where players flip over cards to defend against attacks, as well as where stored sources of energy and allies are placed. When another player is attacking, the defending play starts defending in their green zone, he or she does this by flipping over a card into the zone. If the card is a strike with sufficient intercept, the player pays the energy cost, this initiates a counterattack. If the revealed card is an advantage or ally, it too may be placed in the appropriate area after the cost is paid. If the player cannot pay the cost, or the card cannot be played at the current time, the player can choose to focus the card and store it face down as stored energy; when an attack is not stopped, it continues through to the next zone, where the player again flips over a card and has a chance to take an action. If the player is in the red zone when this occurs, the opponent scores a point and may celebrate. If all of a given player's zones have become charged, he or she may choose to use a signature move.

To do so, the player uncharges the zones and reveals the signature strike hidden within his or her Chamber card. All signature move cards have two different moves, one on the front, one on the back; the Chamber card always begin with the weaker, front-facing move ready to be used. After a signature move is played, it is flipped over before being placed back into the Chamber card, so that the opposite move is used the next time it is activated. In order to be a legal QuickStrike play deck, a deck must have at least 60 cards, with no more than four copies of any given card. Players must select a Chamber card, this restricts what other cards can go into the deck. Chamber cards have certain trait symbols on them, any cards put into the play deck must match at least one of these trait symbols; this guarantees. Cards which don't have any trait symbols can be used in any deck; each Chamber Card has four symbols that explain which cards they can use: One symbol for strikes, one for advantages, one for allies, a second for strikes, specific to that set.

Bull - Bull strike cards represent an aggressive and offensive style of fighting. They are powerful but costly, taking risks and using resources to attempt to win through sheer force and the elimination of the opponent's cards. Fox - Fox strike cards represent tricky and cunning moves, they attempt to win through long-term strategy, have such effects as searching through one's top cards or deck or forcing tough decisions upon your opponent. Lion - Lion cards represent a controlled or defensive style of combat, they allow the player to protect their own work, preventing their allies or energies from being eliminated or their zones from being uncharged. They attempt to win through building themselves up to something big without allowing themselves to be torn back down. Body - Body cards are no-nonsense advantages that give simple but valuable boosts or hindrances to one of the players, they represent characters. Mind - Mind cards are strategic advantages, they allow the player to see the next card in one or both of the player's decks and sometimes manipulate their order.

They represent characters who can outwit their opponent. Spirit - Spirit cards deal the most with the manipulation of energy and the charging/uncharging of zones, they commonly have effects that depend on what your opponent does, making them the cards that depend most on "luck" or "faith", as the Spirit concept represents. Light - Light characters are thos